William L Cron

William L Cron
Texas Christian University | TCU · Department of Marketing

Doctor of Business Administration

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70
Publications
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Publications

Publications (70)
Article
A recent study of a selling strategy adapted by some retail salespeople recommended that salespeople should expeditiously disengage from a customer interaction when they believe that a customer with whom they are interacting is unlikely to make a purchase (Cron et al. 2021 Cron, William, Sascha Alavi, Johannes Habel, Jan Wieseke, and Hanaa Ryari. 2...
Article
The Zoltners, Sinha, Sahay, Shastri, and Lorimer (2021) article provides an excellent macro model of how sales digitization is related to organizational success. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations for avoiding pitfalls and achieving success in sales digitization programs. The intent of this article is to facilitate future research on...
Article
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On encountering a prospect whom they believe unlikely to make a purchase, some retail salespeople adopt a sales strategy of limiting engagement with the customer, relying on a “no conversion, no conversation” (NC ² ) sales strategy. Is this a good or bad sales strategy? Based on a multisource dataset combining salespeople and objective sales perfor...
Preprint
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The purpose of this study is to investigate how goal orientations and self-efficacy, as predictor variables, impact an individual player's performance in a First-Person Shooter (FPS) game. Online surveys were completed by 134 individuals who had played one of the pre-selected FPS games. A significant relationship between learning goal orientation (...
Article
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The call for more macro sales force research where the sales force as a whole is the unit of analysis, which was raised in “The Strategic Role of the Sales Force,” is revisited in this article. Technology, consolidation, government policies, the evolution of organizational strategy are dramatically changing the role of the sales force and the daily...
Data
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Current models of sales force strategy imply formidable information processing demands, which leads us to take a cognitive approach to studying the issue of sales force strategy. We focus on how top-level executives use mental models of sales force performance to simplify the issue of sales force strategy. We interviewed 74 senior executives respon...
Article
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Within the contemporary business milieu, the discipline of selling and sales management has taken on a more prominent role in recent years. Myriad factors have contributed to the rise of interest in sales including globalization, technology, more sophisticated analytical approaches and new opportunities for co-creation of value between organization...
Article
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Residual income analysis is proposed as a capital budgeting based performance measure for sales executives that overcomes the limitations of return on assets managed. In particular, residual income analysis is consistent with a shareholder wealth maximization objective, incorporates both sales growth and return on investment objectives, and can be...
Article
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A greater portion of the U.S. work force than ever before is of an age in which retirement and non-work related issues are of primary concern, rather than career advancement and enhancement. Does this trend represent a significant management and performance problem for sales managers? This study examines issues related to the attitudes and performa...
Article
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Building on the forces of change in selling identified in the introductory paper of this Special Issue of JPSSM, we identify and explicate trends, managerial implications, and research opportunities in two important domains of the selling field: training and development (TD) and selection. Part One focuses on TD of salespeople, and argues why a fre...
Article
This article examines the strategic role of the selling function based on the resource-based view (RBV) perspective on the firm. The RBV provides a relevant foundation for developing a conceptual framework on the strategic role of the selling function. This approach is based on the logic that distinctions in resources and organizations' capabilitie...
Article
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Within repertory grid research multiple measures of differentiation referring to the relative number of judgments have been in use to assess the structure of personal construct systems. Extant research reports correlations between some of the structural measures being studied. However, a comprehensive investigation documenting how the most commonly...
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This study extends our understanding of the effects of gender on both pricing behavior and owner income by examining both relationships in an experimental simulation involving owners of veterinary practices. Consistent with prior research, women owners are found to employ "compassionate pricing" more than men, even when the same services are offere...
Article
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Though mental models influence managers' decision-making and organizations' performance, the extant literature offers little empirical support for understanding the effects of antecedents on managers' mental models. In this study we found that the content of managers' mental models does not vary between hierarchical level, though the relevance of t...
Article
Professional service providers (e.g., doctors, lawyers, architects, management consultants, and veterinarians) can engage in dynamic pricing, that is, varying prices among customers. Yet, little is known about how professionals set prices for their services. With the increase in the proportion of women in many professions, it is important to unders...
Article
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It has been found in other occupations that there is a gender effect on the earning power of women: women earn less than men. Various studies have examined if there is a gender effect among professional service providers, but they have been empirically focused and generally lacking in theoretical foundation. As a result, very little progress has be...
Article
Do online and offline data collection methods yield different attribute preferences in an importance-rating task and a choice-based conjoint analysis task? This question is addressed in a field study designed to identify promising attributes for a new generation of wireless telephone handsets in an actual product development context. No practical d...
Article
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This longitudinal field study examined the influence of goal orientation on both neg- ative emotional reactions to performance feedback and subsequent self-set goal level. After completing an initial performance event and receiving negative perfor- mance feedback, learning and proving goal orientations had nonsignificant relations with the intensit...
Article
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The authors investigated the motivational effects of goal conflict in a complex goal performance setting. Goal conflict was found to have an indirect influence on performance through its relationship with goal commitment. Goal conflict was negatively associated with goal commitment when controlling for the other antecedents, including expectancy, s...
Article
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This longitudinal field study examined the influence of negative emotions and goal orientation after individuals received negative performance feedback about their level of goal attainment. After completing an initial performance event and receiving negative performance feedback, a learning goal orientation had a nonsignificant relationship with th...
Article
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This study examined the relationship of goal orientation and performance over a series of 2 challenging performance events. After providing performance feedback on the 1st event, the authors found that the relationship between a learning goal orientation and performance remained positive for the 2nd event, the relationship between a proving goal or...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationship of goal orientation and performance over a series of 2 challenging performance events. After providing performance feedback on the 1st event, the authors found that the relationship between a learning goal orientation and performance remained positive for the 2nd event, the relationship between a proving goal or...
Article
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The biennial AVMA Economic Report on Veterinarians and Veterinary Practices demonstrated that there was little real growth in veterinarians' incomes from 1985 to 1995, and they have not improved significantly since. Average income hovers just above $20 per hour worked, falling further and further behind incomes of other professionals, including som...
Article
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The authors investigated the influence of goal orientation on sales performance in a longitudinal field study with salespeople. As hypothesized, a learning goal orientation had a positive relationship with sales performance. This relationship was fully mediated by 3 self-regulation tactics: goal setting, effort, and planning. In contrast, a perform...
Article
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A managerial process is developed for assessing the efficiency of 552 individual stores for a multi-store, multi-market retailer employing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Incorporating assurance regions into a DEA model allowed for a more complete specification of inputs and outcomes than usually found in DEA applications. This procedure permitted...
Article
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The authors assess the effects of trait competitiveness and competitive psychological climate on self-set goal levels and sales performance. The results indicate an interaction between trait competitiveness and competitive psychological climate, such that (1) salespeople who are high in trait competitiveness set higher goals when they perceive the...
Article
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The authors assess the effects of trait competitiveness and competitive psychological climate on self-set goal levels and sales performance. The results indicate an interaction between trait competitiveness and competitive psychological climate, such that (1) salespeople who are high in trait competitiveness set higher goals when they perceive the...
Article
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The authors investigate the motivational effects of emotions in a sales force context. The personal stakes that salespeople have in a goal situation triggered anticipation of emotions that result from attaining or failing to attain their performance goal. Positive anticipatory emotions were positively related to volitions and mediated the relations...
Article
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The authors investigate the motivational effects of emotions in a sales force context. The personal stakes that salespeople have in a goal situation triggered anticipation of emotions that result from attaining or failing to attain their performance goal. Positive anticipatory emotions were positively related to volitions and mediated the relations...
Article
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A psychological success model of the relationships between sales performance and job attitudes is developed and tested. The model posits that feelings of success mediate the relationship between work performance and job satisfaction. Previous research based on purely cognitive theoretical models has posited a direct relationship between performance...
Article
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Using survey data collected from 535 salespeople, a study comparing the career development models of Levinson el at. (1978) and Super (1957) was conducted. Support was found for both models. The Levinson et al. model is more closely related to individuals' career decisions, while the Supermodel is more closely related to individual's job attitudes....
Article
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A model is investigated in which organizational formalization influences work alienation through role ambiguity, role conflict, and organizational commitment. Interrelationships are tested with data obtained from industrial salespeople and industrial buyers. Higher levels of formalization are found to be associated with greater organizational commi...
Article
A model is investigated in which organizational formalization influences work alienation through role ambiguity, role conflict, and organizational commitment. Interrelationships are tested with data obtained from industrial salespeople and industrial buyers. Higher levels of formalization are found to be associated with greater organizational commi...
Article
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Conducted a longitudinal study to examine the changes in career intentions, career issues, organizational commitment, and job performance among 122 White male employees of a firm, who were in 3 distinct stages of the plateauing process. Ss who remained nonplateaued improved their levels of performance, indicated a desire to get promoted, and believ...
Article
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This paper presents a conditional mixture, maximum likelihood methodology for performing clusterwise linear regression. This new methodology simultaneously estimates separate regression functions and membership inK clusters or groups. A review of related procedures is discussed with an associated critique. The conditional mixture, maximum likelihoo...
Article
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Researchers have found that career stage is related to salespeople's attitudes, work perceptions, and performance. To date, however, no reported research has explored the impact of career stages on all three components of salesforce motivation-valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. The authors report the results of a study intended to address th...
Article
Researchers have found that career stage is related to salespeople's attitudes, work perceptions, and performance. To date, however, no reported research has explored the impact of career stages on all three components of salesforce motivation—valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. The authors report the results of a study intended to address th...
Article
Full-text available
Though trade shows are an important marketing tool, as evidenced by their frequency of use and expenditure level, little research has examined this activity. The authors document the selling and non-selling roles of trade shows and identify marketing and trade show strategy-related variables that affect performance. Their study is a necessary first...
Article
Though trade shows are an important marketing tool, as evidenced by their frequency of use and expenditure level, little research has examined this activity. The authors document the selling and non-selling roles of trade shows and identify marketing and trade show strategy-related variables that affect performance. Their study is a necessary first...
Article
The career transitions of supervisors were examined to determine the impact of their transitions on the behaviors and attitudes of subordinates who had made recent career transitions. A sample of 124 managers and subordinates participated in the field survey. The data generally supported the major proposition that the magnitude of both a supervisor...
Article
Sooner or later almost everyone's career reaches a plateau, and these days it's more likely to be sooner than later. How do individuals and organizations know that a plateau is approaching, and in what situations is plateauing most likely to occur?
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This paper is based on the results of an award‐winning study presented at the American Marketing Association Meetings, Chicago, Ilinois, 1984. Support for this research was granted by the Enterprising Research Fund, Edwin L. Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. The authors would like to acknowledge Michael Harvey fo...
Article
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The study examines salespeople in four distinct career stages. The career stages literature suggests that people's psychological and sociological needs differ among these stages. General support for the theory is found. Job performance and attitudes were influenced by different career stages. The relationship of a salesperson's performance with per...
Article
Full-text available
The study examines salespeople in four distinct career stages. The career stages literature suggests that people's psychological and sociological needs differ among these stages. General support for the theory is found. Job performance and attitudes were influenced by different career stages. The relationship of a salesperson's performance with per...
Article
There is growing awareness that careers grow and change in a variety of ways during a person's work life. One change is in people's concerns and goals for their careers. This article discusses how people's career concerns will change over their working lives. The results indicate that the career goals of salespeople have a significant relationship...
Article
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The study tests the career stages model developed by Super (1957, The Psychology of Careers, New York: Harper). The theory suggests three distinct career stages between ages 21 and 60, each with its own career issues, job-related attitudes, and behavior. A total of 675 salespersons participated in this study. Attitudinal and career measures were ta...
Article
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Southern Methodist University SALLIE RAWLINGS American Airlines This study compared effective and inelTective plateaued salespersons in two companies having difTerenI business strategies in terms of their job histories, iob satisfactions, perceived work environments, career stages, definitions of success, and career attitudes. The business strategy...
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The relationship between functional participation and several measures of channel member financial performance are evaluated. Channel theory suggests that greater participation in channel functions should be positively associated with channel member compensation. Support for the theory was found for gross margins and total operating expenses. Howev...
Article
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The scope of research on the development of salespeople has been very limited, in part because of an incomplete conceptual framework of salespeople's life and career changes. As a first step toward improving this situation, this article presents a framework of developing career concerns in the form of career stages. Career objectives, developmental...
Article
The scope of research on the development of salespeople has been very limited, in part because of an incomplete conceptual framework of salespeople's life and career changes. As a first step toward improving this situation, this article presents a framework of developing career concerns in the form of career stages. Career objectives, developmental...
Article
The relationship between computerization and several measures of overall firm performance is examined. Sample firms consisted of 138 wholesalers in a single industry with annual sales between one million and over ten million dollars. Three performance comparisons are presented: users versus non-users of computers, three levels of usage, and class o...
Article
The notion that gross margin commission plans lead to optimum wages for salespeople and maximum profits for the firm was tested using data from 108 medical supply wholesalers. Results suggest that although gross margin plans may increase wages, they do not improve the contribution profits of the firm.
Article
Full-text available
A long-standing marketing question is whether sales personnel should be given authority to set prices. The marketing literature contains theoretical support for the practice. This article, however, presents research results that argue the opposite. Among a sample of 108 firms, those giving salespeople the highest degree of pricing authority generat...
Article
Full-text available
A long-standing marketing question is whether sales personnel should be given authority to set prices. The marketing literature contains theoretical support for the practice. This article, however, presents research results that argue the opposite. Among a sample of 108 firms, those giving salespeople the highest degree of pricing authority generat...
Article
Full-text available
Contiene: Introducción a las ventas y a la administración de ventas; Desarrollo de la función de ventas; Administración de compras y de cuenta; Administración del territorio; Etica de ventas; Planeación y presupuesto; Estimación de los potenciales y pronóstico de ventas; Organización; Elaboración de un programa de ventas; Reclutamiento y selección...
Article
Thesis (D.B.A.)--Indiana University, 1981. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 225-232).

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Projects (4)
Project
Two projects: (1) A follow-up on the for 2014 Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science article and (2) a study on the advisability of taking control of the customer conversation and limiting sales interaction.
Archived project
understand how people make decisions under uncertainty; study the role of goal orientation in video game choices