William J. Chopik

William J. Chopik
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D., Personality & Social Contexts

About

160
Publications
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Publications

Publications (160)
Preprint
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Intergenerational relations have received close attention in the context of population aging and increased childcare provision by grandparents. However, few studies have investigated the psychological consequences of becoming a grandparent. In a preregistered test of grandparenthood as a developmental task in middle and older adulthood, we used rep...
Article
How does optimism change over the lifespan and how do changes predict health and well-being? In a pre-registered analysis of the Rochester Adult Longitudinal Study, we examined changes in and outcomes of optimism over 25 years (1989–2014) in 984 adults aged 16–70. Optimism increased over time similarly across participants. However, more optimistic...
Article
Full-text available
The study of moral judgements often centres on moral dilemmas in which options consistent with deontological perspectives (that is, emphasizing rules, individual rights and duties) are in conflict with options consistent with utilitarian judgements (that is, following the greater good based on consequences). Greene et al. (2009) showed that psychol...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Communicating in ways that motivate engagement in social distancing remains a critical global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study tested motivational qualities of messages about social distancing (those that promoted choice and agency vs. those that were forceful and shaming) in 25,718 people in 89 countries...
Article
This study examined the link between insecure attachment and cognitive functioning in 1,043 middle-aged and older romantic couples (Mage = 64.7 years), and tests whether stress acts as a mediator. Participants were asked about their romantic attachment (anxiety and avoidance), cognitive impairment, their and their partner’s dementia symptoms, and w...
Article
Do people accurately perceive their partner’s humor style? The current study extends work on partner perception by examining accuracy and bias in people’s perception of their partners’ humor styles—a subjective, evaluative, and important factor in relationship satisfaction. We recruited 337 heterosexual couples ( N = 674 individuals, M age = 65.71...
Article
Full-text available
Highly satisfying social relationships make us happy and healthy—they fill us with joy and a sense of meaning and purpose. But do all the relationships in our lives contribute equally to our well-being and do some people benefit more from certain relationships? The current study examined associations between the satisfaction of specific relationshi...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in character strengths for people with disabilities by using an international dataset by the VIA Institute on Character. Specifically, we aimed to explore (a) the top and bottom five character strengths reported by different disability groups and all people with disabilities more broadly, and...
Article
Introduction Improving students’ experiences in courses has always been important; one important method for facilitating discussions is an effective icebreaker activity. Statement of the Problem The move to remote learning during the COVID-19 pandemic presented new challenges for fostering connections among students. Given the constraints in remot...
Article
Importance: Researchers and policy makers are expanding the focus from risk factors of disease to seek potentially modifiable health factors that enhance people's health and well-being. Understanding if and to what degree aging satisfaction (one's beliefs about their own aging) is associated with a range of health and well-being outcomes aligns wi...
Preprint
Recent research suggests that the association between age and gratitude might be curvilinear—despite gratitude ostensibly being higher in middle-age, it might be lower in older adulthood. It is unclear if this curvilinear pattern of age differences in gratitude is found in other samples and whether its manifestation depends on contextual (i.e., nat...
Article
Recent research suggests that the association between age and gratitude might be curvilinear—despite gratitude ostensibly being higher in middle-age, it might be lower in older adulthood. It is unclear if this curvilinear pattern of age differences in gratitude is found in other samples and whether its manifestation depends on contextual (i.e., nat...
Article
Full-text available
Romantic relationships are a key factor contributing to health across the lifespan. Within this research line, attachment theory has been a useful framework to understand how relationships impact health. One primary health concern in late adulthood is reduced cognitive functioning: Alzheimer’s disease and related neurodegenerative disorders become...
Article
Despite constituting a large portion of society, single people—and their satisfaction with singlehood and life—are rarely examined in their own right. How happy are single people and does their happiness change over time? In 3,439 people followed over 10 years, we found that people reported being more satisfied than not, but both singlehood satisfa...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Hormones are often conceptualized as biological markers of individual differences and have been associated with a variety of behavioral indicators and characteristics, such as mating behavior or acquiring and maintaining dominance. However, before researchers create strong theoretical models for how hormones modulate individual and social...
Article
This exploratory study examined both individual and dyadic predictors of variety of ICT use. Need for cognition is associated with engaging in a variety of intellectually stimulating practices and a prominent individual difference predictor of the types of ICTs people use. Participants were a subset of 542 heterosexual couples (N = 1084 individuals...
Chapter
The prospect that people can be resilient to—or even grow from—a stressful experience is an alluring possibility—especially so for soldiers and veterans. Some have proposed that deploying and military experiences provide soldiers with enduring mental resources and toughness that are protective for the rest of their lives. However, definitive eviden...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research examining transference – which posits people draw on past experiences with close others to inform novel interactions – has found that people attribute qualities to and express preferences for novel targets based on their similarity to significant others. However, classic tasks for testing transference required multiple sessions ov...
Article
Full-text available
Research on consequences of adversity appears inconclusive. Adversity can be detriment to mental health, promoting maladaptive patterns of thoughts. At the same time, posttraumatic growth studies suggest that overcoming major adversity facilitates growth in wisdom-related patterns of thoughts. We address this puzzle by examining how distinct types...
Article
How soldiers adapt to and change in response to the deployment experience has received a great deal of attention. What predicts which soldiers are resilient and which soldiers decline in character strengths across the deployment transition? We examined this question in two analyses drawing from the same data source of soldiers deploying for the fir...
Article
Much of past research has been dedicated to refining the operationalization and correlates of the broader autism phenotype (BAP) and less on how the BAP differs by socio‐demographic characteristics, like age—particularly after midlife. This gap is important because other nonclinical trait‐like characteristics (e.g., personality) have shown consider...
Article
There is a general, widely‐held belief that optimism is always a good thing. While there is much previous research suggesting that optimists enjoy several health and wellness benefits, there is also a large body of research suggesting that optimism is not always advantageous. Perhaps examining how optimism develops and changes across the lifespan m...
Article
New online dating platforms, such as Tinder, are dramatically changing the context in which people seek romantic relationships. In these platforms, users select partners they are willing to start a conversation with by “swiping” on them. These platforms provide exciting possibilities for applying new methods to test how user (e.g., demographic, per...
Article
Full-text available
Prioritizing friendship is associated with many health and well-being benefits. However, to date, there have been relatively few studies that have examined cultural moderators of the link between friendship and important outcomes. In other words, is prioritizing friendships more beneficial in some contexts than others? In the current study, we exam...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence–dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Article
Traits comprising the broad autism phenotype (aloof personality, pragmatic language deficits, and rigid personality) have been linked to difficulty forming and maintaining close relationships, as well as attachment insecurity. The present study examined how the three individual broad autism phenotype traits were associated with emerging adults' rom...
Article
Full-text available
Replication studies in psychological science sometimes fail to reproduce prior findings. If these studies use methods that are unfaithful to the original study or ineffective in eliciting the phenomenon of interest, then a failure to replicate may be a failure of the protocol rather than a challenge to the original finding. Formal pre-data-collecti...
Article
Social support has been proposed to be a protective factor that buffers the losses that result from the experience of negative life events. The present study uses data from a large-scale Australian panel study (the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey) to examine how life satisfaction changes following the onset of a disabling...
Preprint
Albarracín et al. (2008, Study 7) tested whether priming action or inaction goals (vs. no goal) and then satisfying those goals (vs. not satisfying them) would be associated with subsequent cognitive responding. They hypothesized and found that priming action or inaction goals that were not satisfied resulted in greater or lesser responding, respec...
Article
Close relationships have important implications for physical health and well‐being. However, not everyone approaches relationships in the same way. In this entry, we discuss how a person's attachment orientation, or characteristic approach toward close relationships, is associated with health outcomes. First, we briefly review the state of the curr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research on consequences of adversity suggests a puzzle. On the one hand, posttraumatic growth studies suggest that working through major adversity facilitates growth in wisdom. On the other hand, working through adversity can exacerbate negative emotions and thoughts. We address this puzzle by examining how distinct forms of adversity impact wisdo...
Article
Objective We examined the extent to which prenatal expectations matched postpartum reality, and the implications of expectancy violation for relationship quality at postpartum, among heterosexual and lesbian couples transitioning to parenthood. Background During the transition to parenthood, soon‐to‐be parents form expectations about how their liv...
Article
Objective: Studies have demonstrated the importance of optimism in predicting perceived general health. However, the handful of studies focusing on cardiovascular biomarkers show inconsistent effects. Additionally, no study examined whether spousal levels of optimism and pessimism affect an individual's biological markers of cardiovascular health....
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Posttraumatic growth typically refers to enduring positive psychological change experienced as a result of adversity, trauma, or highly challenging life circumstances. Critics have challenged insights from much of the prior research on this topic, pinpointing its significant methodological limitations. In response to these critiques, we...
Article
Most research documenting bias against older adults has been conducted in individualistic and industrialized cultures. In the current study, we examined cultural variation in attitudes toward older adults and subjective age in a large sample of 911,982 participants ( M age = 27.42, SD = 12.23; 67.6% women) from 68 different countries ( M size = 12,...
Article
Full-text available
Albarracín et al. (2008, Experiment 7) tested whether priming action or inaction goals (vs. no goal) and then satisfying those goals (vs. not satisfying them) would be associated with subsequent cognitive responding. They hypothesized and found that priming action or inaction goals that were not satisfied resulted in greater or lesser responding, r...
Preprint
Posttraumatic growth typically refers to enduring positive psychological change experienced as a result of adversity, trauma, or highly challenging life circumstances. Critics have challenged insights from much of the prior research on this topic, pinpointing its significant methodological limitations. In response to these critiques, we propose tha...
Article
During the transition to parenthood (TTP), both women and men report declines in sexual desire, which are thought to reflect an evolutionarily adaptive focus on parenting over mating. New parents also show changes in testosterone, a steroid hormone implicated in both parenting and mating, suggesting that changes in sexual desire may be associated w...
Article
Full-text available
Many people want to change their personality traits-and research on volitional change has documented their success in doing so. In the present study, we examine whether people also wish to change their levels of empathy, and whether these desires precede shifts in dispositional empathy and morality over a 15-week period. We recorded participants' c...
Article
Negative attitudes toward aging are pervasive in society and may be detrimental to people’s health as they become older. Older people tend to report feeling significantly younger than their chronological age, often as a way of psychologically distancing themselves from the stigma of old age. However, attitudes and behaviors toward aging may differ...
Article
Theorists have suggested that beliefs about whether personality can change might operate in a self‐fulfilling fashion, leading to growth in personality traits across time. In the present two studies, we collected intensive longitudinal data from a total of 1339 emerging adults (n s = 254 and 1085) and examined the extent to which both global belief...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many people want to change their personality traits—and research on volitional change has documented their success in doing so. In the present study, we examine whether people also wish to change their levels of empathy, and whether these desires precede shifts in dispositional empathy and morality over a 15-week period. We recorded participants’ c...
Preprint
Although individuals vary in how optimistic they are about the future, one assumption that researchers make is that optimism is sensitive to changes in life events and circumstances. We examined how optimism and pessimism changed across the lifespan and in response to life events in three large panel studies (combined N = 74,886). In the American a...
Preprint
Marriage has been linked to higher well-being. However, previous research has generally examined marital status at one point in time or over a relatively short window of time. In order to determine if different marital histories have unique impacts on well-being in later life, we conducted a marital sequence analysis of 7,532 participants from the...
Article
Marriage has been linked to higher well-being. However, previous research has generally examined marital status at one point in time or over a relatively short window of time. In order to determine if different marital histories have unique impacts on well-being in later life, we conducted a marital sequence analysis of 7,532 participants from the...
Article
Although increasing numbers of gay and lesbian individuals ultimately become parents, the vast majority of research on the transition to parenthood focuses exclusively on heterosexual samples. Even less is known about the physiological implications of this major life transition among those who identify as sexual minorities. The present study begins...
Preprint
Objective: Despite a narrative of post-traumatic growth and resilience, research reliably demonstrating positive character development following adversity has proved elusive. In the current study, we examined changes in character strengths in Army soldiers deploying for the first time. The sample was comprised of 212,386 Army soldiers (Mage = 26.5...
Chapter
Interdependence, Interaction, and Close Relationships - edited by Laura V. Machia June 2020
Article
Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - Interdependence, Interaction, and Close Relationships - edited by Laura V. Machia
Article
Although individuals vary in how optimistic they are about the future, one assumption that researchers make is that optimism is sensitive to changes in life events and circumstances. We examined how optimism and pessimism changed across the lifespan and in response to life events in three large panel studies (combined N = 74,886). In the American a...
Preprint
Close relationships have important implications for physical health and well-being. However, not everyone approaches relationships in the same way. In this entry, we discuss how a person's attachment orientation, or characteristic approach toward close relationships, is associated with health outcomes. First, we briefly review the state of the curr...
Article
Full-text available
Coworker support has been hypothesized to enhance work-life outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Two studies examined how coworker support predicted work-life outcomes through positive work environment and burnout. It was hypothesized that coworker support enhances work environment, and that better work environ...
Article
Full-text available
Aging happens to everyone everywhere. At present, however, little is known about whether life-span adult development-and particularly development in late adulthood-is pancultural or culture-bound. Here, we propose that in Western cultural contexts, individuals are encouraged to maintain the active, positive, and independent self. This cultural expe...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Despite a narrative of post‐traumatic growth and resilience, research reliably demonstrating positive character development following adversity has proved elusive. In the current study, we examined changes in character strengths in Army soldiers deploying for the first time. Method The sample was comprised of 212,386 Army soldiers (Mage...
Article
Full-text available
The stress that arises from workplace discrimination can have a large impact on an employee’s work attitude, their work and life satisfaction, and oftentimes whether or not they stay in a job. Workplace discrimination can also have a considerable influence on employees’ short- and long-term health. However, less is known about the factors that migh...
Article
Previous research has offered mixed evidence on whether obligation in relationships benefits or harms individuals and their relationships. Given that few studies are prospective and consider multiple close relationships, we used 18-year longitudinal data to model whether obligation is associated with differences in relational and individual well-be...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oil (EO) use is growing in popularity and ostensibly used for treating or preventing various ailments or conditions. Despite the increase in use, there is a paucity of research on psychosocial predictors of EO use and their perceived effectiveness. However, several psychosocial characteristics are associated with health-promoting behavior...
Article
In the past 10 years, the field of relationship science—like many other fields—has been exposed to dramatic changes in how scientists approach the research process. Relationship science has been at the forefront of many recent changes in the field, whether it be high profile replication attempts or broader discussions about how to increase rigor an...
Chapter
The aim of the current chapter is to discuss how personality and relationship processes (i.e., relationship experiences and outcomes) may interact to influence physical and mental health across the lifespan. We begin with a discussion of how our romantic relationships contribute to our health and how two prominent personality theories (i.e., attach...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Previous research has examined the link between discrimination and health in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender (LGBT) individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine if health-promoting variables, like social networks, might disrupt this association. Method: Participants were 2,560 LGBT older adults who reported on the co...
Article
Research suggests that change goals (desires to change personality traits) predict subsequent trait growth. In this article, we (re)analyzed all data our labs have collected as of May 2019 that included measures of change goals and repeated measures of personality traits (12 studies; total n = 2,238). Results indicated that change goals robustly pr...
Article
Background: Loneliness is common in dementia caregivers as cognitive impairment (CI) alters marital and social relationships. Unexplored is how an individual's loneliness is affected at earlier, more ambiguous, periods of their spouse's CI. Methods: Using the Health and Retirement Study, our study participants included 2,206 coupled individuals...
Article
Full-text available
In the debate about whether or not narcissism has been increasing in recent history, there is a lack of basic information about how narcissism changes across the adult life span. Existing research relies on cross-sectional samples, purposely restricts samples to include only college students, or follows one group of individuals over a short period...
Article
People value relationships and want to relate to both friends and romantic partners in a secure and comfortable fashion. But can individuals move towards realizing this goal of their own volition? To address this question, across three studies with a combined total of more than 4000 participants, we developed and validated a new measure of people's...
Article
Objective: Higher optimism has been linked with health, well-being, and cognitive functioning. Spouses also play an important role on people's health, especially in older adulthood. Yet, whether a spouse's optimism is associated with an individual's cognitive functioning is understudied. Thus, we examined this question. Method: Participants were...
Preprint
Full-text available
Preregistration has been lauded as one of the solutions to the so-called ‘crisis of confidence’ in the social sciences and has therefore gained in popularity in recent years. However, despite its growing popularity, preregistration is still in its infancy and preregistration practices are far from optimal. Moreover, the current infrastructure for p...
Article
Full-text available
Technology has the ability to enhance and enrich the lives of older adults by facilitating better relationships, health, and well-being. However, older adults vary in how often—and even whether—they use information and communication technologies (ICTs). Further, interactions and relationships with people in their immediate social networks might hav...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Optimism has been found to be associated with physical health and interpersonal well-being. Spouses also play an important role on people’s health especially in late life. Yet, little is known about how a spouse’s optimism might be associated with an individual’s cognitive health. This study examined how actor and partner optimism in couples are as...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the last ten years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence-dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgments of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Preprint
Replications in psychological science sometimes fail to reproduce prior findings. If replications use methods that are unfaithful to the original study or ineffective in eliciting the phenomenon of interest, then a failure to replicate may be a failure of the protocol rather than a challenge to the original finding. Formal pre-data collection peer...
Article
In the present study, we sought to understand whether people in polyamorous relationships have similar attachment orientations with each of their partners. Further, we examined the extent to which the attachment relationship with a given partner affects relationship quality both within that relationship and across concurrent romantic relationships....