William Graziano

William Graziano
Purdue University | Purdue · Department of Psychological Sciences

Ph D

About

122
Publications
63,927
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,160
Citations

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Full-text available
Interests are an essential part of the learning process, yet no previous work has examined the relationship between learning and individual differences in domain-general interests. Across a pilot study and a confirmatory follow-up study, we tested whether the broad interest traits of person orientation and thing orientation predict memory for STEM-...
Article
The current studies examined the relationship between the penchant to daydream about helping others and prosocial traits and behaviour. We reasoned that fantasising about prosocial acts should be positively associated with a more prosocial disposition and real behaviour. Across both studies, the findings suggest that people who exhibit prosocial ch...
Article
Two online-survey studies examined the associations of Greek (i.e., sorority and fraternity) and religious (i.e., church or campus ministry) organization participation with college students' social well-being and sense of purpose. In study 1 (N = 281), religious organization membership (versus no membership) was associated with connectedness and pu...
Article
Individuals selectively orient toward their social environment (people) and toward their physical environment (things/objects). These orientations are key predictors of important life outcomes, including career decisions. However, research has not yet examined whether orientations toward people and things manifest in naturalistic environments. The...
Article
Most definitions of engineering give machines and mechanical objects a central role. Engineers are makers and users of mechanical objects in their environment. Research supports the notion that interactions with engineered artifacts enhance engineering learning. This study introduces a task simulating a real-world engineering application and uses t...
Article
The search for the prosocial personality has been long and controversial. The current research explores the general patterns underlying prosocial decisions, linking personality, emotion, and overt prosocial behavior. Using a multimethod approach, we explored the links between the Big Five dimensions of personality and prosocial responding. Across t...
Article
Individuals differ in how they deploy attention to their physical and social environments. These differences have been recognized in various forms as orientations, interests, and preferences, but empirical work examining these differences at a cognitive level is scarce. To address this gap, we conducted two studies to explore the links among attent...
Article
Ostracism's negative consequences have been widely documented, but research has yet to explore the personality characteristics of its targets that precipitate ostracism. Based on theories of the functions of ostracism, we found that people are more willing to ostracize disagreeable targets than more agreeable targets (Studies 2 and 3). This outcome...
Article
We created an activity in an upper-level personality psychology course in which interested students created an “entry” for a contest in which they chose a popular song that illustrated a course concept. The class evaluated these entries and voted on their favorites in a tournament-style bracket system; winners received extra credit. Students enjoye...
Article
Research demonstrates that social support facilitates recovery from a mental illness. Stigma negatively impacts the social support available to persons with mental illness (PWMIs). We investigated how religious beliefs about mental illness influenced the types of social support individuals would be willing to give PWMIs. Christian participants indi...
Article
Background Encouraging student involvement in undergraduate research may be a way institutions can foster pursuit of research as a career. This article examines how engineering students' interests combine with perceived faculty encouragement to influence their plans for involvement in undergraduate and professional research.Purpose/HypothesisIndivi...
Article
We examined whether high self-monitors cognitively process self-presentation-related information and concepts more readily than low self-monitors. Results across three studies indicate that compared to low self-monitors, high self-monitors have greater cognitive access to self-presentation-related information and concepts. High self-monitors produc...
Article
Full-text available
The present research examined the effect of social influence on White, heterosexual individuals’ attraction to targets of varying races (White vs. Black) in two college student samples from the United States (one that leaned politically liberal and one that leaned politically conservative). Using a within-subjects experimental design, participants...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals differ in their orientation toward the people and things in their environment. This has consequences for important life choices. The authors review 15 studies on Person and Thing Orientations (PO-TO) using data from 7,450 participants to establish the nature of the constructs, their external correlates, and their predictive utility. The...
Article
Previous theory and research suggests that individuals selectively orient primarily toward the social environment (people) or toward the physical environment (things). These orientations can be conceptualized as motivation-based complexes that influence personal preferences and interests, with consequences for important life choices. This paper exa...
Article
Background Undergraduate research is a gateway to academic careers. Understanding student perceptions of research, and links to sex differences and personality, may shed light on the small proportion of women in undergraduate engineering programs and academia. Purpose (Hypothesis)How do personality variables and beliefs about research influence men...
Article
Full-text available
Personal interests are a key element in encouraging careers in engineering. Evidence suggests that a lack of interest may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in engineering. The purpose of the current research was to examine differential orientations to people and things among college students and their relations to academic majors and c...
Article
Ethics is a crucial aspect in developing the professional identity of engineers. Most undergraduate engineering curricula offer little opportunity for teaching and learning ethical behaviors, responses and attitudes in a systematic and pedagogically appropriate manner. This paper presents findings from a pilot study conducted in the Spring semester...
Article
Inferences about emotions in children are limited by studies that rely on only one research method. Convergence across methods provides a stronger basis for inference by identifying method variance. This multimethod study of 116 children (mean age=8.21 years) examined emotional displays during social exchange. Each child received a desirable gift a...
Article
Individuals differ in their orientation toward aspects of the environment. Previous work suggests that some individuals orient primarily toward people, whereas others orient toward things. Women generally orient towards people more than men, and men orient towards things more than women. Person–thing orientation is related to occupational choices....
Article
Interest has emerged as an important factor affecting the recruitment and persistence of engineering students. In this study interest is operationalized as a differential orientation to persons called Person Orientation (PO), distinguished by an interest in interpersonal interactions, and an orientation to things called Thing Orientation (TO), dist...
Article
One means of investigating the unique relationship between engineers and things is using thing orientation. Research has demonstrated that engineering students display higher levels of thing orientation than students of other majors, and that thing orientation is strongly predictive of persistence in engineering. However the nature of thing orienta...
Article
Examined at the behavioral level, prejudice and helping appear as qualitatively different and perhaps mutually incompatible social behaviors. As a result, the literatures on prejudice and helping evolved largely independent of each other. When they are examined at the process level, however, underlying similarities appear. Furthermore, when anomali...
Article
Full-text available
Stigma-a serious problem for persons with mental illness-is related to reductions in the quality of employment, housing, and social support. Many empirical studies showed common beliefs about persons with mental illness but little was known about how Christian religious beliefs affect perceptions of people with mental illness, or whether beliefs ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The question of the importance of interest in gaining and retaining students is relevant in all professional fields. In recent years interest has emerged as a significant factor in encouraging students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. If students choose fields of study which match their interests, they...
Article
The inaugural Purdue Symposium on Psychological Sciences (PSPB) gathered leading thinkers in social psychology to consider theoretical and empirical issues relevant to behavior, across the field and with respect to various subfields of social psychological inquiry. This volume presents the contributions of the PSPS symposium participants. Each cont...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The region where a wine is produced is a factor that influences consumers' preferences and price perceptions. For most consumers, a wine from an established place like France would be preferred over a wine from less established place, like Texas. However, a consumer's identity with their home area (not well known for wine) may override su...
Chapter
This chapter provides a summary of the first section of the book, titled "Behavior and Intra-Individual Processes." Chapters in this section provide a diverse set of views on the relationship between various individual differences and behaviors. Some of those individual differences-for example, attitudes, emotions and personality-have been central...
Chapter
This chapter describes how the initial ideas for the book emerged and discusses a number of key issues regarding behavior in social psychology. Psychologists commonly partition the behavioral chain into three parts that can be roughly characterized as the stimulus environment, mediating processes, and behavioral response. In this volume, the editor...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research on career interest in children and college students (Evangelou et al., 2008) has identified large gender differences in how interested men and women are in person and things (person-thing orientation, PTO, Little, 1972). These differences lead to differences in interest in STEM and nonSTEM careers for men and women. The current rese...
Article
Unfavorable evaluations of others reflect both specific prejudice and generalized negativity. Study 1 examined self-reported norms and personal endorsement of prejudices to various social groups. Study 2 used judgments of overweight persons to examine links among prejudice, personality, and prosocial motives. Study 3 examined negative evaluations a...
Article
Full-text available
This research program explored links among prosocial motives, empathy, and helping behavior. Preliminary work found significant relations among components of self-reported empathy and personality (N = 223). In Study 1, the authors examined the generality of prosocial behavior across situations and group memberships of victims (N = 622). In Study 2,...
Article
Reports an error in the original article by B. Sheese et al (Health Psychology, 2004[Sep], Vol 23 [5], 457-464). On page 459, Table 1 contained errors in the reported values. The corrected table is provided. (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in record 2004-18051-003.) Research has shown that writing about emotional topics...
Article
ABSTRACT The purpose of this special issue is to foster an examination of recent work on long-term stability and change in personality Classic and recent research on long-term stability of personality is presented Personal transitions are examined as an opportunity for studying continuity and change Some recent metatheoretical and theoretical persp...
Article
Full-text available
Self-regulation is critical to social and personality development in all cultures. Self-regulation may have developmental origins in temperament, yet it also interacts with socialization processes. This research specifically probes children's selfregulation during resistance to temptation. Socialization of self-regulation may be influenced by the w...
Article
This experiment examined the effect of video-game violence on cooperative decision making. Participants (N= 48) were randomly assigned to play either a violent or a nonviolent version of the video game Doom in dyads. Following the video-game task, participants were separated and given an opportunity to choose to cooperate with their partner for mut...
Article
This study examined individual differences in children's regulation of emotional expression after receiving desirable and undesirable gifts. Effortful control, the ability to suppress a dominant response in favor of a subdominant one, was measured using a battery of behavioral tasks. Reactions to the gifts were videotaped, and emotional expression...
Article
The inevitability of conflict stems from three apparently-panhuman psychological tendencies: 1) People differ in their attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and life experiences; 2) Such differences induce people to be egocentric, and often to have difficulty perceiving the perspectives of others; and 3) People are generally motivated to protect and promo...
Article
ABSTRACT—This study examined,individual differences in children’s regulation,of emotional,expression,after re- ceiving desirable and undesirable gifts. Effortful control, the ability to suppress a dominant,response in favor of a subdominant one, was measured using a battery of be- havioraltasks. Reactionstothegiftswerevideotaped, and emotional,expr...
Article
Research has shown that writing about emotional topics can positively influence physical and mental health. The current study tested the efficacy of an e-mail-based writing treatment and shows how such an implementation can aid in the search for moderators. Participants (N = 546) were randomly assigned to either a long- or short-interval traumatic...
Article
This special issue is concerned with the systematic transformation of persons and personalities as they move through their lives. The focus is on developmental processes early in the life course that influence both long-term stability and change. Contributors represent diverse topics and viewpoints, but offer new data on classical issues of persona...
Article
This research explored four empirical questions: (1) Is self-esteem a better predictor of academic success and adjustment than other aspects of personality? (2) How is self-esteem related to Big-Five dimensions of personality during the transition from middle school to high school? (3) Do dispositions like Agreeableness or Openness relate to an ado...
Article
Agreeableness is linked to socially valued traits and prosocial motives, so self-reported Agreeableness may be distorted by self-favoring biases (SFB). A three-study multimethod research program explored links between the Big Five dimension of Agreeableness and SFB from three perspectives. First, we examined zero-order relations between Agreeablene...
Chapter
Evolutionary theory suggests that developmental context and genetic relatedness may fundamentally alter social exchange processes.
Article
Complex issues arise when personality variables are incorporated into traditional approaches to personnel selection. Personality assessment and testing in employment contexts is more complicated than it would appear. Rather than arguing against considering personality variables, wefocus on five problematic issues associated with their use in person...
Article
This multimethod research linked the Big Five personality dimensions to interpersonal conflicts. Agreeableness was the focus because this dimension is associated with motives to maintain positive interpersonal relations. Converging responses to both hypothetical conflicts and to diary records of actual daily interpersonal conflicts across a two-wee...
Article
The present study used a levels-of-analysis perspective (McAdams, 1995) to link temperament to depression. We hypothesized a mediational role for three personality variables (Agreeableness, Extraversion, Neuroticism) and two interpersonal variables (social support and negative social exchange) in channeling the effects of temperament. A structural...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal conflicts are an inevitable part of life and may be especially conspicuous in early adolescence. Recent research suggests, however, that structural aspects of relationships influence interpersonal conflicts. Specifically, closeness and openness of the relationships within which the conflicts occur moderate patterns of such conflicts....
Article
Full-text available
Three converging, multimethod studies examined personality and emotional processes. Study 1 ( N = 321) examined links among sex, personality, and expectations for emotional events. In Study 2, participants ( N = 468) described contents of emotionally evocative slides to a partner (either a friend or a stranger). Participants reported their emotiona...
Article
This is a review of the book "Parental Descriptions of Child Personality: Developmental Antecedents of the Big Five?" (see record 1998-04018-000 ). This volume is not only a remarkable achievement in scholarship, but it is also surprisingly accessible and reader friendly. This book should be required reading for professionals working in the social...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate prediction requires information not only about central tendencies but also about variability. In personality prediction, however, most research has focused on trait-level central tendencies. Previously proposed moderators of personality prediction are all conceptually similar in comparing an individual's central tendency in response patter...
Article
Full-text available
Two multi method studies probed the structure and correlates of self-reports of personality when participants were permitted to admit that they did not know assessment words. The first study (1,187 college students) examined the structure of self-evaluation using Goldberg's markers for his five-factor approach. Students reported greatest familiarit...
Article
Full-text available
Temperament is assumed to be the biologically based, emotional core of personality. Adult personality is presumed to emerge developmentally from temperament. One mechanism that may link temperament to subsequent personality development involves caregiver expectancies. Stability in personality may be associated with caregiver expectancies about the...
Article
Full-text available
This analysis of self-monitoring (SM) focuses on emotional self-regulation. Individuals temperamentally disposed to emotional reactivity and who experience inconsistent social outcomes for emotional expression may develop systems to separate their affective states from their behaviors. These systems produce high SM persons who are less responsive t...
Article
The performance of individuals within groups, and of groups as units, is the product of immediate goal structures and personality differences pertinent to those goals among group members. A level-of-analysis approach linked the dimension of agreeableness to situated competitiveness and task performance in group settings. Hypotheses were (a) individ...
Chapter
Agreeableness is probably best conceptualized as a general latent variable that summarizes more specific tendencies and behaviors. Agreeableness should certainly qualify as an individual difference having significance for people's daily transactions. It can be predominantly an affective evaluation and may be a more diffuse reaction. Across a range...
Article
Full-text available
The self can be conceptualized as a mediating agent that translates personality into situated goal-directed activities and adaptation. This research used a level-of-analysis approach to link personality dimensions (Level 1) to self-systems (Level II) and to teacher ratings of adjustment in African American, Mexican American, and European American s...
Article
Full-text available
Four multimethod studies probed the hypothesis, derived from the Zajonc-Markus motor theory of emotion, that facial recognition is enhanced by imitation of the faces. In all studies, participants were (a) randomly assigned to imitate or to concentrate on a set of faces presented on slides; (b) covertly videotaped, or measured for facial electromyog...
Article
Examined the effects of demand characteristics on the frequency and accuracy of reported feeling-of-knowing (FOK) and tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states. In 2 experiments, self-presentational demands were manipulated using instructions that led a total of 80 students to expect either easy-to-answer questions (high-demand condition) or difficult-to-answ...
Article
ABSTRACT Personality researchers and theorists are approaching consensus on the basic structure and constructs of personality. Despite the apparent consensus on the emergent five-factor model (Goldberg, 1992, 1993), less is known about external correlates of separate factors. This research examined the relations between Conscientiousness, one dimen...
Article
Full-text available
Two converging, multimethod studies probed the hypothesis that individual differences in Agreeableness are related to patterns of interpersonal conflict. In Study 1, participants (N = 263) evaluated the efficacy of 11 modes of conflict resolution within the context of 5 different interpersonal relationships. Across all relationships, high- and low-...
Article
Full-text available
Examined endorsement of interpersonal conflict resolution tactics and links to personality and teacher-rated school adjustment among 67 male and 95 female African-, Mexican-, and European-American adolescents (44 6th, 45 7th, and 73 8th graders). Agreeableness was measured with L. Goldberg's (see record 1992-25730-001) standard markers. Self-conce...
Article
Full-text available
Three multimethod studies (total N = 348) probed the hypothesis that women's attraction to men would be influenced by male prosocial orientation. In Study 1, prosocial men were rated as more physically and sexually attractive, socially desirable, and desirable as dates than were nonprosocial men. Dominant men were no more attractive than low-domin...
Article
Full-text available
Four studies ( N = 711) probed processes that underlie sex differences in attraction. In Study 1, women reported expertise at judging men's physical attractiveness, and this expertise was acknowledged by men. In Study 2, women evaluated physical attractiveness after seeing ratings supposedly made by same-sex peers. Women were influenced by other wo...
Article
The present study probed the links among Big Five personality differences, self-reported personality differences, and adjustment to school among young adolescents. We used a multimethod converging analysis, with three sources of data: (a) adolescent self-report on standardized personality inventories; (b) classroom teacher trait ratings and evaluat...
Article
This study explored the hypothesis that behavioral confirmation can occur in peer interaction as a result of children's stereotype-based expectancies about non-agemate peers. Pairs of second and fourth-grade children played a decision-making game. Before the game, one child was led to believe that his or her partner was either 2 years younger or 2...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the influence of familiarity with peers on social cognition in children. Second- and fourth-grade children were given information about an unfamiliar peer before viewing a videotape of that peer. Children were then instructed to segment the ongoing behavioral stream of the target peer into units by pressing a button. Extrapolati...
Article
Full-text available
A new measure, the Junior Self-Monitoring scale, was developed and related to individual differences in children's tendencies to engage in social comparison when making decisions. Snyder's work on self-monitoring in adults provided the theoretical framework for a developmental extension of this construct. As predicted, children scoring high in self...
Article
This study examined developmental and contextual influences on children's processing of information about agemate and non-agemate peers. Second- and fourth-grade children viewed pairs of videotaped, same-sex peer models. Relative age of the peers and prospect of later interaction with one of the two peers were manipulated. Selective attention, memo...
Article
Androgynous and sex-typed participants evaluated adult and child target persons of varying levels of physical attractiveness on several social dimensions. All participants of both sexes attributed more positive qualities to highly physically attractive stimulus persons than to moderately attractive and unattractive targets. In evaluating transgress...
Article
When children do not exhibit certain minimum academic competencies, they are retained in grade. Despite the pervasiveness of this school practice, little is known about the effects of grade retention on children's social development. The present study explored the hypotheses that peer discrimination may be one factor contributing to the negative ef...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to test a model in which maternal depressive moods were hypothesized to have both a direct effect on parent perceptions of child maladjustment and an indirect effect on child noncompliant behavior through the mother's parenting behavior. Fifty-five mothers and their young clinic-referred children served as Ss. M...