William R Gallaher

William R Gallaher
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans | LSUHSC · Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Parasitology

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41
Publications
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2,617
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Publications

Publications (41)
Article
Full-text available
The world is experiencing a pandemic of influenza that emerged in March 2009, due to a novel strain designated influenza A/H1N1 2009. This strain is closest in molecular sequence to swine influenza viruses, but differs from all previously known influenza by a minimum of 6.1%, and from prior "seasonal" H1N1 by 27.2%, giving it great potential for wi...
Article
Full-text available
Beginning in March 2009, an outbreak of influenza in North America was found to be caused by a new strain of influenza virus, designated Influenza H1N1 2009, which is a reassortant of swine, avian and human influenza viruses. Over a thousand total cases were identified with the first month, chiefly in the United States and Mexico, but also involvin...
Article
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the cause of an atypical pneumonia that affected Asia, North America and Europe in 2002-2003. The viral spike (S) glycoprotein is responsible for mediating receptor binding and membrane fusion. Recent studies have proposed that the carboxyl terminal portion (S2 subunit) of the S...
Article
The thyroid gland is afflicted in several endocrine, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. Previous studies detected immunoreactivity against proteins of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle type-I (HIAP-I) in serum samples from the majority of patients with Graves' disease, an autoimmune disease of the thyroid that can also affect other...
Article
Full-text available
Prior studies have linked retroviruses to various arthropathies and autoimmune diseases. Sjögren's syndrome (SS), a systemic autoimmune disease, is characterized by aggressive infiltration of lymphocytes into the salivary and lacrimal glands, resulting in destruction of the glands and dry mouth and eyes (sicca syndrome). The infiltrating lymphocyte...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a newly identified member of the family Coronaviridae and poses a serious public health threat. Recent studies indicated that the SARS-CoV viral spike glycoprotein is a class I viral fusion protein. A fusion peptide present at the N-terminal region of class I viral fusion protei...
Article
Coronavirus (CoV) entry is mediated by the viral spike (S) glycoprotein, a class I viral fusion protein. During viral and target cell membrane fusion, the heptad repeat (HR) regions of the S2 subunit assume a trimer-of-hairpins structure, positioning the fusion peptide in close proximity to the C-terminal region of the ectodomain. The formation of...
Article
The conserved fusion peptide at the N-terminus of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41 is involved in the virus-cell fusion reaction and in the cytopathic effects promoted by expression in single cells. The conserved bovine prion protein 121KHVAGAAAAGAVVGGLGGYMLGSAMSR147 transmembrane region (BPrP(tm)) contains a sequence rich in Gly residues [i.e., 13...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein. Structural models of the transmembrane glycopro...
Article
Full-text available
We have identified a region within the ectodomain of the fusogenic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41, different from the fusion peptide, that interacts strongly with membranes. This conserved sequence, which immediately precedes the transmembrane anchor, is not highly hydrophobic according to the Kyte-Doolittle hydropathy prediction...
Article
Sjogren's Syndrome, a systemic autoimmune disease, is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the salivary or lacrimal glands, producing xerostomia or xerophthalmia. Although definitive proof of viral etiology has not been established, a cell line containing viral particles termed Human Intracisternal A-type Particles (HIAP) resulted from co-c...
Article
Current data suggest that T-helper (Th)2-type cytokine responses are often associated with progression to AIDS in HIV-positive individuals. Similarly, Th2-type cytokines are associated with susceptibility to mucosal candidiasis, of which oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is one of the most common opportunistic infections in HIV-positive individuals....
Article
Full-text available
We have previously demonstrated that about one-third of patients with either Sjögren's syndrome (SS) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) react to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) p24 core protein antigen without any evidence of exposure to, or infection with, HIV itself. Herein, we further characterize the specificity of this reaction using enz...
Article
A hypothetical model of the surface (SU) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other retroviruses is proposed. The model is based on repetition of a limited number of sequence motifs conserved within the virus family; similarities in biological, immunological, or genetic properties; as well as the tendency for regions of dissimila...
Chapter
Major advances in understanding the complex processes that regulate the immune system have been achieved. Elucidating the causes of human diseases characterized by inappropriate activation of the immune system, however, remains an elusive goal. Chronic inflammatory diseases or autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupu...
Article
HIV-1 replication requires limited proteolysis of gag and gag-pol encoded precursor proteins by a specific viral proteinase (PR). Sequences of 20 different HIV-1 strains were compared in order to determine regions of conservation and variability within the PR gene. Viral strains included: (a) five new ones derived from New Orleans patient isolates,...
Article
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Article
A hypothetical model of the transmembrane (TM) protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is proposed that is derived from the known structure of the influenza TM protein HA2. This model is consistent with computer algorithms of predicted protein structure and with known properties of TM proteins determined by sequence homology, site-directed mu...
Article
Full-text available
Monoclonal antibodies, prepared against rat apoB, were used to examine apoB structure in serum lipoproteins and characterize the forms and localization of apoB in liver membrane fractions and cultured hepatocytes. Of the several antibodies obtained, four, having separate epitopes, were characterized. Western blot analysis showed that three (DB11, F...
Article
Guidelines for submitting commentsPolicy: Comments that contribute to the discussion of the article will be posted within approximately three business days. We do not accept anonymous comments. Please include your email address; the address will not be displayed in the posted comment. Cell Press Editors will screen the comments to ensure that they...
Article
Full-text available
Heretofore, immunologic reagents used to define and quantify human Lp(a) have been polyclonal in origin and therefore heterogeneous in antigenic specificity. We report here the isolation of a mouse monoclonal antibody, LHLP-1, monospecific for Lp(a). The antigen reactive with LHLP-1 was expressed in both lipoprotein Lp(a) as well as apolipoprotein...
Article
Full-text available
Four monoclonal antibodies to rat apo (apolipoproteins) C were produced. Three of the monoclonals reacted to apoC-I and one to apoC-III. The IgG monoclonals LRB 21 and LRB 45 recognized a spatially close together or identical apoC-I epitope. The monoclonal LRB 80, however, recognized an epitope that is close to, but distinct from, that recognized b...
Article
Partially purified dog hepatic lipase was used as antigen to produce monoclonal antibodies in mice. In addition to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a reliable and efficient procedure for screening antibodies reacting to hepatic lipase has been developed. A method to distinguish antibodies directing to active site or non-active site epitop...
Article
Pretreatment of wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-wt) cells with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) at 37° results in a substantial increase in fusion induced by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) without increasing the amount of virus bound to cells. In contrast, PHA pretreatment at 4° suppresses NDV-induced fusion while increasing the amount of virus bound r...
Article
We report here an assay for quantifying virus-induced lysis, in the absence of antibody and complement, produced within 2 hr after adsorption. This technique makes use of 51CrO4 release from cell monolayers pre-incubated overnight with the isotope. The release of 51Cr is specific for virus-induced lysis and is suppressible by 0.001 M-Ca2+. This ass...
Article
The role of membrane components in the interaction of cells with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was studied using a ricin-resistant mutant of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-15B), in which there is a deficiency in distal saccharides at the plasma membrane. Compared to the parental wild type, the mutant was shown to be 4- to 10-fold less sensitive t...
Article
The onset of density-dependent inhibition of growth is correlated with a change in the synthesis of the major phospholipids of either BHK-21 (hamster) and 3T3 (mouse) cells. The change consists of inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis while the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine remains constant or increases. The incorporation of radioacti...
Article
Present knowledge of cell surface receptors for animal viruses is reviewed. The methods used for enumeration and identification of receptors are critically examined with respect to particular advantages and disadvantages. Specific controls and alternative interpretations are suggested in connection with the reactions of lectins which block viral at...
Article
Synthesis and turnover of lipids in monolayer cultures of BHK-21 cells were investigated using three separate techniques: (a) relative rates of synthesis and turnover during short pulses; (b) rates at which the label was lost following equilibrium incorporation of label; (c) time required to reach equilibrium using different precursor molecules. Wi...
Article
Fusion from within (FFWI) by Newcastle disease virus occurs optimally in medium maintained at pH 8.2, whereas fusion from without is relatively insensitive to the pH of the medium in the range of 7.0 to 8.3. The pH-sensitive events in FFWI take place in the synthesis of the hypothetical fusion factor rather than in the response to it. pH pulse and...
Article
Fusion from within induced by either Newcastle disease or Herpes simplex viruses is completely inhibited by treatment of infected cells with 10 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Hemadsorption to cells infected with Newcastle disease virus is also prevented, and the dose response of inhibition is similar to that for fusion from within. In the case of Newcastle...
Article
When BHK-21 cells are pulse-labeled with (2-3H)-glycerol for 1 hr, followed by chase periods of 0–22 hrs, rapid turnover of the newly synthesized major phospholipids is observed 2–6 hrs after termination of the pulse, indicating a half-life of 2.0–2.5 hrs. These lipids are also labeled to equilibrium rapidly, within 8 hrs, indicating that the bulk...
Article
Fusion from without by Newcastle disease virus is inhibited by incubation at 23 C. The inhibitory effect is exerted at a step after viral attachment and is not reversed by subsequent incubation at higher temperatures.
Article
Full-text available
HIV-1 protease gene sequences were obtained from peripheral blood, saliva or oral tissues of 35 HIV+ patients using nested amplification and manual sequencing of PCR products. Of the 35 HIV+ patients 9 had clinical oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) while 26 did not, and only 4 patients were on protease inhibitor (PI) therapy. These patients were coll...
Article
Different strains of Newcastle disease virus vary in their ability to induce cell fusion. When administered to cells at high multiplicities of infection some strains induce cell fusion within three hours. This type of fusion is apparently caused by the virus particles in the inoculum, since it can be induced by noninfectious virus and does not requ...

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