William Louis Gross

William Louis Gross
Medical College of Wisconsin | MCW · Department of Anesthesiology

MD, PhD

About

29
Publications
3,169
Reads
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984
Citations
Introduction
Studying language and consciousness with neuroimaging and electrophysiology.
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - July 2019
Medical College of Wisconsin
Position
  • Fellow
July 2018 - present
Medical College of Wisconsin
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2014 - June 2018
Medical College of Wisconsin
Position
  • Resident - Anesthesiology
Education
July 2007 - June 2010
Medical College of Wisconsin
Field of study
  • Biophysics, neuroscience
August 2005 - May 2012
August 2001 - May 2004
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (29)
Article
People with aphasia often show partial impairments on a given task. This trial-to-trial variability offers a potential window into understanding how damaged language networks function. We test the hypothesis that successful word reading in participants with phonological system damage reflects semantic system recruitment. Residual semantic and phono...
Article
Objective Naming decline after left temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery is common and difficult to predict. Preoperative language fMRI may predict naming decline, but this application is still lacking evidence. We performed a large multi-center cohort study of the effectiveness of fMRI in predicting naming deficits after left TLE surgery. Methods...
Article
Anesthesia for intracranial vascular procedures is complex because it requires a balance of several competing interests and potentially can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Frequently, periods of ischemia, where perfusion must be maintained, are combined with situations that are high risk for hemorrhage. This review discusses the basi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To define left temporal lobe regions where surgical resection produces a persistent postoperative decline in naming visual objects. Methods Pre‐ and postoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging data and picture naming (Boston Naming Test) scores were obtained prospectively from 59 people with drug‐resistant left temporal lobe epilepsy....
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of language dominance is an essential step prior to epilepsy surgery. There is no consensus on an optimal methodology for determining language dominance using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Oscillatory dynamics are increasingly recognized as being of fundamental importance for brain function and dysfunction. Using task-related beta power...
Article
Numerous studies have shown that surgical resection of the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is associated with a decline in object naming ability (Hermann et al., 1999). In contrast, few studies have examined the effects of left ATL surgery on auditory description naming (ADN) or category-specific naming. Compared with object naming, which loads h...
Article
Full-text available
The level and richness of consciousness depend on information integration in the brain. Altered interregional functional interactions may indicate disrupted information integration during anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. How anesthetics modulate the amount of information in various brain regions has received less attention. Here, we propose a no...
Article
What we already know about this topic: Loss of consciousness during anesthesia is associated with a loss of anterior-posterior connectivityHowever, during anesthesia local sensory cortex function may be preserved WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: During propofol sedation, activation on functional magnetic resonance imaging in higher cognitiv...
Article
Objective: Understanding the neural basis of recovery from stroke is a major research goal. Many functional neuroimaging studies have identified changes in brain activity in people with aphasia, but it is unclear whether these changes truly support successful performance or merely reflect increased task difficulty. We addressed this problem by exa...
Article
Conscious perception relies on interactions between spatially and functionally distinct modules of the brain at various spatiotemporal scales. These interactions are altered by anesthesia - an intervention that leads to fading consciousness. Relatively little is known about brain functional connectivity and its anesthetic modulation at a fine spati...
Article
Objective: Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to localize impairments specific to multiword (phrase and sentence) spoken language comprehension. Methods: Participants were 51 right-handed patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. They performed an auditory description naming (ADN) task requiring comprehension of a verbal desc...
Article
Recent studies indicate that spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals are driven by the slow (<0.1Hz) modulation of ongoing neuronal activity synchronized locally and across remote brain regions. How regional LFFs of the BOLD fMRI signa...
Article
View largeDownload slide Patients with "surface" dyslexia characteristically mispronounce irregular words by over-reliance on pronunciation rules (e.g., reading plaid as "played"). Binder et al. identify neuroanatomical correlates of these "regularization" errors, and show that such errors can occur independent of damage to the semantic memory sys...
Poster
Full-text available
Motivation: Recognition of spoken names is a complex process including perceptual decoding in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and surrounding cortex, phonologic access in posterior temporal regions, and semantic decoding in a distributed network including the angular gyrus, anterior temporal pole, and inferior frontal lobes. Many imaging studies...
Article
While major advances have been made in uncovering the neural processes underlying perceptual representations, our grasp of how the brain gives rise to conceptual knowledge remains relatively poor. Recent work has provided strong evidence that concepts rely, at least in part, on the same sensory and motor neural systems through which they were acqui...
Conference Paper
Event nouns (e.g., circus) differ from non-event nouns (e.g., dandelion) in their reference to dynamic temporal and spatial configurations. We asked whether the dynamic nature of event concepts leads to recruitment of specific brain regions. Fifteen volunteers underwent event-related fMRI, during which they read individual nouns and indicated with...
Article
Full-text available
Sodium oxybate (brand name Xyrem) is a sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), an endogenous CNS depressant, which is an effective treatment of narcolepsy. As a drug of abuse, GHB produces severe psychiatric side effects and withdrawal. However, there are no reports of these effects when using clinically recommended doses. This paper presen...
Article
Removal of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) is an effective surgical treatment for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy but carries a risk of language and verbal memory deficits. Preoperative localization of functional zones in the ATL might help reduce these risks, yet fMRI protocols in current widespread use produce very little activation in this r...
Article
Person recognition can be accomplished through several modalities (face, name, voice). Lesion, neurophysiology and neuroimaging studies have been conducted in an attempt to determine the similarities and differences in the neural networks associated with person identity via different modality inputs. The current study used event-related functional-...
Article
Full-text available
The acquisition and flexible expression of complex relations is often attributed to declarative memory processes. The extent to which such tasks may be done implicitly has not been sufficiently explored. We report that analogical or transfer processes may be accomplished implicitly. Our analogy task requires acquisition of a transverse patterning s...
Article
Full-text available
A central role of the hippocampus is to consolidate conscious forms of learning and memory, while performance on implicit tasks appears to depend upon other structures. Recently, considerable debate has emerged about whether hippocampal-dependent tasks necessarily entail task awareness. In the contextual cueing task, repetition facilitation is impl...
Article
Full-text available
The hippocampus is critical for encoding and retrieving semantic and episodic memories. Animal studies indicate that the hippocampus is also required for relational learning tasks. A prototypical relational learning task, and the one investigated in this experiment, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, is the transitive infere...
Article
Full-text available
We performed two versions of the task, one inside the scanner and one outside (labeled fMRI and behavioral). Each of these studies had two conditions: informed and uninformed. The subjects in the uninformed condition were naïve to the purpose of the experiment. Subjects in the informed condition were fully briefed on the experimental paradigm befor...

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