William Durgin

William Durgin
State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome | SUNYIT · Engineering

About

95
Publications
6,438
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293
Citations
Citations since 2016
0 Research Items
60 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220246810
20162017201820192020202120220246810
20162017201820192020202120220246810
20162017201820192020202120220246810

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
An experimental study of the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves through grid-generated turbulence by means of an ultrasound technique is discussed. Experimental data were obtained for ultrasonic wave propagation downstream of heated and non-heated grids in a wind tunnel. A semi-analytical acoustic propagation model that allows the determi...
Article
This work presents a numerical analysis of the effect of random fluctuations of internal waves on the chaotic dynamics of ray trajectories in ocean acoustics. The Eikonal equation is considered in a form of the second order, nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Random phase modulations in the form of zero mean Gaussian white noise are consider...
Article
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This paper describes the experimental proof of concept study for an ultrasonic method of wake vortex detection. This new acoustic method uses travel time of acoustic pulses around a closed path to measure the net circulation within the acoustic path. In this application the closed path encloses the vorticity shed from one side of a Piper PA-28 airc...
Article
The primary objective of this study was to develop a predictive methodology for received signal variation as a function of ocean perturbations using a ray‐based analysis of the effects of internal waves and ocean turbulence on underwater acoustic propagation. In the present formulation the eikonal equations are considered in the form of a second‐or...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a summary of experimental work conducted by the authors in the area of acoustical wave propagation through turbulent media. The ultrasonic time-of-flight method, using dual transducers, is utilized to determine some characteristics of grid-generated turbulent flow produced in a low turbulence, low speed open circuit type wind tu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the experimental proof of concept study for an ultrasonic method of wake vortex detection for airport use. This new acoustic method utilizes travel time of acoustic pulses around a closed path to measure the net circulation within the acoustic path. In this application the closed path encloses the vorticity shed from one side o...
Article
Full-text available
A new acoustic technology is discussed as a practical, robust, and inexpensive means to detect wake vortices in the airport terminal area. The ground based system has been proven effective in accurate measurement of the strength and direction of circulation produced from a small Piper aircraft in field trials. This technology acts to detect the pre...
Article
Closed path acoustic measurement of circulation, often used in the laboratory environment, has been extended to the airport runway environment. The difference in travel time of sound pulses propagating in opposite directions around a closed path is directly proportional to the circulation enclosed by that path. Apparatus was developed to produce, d...
Article
An experimental technique for the investigation of the behaviour of acoustic Wave propagation through a turbulent Medium is discussed. The present study Utilizes the ultrasonic travel-time technique to diagnose a grid-generated turbulence. Travel-time variance is Studied versus mean flow velocity, travel distance and outer turbulence scale. The eff...
Article
Full-text available
In the present paper the eikonal equation is considered in the form of a second order, nonlinear ordinary differential equation with harmonic excitation due to internal wave. The harmonic excitation is taken imperfect, i.e. there is a random phase modulation due to Gaussian white noise. The amplitude and wavelength of the acoustic wave are used as...
Article
The work presents a ray acoustic based analysis of the effect of oceaninternal waves and its fluctuations on acoustic wave propagation. In the present work, it is shown that consideration of only perfect internal waves simplifies the real problem, disregarding the fluctuations of internal waves. The focus of the paper is to study numerically the in...
Article
The paper presents a summary of experimental and theoretical work conducted by authors in the area of acoustical wave propagation through turbulent media. The statistics of the travel-time variations of ultrasonic wave propagation along a path are used to determine some metrics of the turbulence. It is shown that the technique can be used to study...
Article
Experimental study of the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves in grid-generated turbulence in laboratory conditions by means of ultrasound technique is considered. The travel time and log-amplitude variance of acoustic waves are investigated as functions of travel distance and mean velocity. Experimental data were interpreted using theoret...
Chapter
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The WPI project based curriculum, which emphasizes discovery based learning are an alternative to the traditional information transfer process, has proved successful in delivering global engineering education. More than 25% of the learning process of the students is integrated into two formal projects, the Major Qualifying Project (MQP) which is de...
Article
Full-text available
The WPI P lan is predicated on the concept that project work provides an environment in which students "learn by doing." In addition to requiring disciplinary competence, WPI's undergraduate programs feature broad learning outcomes such as the ability to address op en-ended problems, to communicate effectively, to function well in teams, and to und...
Article
Full-text available
An experimental technique for investigation of the behavior of acoustic wave propagation through a turbulent medium is discussed. The present study utilizes the ultrasonic travel-time technique to diagnose a grid-generated turbulence. The statistics of the travel-time variations of ultrasonic wave propagation along a path are used to determine some...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasonic measurement techniques can be used to determine some characteristics of turbulent flows. In this work measurements of the difference in propagation times of ultrasonic waves along two paths are combined with the Kolmogorov (2/3)-power law to study characteristics of grid-generated turbulence. The paper focuses on ultrasonic measurements...
Article
Full-text available
The paper is devoted to the experimental investigation of the statistical characteristics of the grid-generated turbulence produced in a wind tunnel. Ultrasonic time-of-flight method using dual transducers is utilized to develop a methodology for determination of the correlation functions of turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations. The ultr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper concerns an experimental study of the effects of the grid-generated turbulence on the propagation of acoustical waves in a wind tunnel. Turbulence effects are investigated using ultrasound time-of-flight method, employing counter-propagating ultrasonic pulses. Turbulence effects are an important source of error in the active probing of t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The WPI/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Projects Program is an off-campus, multi-disciplinary opportunity for students to complete their capstone design project requirement during 10 weeks of onsite project work. Students accepted into this program are required to spend one term in a project preparation course where they carry out background res...
Article
Full-text available
The WP/IGSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Projects Program is an off-campus, multi-disciplinary opportunity for students to complete their capstone design project requirement during 10 weeks of on-site project work. Students accepted into this program are required to spend one term in a project preparation course where they carry out background re...
Article
Ultrasonic time-of-flight method using dual transducers is utilized to determine some characteristics of grid-generated turbulent flow produced in a wind tunnel. The ultrasonic flowmeter equation is reconsidered, where the effects of turbulent velocity and sound speed fluctuations are included. The result is an integral equation for the correspondi...
Article
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Since it’s founding in 1865, the faculty, students, and alumni of Worcester Polytechnic Institute have been responsible for the establishment of nearly all the manufacturing industry in the region. Beginning with the Norton Company, a world-wide abrasives manufacturer now owned by Saint Gobain, to recent biotechnology companies, they have combined...
Article
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The overall objective of this research is to investigate the fundamental physics of film condensation in reduced gravity. The condensation of vapor on a cool surface is important in many engineering problems,including spacecraft thermal control and also the behavior of condensate films that may form on the interior surfaces of spacecraft. To examin...
Article
This paper focuses on ultrasonic measurements of a grid-generated turbulent flow using the travel time technique. In the present work an attempt to describe a turbulent flow by means of statistics of ultrasound wave propagation time is undertaken in combination with Kolmogorov (2/3)-power law. There are two objectives in current research work. The...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasonic flow measurement technology has the potential to significantly improve flow measurement accuracy beyond that presently achieved. However, current applications fail to achieve theoretical accuracies because of turbulence effects on ultrasonic wave transit time. Herein, the ultrasonic flowmeter equation is reconsidered, where the effects o...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasonic flow measurement is a widely used industrial technology. A pulse of ultrasound is projected obliquely through a duct flow and the transit time is measured. The time difference, delta-T, from the no-flow condition is proportional to the volumetric flow rate. The propagation time is variable because turbulent velocity fluctuations along th...
Article
The WPI project based curriculum, which emphasizes discovery based learning are an alternative to the traditional information transfer process, has proved successful in delivering global engineering education. More than 25% of the learning process of the students is integrated into two formal projects, the Major Qualifying Project (MQP) which is de...
Article
The focus of this ground-based program is the study of film condensation phenomena under variable, reduced-gravity conditions. Experimental tests, combined with numerical modeling, are employed to gain an improved understanding of the fundamental fluid physics responsible for condensate film growth, film instability and the resulting interfacial mo...
Article
Full-text available
Two techniques for detecting vortices and their associated circulation are disclosed. The first is termed a closed path configuration, and the second is termed the dual path configuration. These techniques are useable for the detection of wake turbulence especially in the vicinity of airport runways, which results from wing tip vortices generated b...
Article
Full-text available
A joint undergraduate research project between University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez (UPRM) and Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) started four years ago. Each year a group of students, varying between six and ten, from WPI will come to Puerto Rico to work with a group of students, varying from six to ten, from UPRM on a well defined research pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A joint undergraduate research project between University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) and Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) started four years ago. Each year a group of students, varying between six and ten, from WPI will come to Puerto Rico to work with a group of students, varying from six to ten, from UPRM on a well defined research pr...
Article
Full-text available
In developing the PLAN, WPI sought to address concerns inherent to its then traditional curriculum that was rigid, unresponsive to differences among students, and was compartmentalized by independent departments so that intellectual growth was fragmented. The PLAN was an entirely new and different educational program responsive to the needs of stud...
Conference Paper
In 1970 WPI completely revised its traditional approach to engineering education. The resulting program, the WPI Plan, emphasized the use of projects as a distinctive process for achieving educational goals. Every student, as a degree requirement, had to successfully complete two major projects: one in a student's major field, the Major Qualifying...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasound time-of-flight methods employing counter-propagating ultrasonic pulses are utilized for the direct measurement of circulation in vortical flows. Two schemes are described here which involve either a single straight path or a closed path. Both techniques are shown to result in time differences, between the counter-propagating pulses aroun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Six Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), USA, engineering programs were evaluated under Criteria 2000 during a pilot accreditation visit in 1996. The WPI PLAN consists of degree requirements focused on the achievement of outcomes related to those of Criteria 2000. The mapping of degree requirement outcomes to the elements of the Criteria hinged o...
Article
Full-text available
Six WPI engineering programs were evaluated under Criteria 2000 during a pilot accreditation visit in 1996. The WPI PLAN consists of degree requirements focused on the achievement of outcomes related to those of Criteria 2000. The mapping of degree requirement outcomes to the elements of the Criteria hinged on the translation of student performance...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The WPI PLAN, adopted by the WPI faculty in 1970, strongly anticipates current thinking about student outcomes assessments by structuring degree requirements that mandate that students demonstrate their ability to perform professional functions embodied in ABET Criteria 2000, especially Criteria 3 and 4. The WPI faculty has also practiced both stud...
Article
Full-text available
The WPl PLAN, adopted by the WPl faculty in 1970, strongly anticipates current thinking about student outcomes assessments by structuring degree requirements that mandate that students demonstrate their ability to perform professional functions embodied in ABET Criteria 2000, especially Criteria 3 and 4. The WPI faculty has also practiced both stud...
Article
Ultrasound methods are routinely used in industrial applications for the measurement of mean volume flow rates in closed conduits. These methods employ counter-propagating ultrasonic pulses within the flow. Ultrasound pulses can also be used for the direct measurement of circulation in vortical flows. Two time-of- flight schemes will be described w...
Article
Full-text available
This research effort is directed toward two primary scientific objectives: (1) to determine the gravitational effect on the measurement of nucleation and growth rates near a critical point and (2) to investigate the nucleation process in supercritical fluids to aid in the evaluation and development of existing theoretical models and practical appli...
Article
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Crystals grown from special liquid solutions find important industrial applications. Most often the physics and chemistry of the growth processes are not well understood due to complex microscopic chemical and thermo-fluid phenomena. Microgravity could help elucidate these phenomena and allow the control of defect concentration and crystal size. We...
Article
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An ultrasonic system was developed to measure the circulation about a sinusoidally pitching NACA 4418 airfoil. The system consisted of two opposing ultrasonic ranging modules arranged such that the differences between the sound propagation times in opposite directions could be related to the instantaneous circulation. For the stationary airfoil, th...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasonic techniques have been used to directly and non-intrusively measure the circulation of free surface vortices. All experiments were performed in a vertical cylindrical tank with a central drain and a tangential inlet The circulation was measured on a closed triangular path by measuring the difference in upstream and downstream transit-times...
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The first NASA Spacelab Life Sciences mission (SLS-1) flew 5 June to 14 June 1991 on the orbiter Columbia (STS-40). The purpose of the mission was to investigate the human body's adaptation to the low-gravity conditions of space flight and the body's readjustment after the mission to the 1 g environment of earth. In addition to the life sciences ex...
Article
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One element of WPI's project-based curriculum is its interdisciplinary Advanced Aeronautics Design Program. Students participating in the program are involved in the design, construction, and flight testing of non-traditional aircraft such as an ultralight solar-powered vehicle, microwave-powered long endurance aircraft, or a flying oblique wing. T...
Article
Flow past the opening of a cavity can excite acoustic resonance. The periodic velocity field in the region of the cavity opening has been measured for various flow conditions and the vorticity distribution has been computed from the measured data using numerical differentiation. The results indicate that the shear layer rolls up into discrete vorti...
Article
Full-text available
The first NASA Spacelab Life Sciences mission (SLS-1) flew 5 June to 14 June 1991 on the orbiter Columbia (STS-40). The purpose of the mission was to investigate the human body's adaptation to the low gravity conditions of space flight and the body's readjustment after the mission to the 1 g environment of earth. In addition to the life sciences ex...
Article
Full-text available
Flow past the opening of a deep cavity can excite and sustain longitudinal acoustic modes resulting in large pressure fluctuations and loud tone generation. An analytic model of the interaction of the free stream with the acoustic flow field using concentrated vortices in the shear layer is proposed. The model includes a computation of the power tr...
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Worcester Polytechnic Institute's first payload of spaceflight experiments flew aboard Columbia, STS-40, during June of 1991 and culminated eight years of work by students and faculty. The Get Away Special (GAS) payload was installed on the GAS bridge assembly at the aft end of the cargo bay behind the Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-l) laboratory. The...
Article
Increase in energy demands coupled with rapid depletion of natural energy resources have deemed solar energy as an attractive alternative source of power. The focus was to design and construct a solar powered, remotely piloted vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of solar energy as an effective, alternate source of power. The final design include...
Article
Natural convection inside a spherical container was studied experimentally with two apparatuses at low buoyancy levels. The data generated by these experiments, plotted nondimensionally as the Nusselt versus Rayleigh numbers, gives correlations for Rayleigh numbers between 103 and 108, a range which was previously untested. These results show that...
Article
Full-text available
The discharge of liquids from vertical tubes with various contraction geometries was studied via the unsteady Bernoulli equation. The temporal variations of the exit velocity and fluid level in the tube were found from the numerical integration of nonlinear differential equations. Sudden, quadratic, and exponential contraction geometries were consi...
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In December of 1982, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, with the cooperation and support of the Mitre Corporation, initiated a primarily undergraduate educational program to develop experiments to be flown onboard a NASA Space Shuttle. Christened the MITRE WPI Space Shuttle Program, it sponsored the development of five educationally meritorious exper...
Article
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An apparatus for defining the free surface of a moving column of a fluid in a vertical pipe to enhance the accuracy of measurements of transient rate of flow of the fluid using electromagnetic flowmeter is described. It provides a neutrally buoyant plug which stays in contact with the free surface of the column of the fluid at all times and thus de...
Article
Worcester Polytechnic Institute's Advanced Space Design (ASD) Program provides project-based design experiences that combine a highly motivating, need-to-know experience with an integrative capstone design that draws on the know-how of practitioners in the profession. Mechanical engineering students work with their counterparts in electrical, chemi...
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An electromagnetic flowmeter was developed to measure transient flows at a data rate of 60 Hz. The approach taken was to develop suitable electronics to replace the electronics of a commercially available electromagnetic flowmeter normally used for steady-state operation. Use of the commercially available flowmeter body, which includes the magnetic...
Article
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A demonstration system for the ultrasonic gauging of fluids in low-gravity has been designed and tested. For purposes of simplification, it was assumed that vapor within a liquid container in low-gravity would form a spherical bubble which would float freely in the container. The project was designed to show that ultrasonic techniques could be used...
Article
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An analytical model was developed to simulate human arterial pulse wave propagation in major arteries. It was verified with an experimental model. The models investigated the effects of the peripheral vascular bed on pressure pulse morphology. The models revealed that the capillary bed in normal humans acts as a high resistance, low reflectance, bo...
Article
Ultrasonic techniques may have significant utility for monitoring and measurement in two-phase fluid systems in low-gravity environments. One example is the determination of interface shape in storage vessels so that liquid quantity can be established. The inherent value of ultrasonic systems is the noninvasive nature of the measurements. When the...
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Flow past a wall mounted cavity can excite strong acoustic resonance in the cavity. The acoustic field in the cavity is coupled to the unstable shear layer at the mouth of the cavity. Flow visualization revealed that the flow in the shear layer is characterized by periodic formation of large-scale vortices and convection of these vortices downstrea...
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The objective of the MITRE/WPI Space Shuttle Program was to develop a set of scientific meaningful experiments that could be flown in a Get Away Special Canister. currently, the first GASCAN is finished (G-408) and ready to be launched. The program has been so successful that the design and development of a second set of experiments has been starte...
Article
Flow past deep wall cavities exhibits strong interaction with the standing wave system in the cavity. The shear layer separating the exterior flow from the cavity flow supports instabilities which excite the normal cavity modes. In turn, the cavity wave system reinforces the instabilities. Experimental studies have shown that two distinct instabili...
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Elastic properties of major arteries were measured in vivo in ten normal volunteers, age 26 to 44 years (mean = 32 years). A B-mode ultrasound imager was used to noninvasively measure mean diameter and pulsatile diameter change at five locations along the main arteries in the abdomen and the lower extremities. Together with pulsatile pressure (meas...
Article
Full-text available
An electromagnetic flowmeter was developed to measure transient flows with a frequency response of 60 Hz. The approach taken was to develop suitable electronics to replace the electronics of a commercially available electromagnetic flowmeter normally used for steady-state operation. Use of the commercially available flowmeter body, which includes t...
Article
Full-text available
High velocity flow past the junction of a side branch with a pipe can result in the excitation of depth-mode standing waves in the branch. The shear layer separating the main stream flow and the cavity provides coupling between the driving and the driven flow. Photographic evidence indicates that large scale vortex structures develop at the shear l...
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Venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) is a noninvasive technique widely employed for the detection of deep-vein thrombosis. Previous reports that VOP outflow curves are closely fit by a first-order exponential suggest that venous compliance and resistance are nearly constant. Typically, however, the venous compliance function has a sigmoid shape;...
Article
An experiment designed to study some fundamental aspects of microgravity fluid dynamics has been built and is scheduled for flight. The purpose of the experiment is to investigate differences in behavior of wetting and nonwetting fluid systems at low Bond numbers. Methods were developed to determine liquid quantity, estimate vapor contact area and...
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Objective: Determination of liquid quantity and configuration under static and dynamic conditions. Important for: consumption resupply manufacturing
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The util i zati on of busi ness spreadsheets for 1aboratory data mani pul ati on is di scussed. The spreadsheet, LOTUS 1-2-3, is presently being utilized to store and analyze data obtained from a deep cavity resonator type apparatus. Methodology for the analysis, frqm non dimensionalization of parameters, to relavent plotting of data pa irs, is pre...
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To develop a noninvasive method of detecting arterial occlusive disease, pulse waveforms were recorded at two locations on the lower extremities of young normal volunteers and patients with arteriographically confirmed arterial occlusive disease. Pulses were monitored using impedance plethysmography at the knee· and the iliac regions. The frequency...
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WPI was one of four colleges and universities awarded NASA grants for student design and development of an improved glove for space suits. This paper traces the design, development and testing of the WPI prototype glove. Test results showed that the glove did not significantly limit hand and finger motion when pressurized at 8 psi, except in the sp...
Article
In some nuclear reactor containment isolation applications, butterfly valves with pneumatic actuators are used to close pipelines in the event of containment pressure transients resulting from postulated accidents. A model is developed which predicts the closure time history of such valve/actuator systems under prescribed transients. Examples are p...
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Experiments were conducted to measure heat transfer rates and mass transfer rates from a water surface in the presence of electrostatic fields of various strengths generated between the water surface and a wire grid above the surface. Heat transfer rates were determined by the temperature decay after heating the test and control basins. Mass transf...
Article
In the event of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a nuclear power plant, it is possible that insulation for pipes or other items inside the containment building could be dislodged by the high energy break jet. To help in assessing the susceptibility of fibrous insulation pillows to debris formation under impingement by break-flow jets, three typ...
Article
To avoid the disadvantages of various types of special purpose recorders and analysers, with their different signal acquisition and processing techniques, a centralized computer system was installed at the Alden Research Laboratory. This system consists of a host computer, with a multi-user operating system, and a number of remote dedicated process...
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Vortimeters consisting of vanes rotating about pipe axes are frequently used to indicate the swirl present in pump columns and feedlines from sumps and in piping networks. Since the design of such devices varies widely, the study described herein was undertaken to identify salient design parameters and to evaluate a device designed according to inf...
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Transverse amplitude responses of a circular in cross-flow were determined as a function of reduced velocities for a variety of spring constants and damping coefficients. Maxima were found at reduced velocities of 5 and 16, and were of comparable amplitude. The first resonance, designated the ″fundamental mode,″ was due to normal vortex street exci...
Article
The potential detrimental effects of free surface vortices on the performance of hydraulic structures and fluid machinery continues to be a concern. Swirl reduces the discharge coefficient of intakes, and air drawn in with the flow will reduce the efficiency of pumps. Due to the complexity of flow patterns associated with vortices, physical model s...
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Laser doppler anemometers are non-invasive, linear, and inherently precise. Calibration, in the usual sense, is not necessary; length and frequency measurements suffice to establish velocity at a spatial point. Measurements were made at points in the cross-sections of two square ducts containing water flow. The points were selected in con­ formance...
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The prediction of forces, or more precisely, the pressure distributions, experienced by submerged structures due to the passage of gravity waves has become important with the advent of large offshore structures. If the size of a structure is small compared to the wavelength then the forces can be evaluated by the assignment of suitable drag and ine...
Article
An analytic method is presented whereby the differential pressure distribution on a submerged horizontal flat plate, 'induced by the passage of gravity waves, can be calculated. Plates having cord lengths of the same order of magnitude as the wave length are considered, making the analysis applicable to large offshore structures. The results of an...