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William L. Frankllin

William L. Frankllin

Dr.

About

51
Publications
11,355
Reads
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2,129
Citations
Citations since 2016
8 Research Items
613 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Full-text available
Addressed here is the biogeographical‐vexing question of why the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is the only large mammal on the big island of Tierra del Fuego, answered by comparing alternative colonisation hypotheses. A multidisciplinary examination was conducted into the archaeological, ecological, evolutionary, geographical, genomic, glacial and zoolog...
Chapter
Interactions involving ungulates and their predators are widely thought to shape ecological patterns and processes. Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and pumas (Puma concolor) have coexisted in South America for at least one million years. Within Patagonian arid-land ecosystems, guanaco predation by pumas can account for high levels of mortality, but the po...
Chapter
Following a drastic population decline of guanaco populations throughout the 1970s in Argentina and the Chilean Patagonia, the Chilean government, in collaboration with national and international researchers, accrued increased scientific knowledge of the species. These efforts contributed to meaningful protection and conservation measures, initiall...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Comprehensive, global information on species' occurrences is an essential biodiversity variable and central to a range of applications in ecology, evolution, biogeography and conservation. Expert range maps often represent a species' only available distributional information and play an increasing role in conservation assessments and macroeco...
Article
Full-text available
Reider and Schmidt (2020) brought rightful attention to the significant impact that Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna mensalis) communal dung piles have on high‐altitude, plant communities in the Peruvian Andes. They recognized that such dung piles are most likely long lasting when site‐specific deposit of nutrients accelerates plant growth in an otherwise n...
Article
Full-text available
The species is classified as Least Concern given its wide range of distribution, population size, the increasing trend, and its occurrence in several protected areas, agreeing with the last assessment in 2008. However, it is important to note that improved conservation programs and tighter control at local, national and international levels are nec...
Article
By the mid-1900s the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) approached extinction in southern South America due to habitat destruction and hunting. In order to maintain the ecological prominence of this iconic species, as well as assist in the management of populations that are emerging economically while increasing in conservation value, accurate and potentially...
Article
Full-text available
Fifteen guanacos were introduced to Staats Island in the Falklands/Malvinas archipelago from Patagonia in the 1930s. Twenty five years later, the population was culled from 300 to 10-20 individuals, but quickly rebounded to a population of almost 400 animals that today retain the genetic signature of the founding event and later bottleneck. The goa...
Article
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The activity patterns, home-range use, and habitat utilization of sympatric South American grey fox (Dusicyon griseus) and culpeo fox (Dusicyon culpaeus) in eastern Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, were studied to determine how the two species were distributed. Both species were primarily nocturnal. Mean percent daily activity did not differ...
Article
Full-text available
Group dynamics and aggressive behavior of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) male groups (MGs) were described and quantified. All-male groups consisted of yearling, subadult, and adult males. Yearlings joined MGs from early Sep. to Feb., but the majority entered groups in Dec. and Jan. Adult males dispersed from MGs in Jan. and Feb. to establish or challenge...
Article
One behavioral tactic that. juvenile mammals can use to resolve conflict with adults is the reversion to behaviors of an earlier developmental stage. Therefore, we examined the appearance, body posture, and ontogenetic differences of submissive crouch behavior between juvenile male and female guanacos from birth to 9 months of age in Torres del Pai...
Article
Full-text available
Aim  To address the biogeographical enigma of why guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are in the Falkland Islands we investigated the following questions: (1) What was the origin of the introduced guanacos? (2) What were the initial population sizes? (3) Why are they found only on one island? and (4) Who was John Hamilton and what role did he play?Location  T...
Article
Full-text available
We observed behavioral patterns of territorial male guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Both solo territorial males and family-group territorial males were observed to compare the activity time budgets of males (n = 23) in different social groups and habitats. We found no difference in the activity time budgets of mal...
Article
We observed behavioral patterns of territorial male guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Both solo territorial males and family-group territorial males were observed to compare the activity time budgets of males (n = 23) in different social groups and habitats. We found no difference in the activity time budgets of mal...
Article
We investigated site fidelity of territorial male guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. The study took place over a 10-year period, with intensive work in the final years, 1997–1999. Guanacos have a social system of resource-defense polygyny with fluid movement of females between male territories. After the annual winte...
Article
We investigated the distribution, habitat characteristics and conservation value of mating areas in a wild population of guanacos in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Copulating guanacos were observed directly during December–January 1994–1995, 1995–1996 and 1997–1998. The timing of the breeding season was homogeneous across years. Copulation...
Article
We examined adult-juvenile conflict in the guanaco (Lama guanicoe). During spring, territorial males become increasingly aggressive toward all juveniles born the previous year and begin expelling them from family groups. In an apparent effort to reduce aggression, juveniles display submissive crouches when being observed, approached, or attacked by...
Article
We examined adult-juvenile conflict in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe). During spring, territorial males become increasingly aggressive toward all juveniles born the previous year and begin expelling them from family groups. In an apparent effort to reduce aggression, juveniles display submissive crouches when being observed, approached, or attacked b...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of mountain lion Puma concolor predation on guanaco Lama guanicoe mortality was investigated during the historically severe winter of 1995 in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. The 45 guanaco carcasses located represented 3% of the entire guanaco population of which 74% were mountain lion kills, 13% died from malnutrition, 2% died f...
Article
1. The Chilean National Forestry and Park Service is striving to implement a guanaco management programme of sustained-yield use. To achieve this, the rate, variation and causes of juvenile guanaco mortality must be understood thoroughly. Therefore, we monitored the survival of 409 radio-collared juvenile guanacos in Torres del Paine National Park,...
Article
The archaeological record indicates that guanacos inhabited the Patagonia of Chile and Argentina about 13,600 years ago, but were unable to migrate further south owing to the presence of glacial and water barriers that covered much of southern South America including the island of Tierra del Fuego. As environmental and ecological conditions improve...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the potential impact of our research activities on guanacos (Lama guanicoe), we tested for effects of radiocollaring on juvenile (≤1 year of age) survival in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile during 1992–1996. The survival of collared (40.1%) and uncollared (38.2%) juveniles was not significantly different (G=0.08; P=0.77). Our resu...
Article
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We investigated the influence of population density and meteorological conditions on annual birth mass of guanacos in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, from 1987 to 1996. Between 1987 and 1990, density of guanacos on the study area nearly tripled from 16 to 43 animals/km2. Mean birth mass was significantly different across years, and there was...
Article
Full-text available
The ecology of the Patagonia puma was studied in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Thirteen pumas were captured from 1986 to 1989 and equipped with radio transmitters. During the winter of 1988 there was one puma per 17 km2 in the 200 km2 study area. Home ranges varied from 24 to 107 km2. Female home ranges overlapped with those of other males...
Article
We investigated patterns of maternal expenditure and its influence on juvenile survival in the polygynous monomorphic guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in southern Chile from 1990 to 1994. Birth weight and growth rate (until age 1) of males and females were similar. Suckling rates of males and females were not significantly different, although mothers of mal...
Article
Full-text available
We measured hematological determinants, endocrine parameters, and birth mass of 145 newborn (chulengo) guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, to determine if these factors were predictors of early mortality. Within 10 days of life, 16% of chulengos died in 1991 and 14% died in 1992. The principal cause (68%) of chulengo...
Article
Adult male guanacos were immobilized by use of tiletamine/zolazepam. The effective dosage (mean +/- SD) was 5.0 +/- 1.1 mg/kg of body weight. Mean time from injection to immobilization was 7.3 minutes. Usually, immobilization was of sufficient duration (mean, 61 minutes) to allow guanacos to be weighed, measured, and to have ear tags inserted and b...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we review and summarize examples of relationships and interactions among sympatric canid species and discuss the ecological factors promoting sympatry. Specifically, we compare ecological parameters considered important in assessing potential resource competition, including body mass, social system, and degrees of prey, spatial, hab...
Article
Full-text available
Feeding ecology of sympatric South American gray fox (Dusicyon griseus) and culpeo fox (D. culpaeus) was studied from 1987 to 1990 in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, to determine if these canids have different patterns of prey selection. Seasonal and species differences in use of prey were compared with availability of prey to determine prey...
Article
Full-text available
The northern Chilean Patagonia, in spite of its small size (8,000 km2, 1 % of Chilean territory), major habitat disturbances during the late Pleistocene, and extreme southern location (50-degrees to 53-degrees latitude south), contains a high mammalian diversity with almost 50 % of Chile's total native terrestrial mammals. The most diverse groups o...
Article
Full-text available
The puma (Felis concolor) has the most extensive range of any terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere, covering over 100 latitude. Food habits of different puma subspecies vary with latitude. Subspecies from temperate habitats generally eat larger prey and specialize on a smaller number of prey taxa, whereas, in tropical habitats, they prey on...
Article
We examined premolar gap, a measure of molariform attrition, in live and dead black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) of known age for use as a new aging technique for live sciurids. The premolar gap width increases linearly through 3 years of age and curvilinearly with older adults. Neither weight nor sex differences significantly affecte...
Article
Full-text available
Reports on the diets of 4 sympatric raptor species in Torres del Paine National Park, Magallanes region. Great horned owl Bubo virginianus and barn owl Tyto alba had the most generalized diets. Cinereous harrier Circus cinereus preyed primarily on birds and lizards, and black-chested buzzard eagle Geranoaetus melanoleucus on the introduced European...
Article
An investigation of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) was conducted in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, between May 1979 and May 1982 to study factors affecting dispersal. Dispersing prairie dogs were radiotracked to determine distance of movements and survivorship, and a study colony was monitored intensively to determine prox...
Article
Full-text available
Feeding habitat utilization and preference by guanaco (Lama guanicoe) male groups were studied at Torres del Paine National Park in southern Chile. They were observed 326 hours from January to December 1980 to assess feeding habitat. The number of animals feeding on identified habitat types was recorded at half hour intervals. Plant species composi...
Article
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Four radiocollared Patagonian skunks (Conepatus humboldti) were monitored from March to June 1986 in Torres del Paine National Park to determine seasonal changes in activity. As the days shortened and temperatures dropped, the skunks extended their daytime activity periods and reduced their level of nighttime activity, resulting in an overall net r...
Article
Controlling reproduction in pest rodent populations may be preferable to using lethal rodenticides. The effectivenss of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, as a reproductive inhibitor in female black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) was examined in a 4-year study at Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota. In 1979 and 1980, a st...
Article
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Two colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, were compared during 1979 and 1980 to investigate the effects of (1) the age of the population and (2) the availability of resources on specific demographic parameters. The younger colony was surrounded by, and expanding into, unused available...
Article
A study was conducted in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, to collect basic information on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) dispersal and to test alternative control techniques. Dispersal occurred during a limited time period in late spring, involved both male and female prairie dogs, and resulted in relatively short movements a...

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