William S. Cain

William S. Cain
University of California, San Diego | UCSD · Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

Ph.D.

About

239
Publications
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13,568
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Publications

Publications (239)
Article
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Forty-six subjects participated in eight relatively easy tests of olfactory discrimination and information processing: quality discrimination, recognition memory, odor-visual matching, odor-tactile matching, and various types of verbal identification. In half of 28 comparisons, performance on one test correlated significantly with that on another....
Article
Full-text available
Fifteen subjects participated in a study designed to record event-related potentials (ERPs) to various concentrations of the odorant n-butyl alcohol. Subjects pressed a response key upon detection of the odor, while ERPs were recorded from nine electrode positions. Results indicated a concentration-dependent increase in amplitude of a P300-like com...
Article
Full-text available
One hundred and ninety three odor detection thresholds, ODTs, obtained by Nagata using the Japanese triangular bag method can be correlated as log (1/ODT) by a linear equation with R2 = 0.748 and a standard deviation, SD, of 0.830 log units; the latter may be compared with our estimate of 0.66 log units for the self-consistency of Nagata's data. Al...
Article
Abstract The scientific literature through 2005 on the effects of ventilation rates on health in indoor environments has been reviewed by a multidisciplinary group. The group judged 27 papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals as providing sufficient information on both ventilation rates and health effects to inform the relationship. Co...
Article
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An unpublished laboratory study by Russell and Rush (1996) showed that human subjects sense the presence of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) via the eyes at concentrations as low as hundreds of ppb in air, with dependence upon duration of exposure. The longer the stimulation, the lower the concentrations sensed. Application of benchmark concentration (...
Article
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A large amount of data on the biological and toxicological activity of gases and vapors has been collected from the literature. Processes include sensory irritation thresholds, the Alarie mouse test, inhalation anesthesia, etc. It is shown that a single equation using only five descriptors (properties of the gases and vapors) plus a set of indicato...
Chapter
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Nasal chemosensory irritation (i.e., chemesthesis) in humans results form stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. Almost all chemical vapors that produce odor can evoke nasal chemesthesis at higher concentrations, although there is a cut-off point along homologous series beyond which larger homologs fail to be detected by chemesthesis. The failure see...
Chapter
Full-text available
The prediction of further values of sensory irritation from already known experimental data is an on-going and very important area of research. One major problem is that nearly all predictive methods are restricted to irritants that act through ‘physical’ or ‘non-reactive’ mechanisms, rather than through ‘chemical’ or ‘reactive’ mechanisms. A usefu...
Article
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Data on human odor thresholds show disparities huge enough to marginalize olfactory psychophysics and delegitimize importation of its data into other areas. Variation of orders of magnitude from study to study, much of it systematic, threatens meaningful comparisons with animal species, comparison between in vivo with in vitro studies, the search f...
Article
The US EPA has exempted t-butyl acetate from VOC regulations, which increases the likelihood that it may replace other solvents in some settings. This investigation probes its chemosensory properties. In Study 1, subjects (n = 29) sought to detect the odor of t-butyl acetate and of n-butyl acetate in forced-choice testing of stable concentrations,...
Article
Full-text available
The solvation descriptors for cyclohexanone oxime and acetone oxime have been obtained from measurements on water–solvent partitions, and gas–liquid chromatographic retention data. These yield values of 0.33 and 0.37 for the Abraham hydrogen bond acidity, A, in reasonable agreement with a value of 0.37 for cyclohexanone oxime obtained by our recent...
Article
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Using air-dilution olfactometry, we measured concentration-response functions for the odor detection of the homologous esters ethyl, butyl, hexyl, and octyl acetate. Stimuli were delivered by means of an 8-station vapor delivery device (VDD-8) specifically designed to capture odor detection performance by humans under environmentally realistic cond...
Article
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Descriptors have been determined for four inorganic mercury(II) species and for seventeen organic mercury(II) species, using experimental literature data. These descriptors can then be used in equations that we have already set out in order to estimate a large number of physicochemical properties. These include the water to octanol partition coeffi...
Article
Young, middle-aged, and senior subjects performed tasks designed to examine whether odor quality discrimination varies independently of sensitivity. One task entailed detection of 2-heptanone and the others AB-X discrimination of quality for sets of 2-heptanone and homologues or 2-heptanone and non-ketones. Subjects sought to discriminate either at...
Article
Full-text available
(1) To assess the relation between occupationally relevant exposures to dust of boric acid and magnitude of feel in the eye, nose, and throat during activity (pedaling) equal to light industrial work. (2) To compare feel from the dust of boric acid with that of the alkaline dusts calcium oxide and sodium tetraborate pentahydrate (sodium borate). (3...
Article
Unlabelled: Young adult subjects who occupied a well-ventilated space with low background of level of ozone achieved via carbon-filtration could detect ozone odor at 7 ppb, lower than expected from archival compilations. The outcome was not inconsistent, however, with some observations of recognition, beyond mere detection, at about 15-20 ppb. Ind...
Article
Full-text available
We have applied a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach to analyze the chemical parameters that determine the relative sensitivity of olfaction and nasal chemesthesis to a common set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We used previously reported data on odor detection thresholds (ODTs) and nasal pungency thresholds (NPTs)...
Article
Full-text available
We measured the concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric) functions for the eye irritation evoked by three homologous n-alcohols (1-nonanol, 1-decanol and 1-undecanol) and two homologous acetates (nonyl and decyl acetate). A vapor delivery device based on a dynamic dilution of stimuli in nitrogen served to present various concentrations of each...
Article
Assessment of olfactory and chemesthetic sensitivity (feel, sensory irritation) to vapor of glutaraldehyde in young adult females. For chemesthetic sensitivity, assessment included the variable of duration, with focus on whether concentrations initially too low to evoke feel in the eye or upper airway might do so in exposures up to 15 min. Experime...
Article
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Using neat vapors of selected homologous aldehydes (decanal, undecanal, dodecanal) and carboxylic acids (pentanoic, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, nonanoic), we explored the point where a certain homolog (and all larger ones) becomes undetectable by eye irritation (i.e. by ocular chemesthesis). This phenomenon has been observed in other homologous...
Chapter
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See full article at: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/45m129zz
Article
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In Experiment 1, subjects sought to localize the nostril stimulated, left or right, in tests with nine esters (acetates, propionates, and butyrates) at concentrations meant to trigger chemesthesis (pungency, irritation). The task produced psychometric functions for chemesthetic detection unconfounded by olfactory sensations. The functions indicated...
Article
Full-text available
In a series of experiments, we looked at a "cutoff" effect for the detection of eye irritation from neat vapors of homologous n-alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones. Stimuli comprised pentyl, hexyl, and heptyl benzene, 2-dodecanone, and 2-tridecanone, presented to each eye at 4 and 8 l/min for 6 sec, using a three-alternative forced-choice procedure against...
Article
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Unlabelled: An experiment explored ability of subjects to detect vapors of the plasticizer TXIB (2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate) and ethanol via olfaction and via ocular and nasal chemesthesis, i.e. chemically stimulated feel. Testing, tailored to the sensitivity of each subject, produced psychometric functions for individuals. Olfa...
Article
Full-text available
We explored the influence of methodological and chemical parameters on the detection of nasal chemesthesis (i.e., trigeminal stimulation) evoked by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To avoid odor biases, chemesthesis was probed via nasal pungency detection in anosmics and via nasal localization (i.e., lateralization) in normosmics, in both cases u...
Article
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Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice proced...
Article
Full-text available
The investigation explored the olfactory detectability of two chemically and structurally similar esters, ethyl propanoate and ethyl heptanoate, presented singly and in mixtures. Initially, we measured concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric) functions for the odor of ethyl propanoate and ethyl heptanoate presented singly. Using this informatio...
Article
Full-text available
This report deals with whether the experience of odors, i.e., odors as sensations, from biosolids at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) causes illness. There exists no repository of information on the numbers of complainants with illness, their specific complaints, or the relationship between degree of exposure and complaints. Anecdotal reports ne...
Article
Full-text available
A series of experiments probed into the degree of chemosensory detection additivity exhibited by mixtures of ethyl propanoate and heptanoate in terms of their trigeminal detectability via nasal pungency (i.e., irritation) and eye irritation. Nasal pungency was tested in subjects lacking a functional sense of smell (i.e., anosmics) to avoid olfactor...
Article
Full-text available
Occupational exposure limits (OELs) for irritant dusts have had no quantifiable bases. This study (1) charted chemosensory feel, denoted chemesthesis here, to dusts of calcium oxide (1 to 5 mg/m(3)), sodium tetraborate pentahydrate [sodium borate] (5 to 40 mg/m(3)), and calcium sulfate (10 to 40 mg/m(3)); (2) examined correlates of the chemesthetic...
Article
In 1989 the Madison Building of the Library of Congress was investigated to determine the source of occupant complaints about health symptoms and the indoor air quality. Questionnaires, distributed to all 3176 building occupants, assessed information on workstation characteristics, symptom occurrence, odors, thermal comfort, and demographic and hea...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: We have measured complete concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric or detectability) functions to study the olfactory and ocular/nasal chemesthetic (a term that includes sensory irritation) impact of VOCs presented singly and in various binary mixtures. Such functions provide considerably more information than that provided by measu...
Article
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Biosolids odour emissions can affect the ability of wastewater utilities to implement beneficial biosolids processing and reuse programs. Communities often become more sensitised and vocal about biosolids issues, once they experience odours emanating from a nearby site. Odour impacts from biosolids, including potential human health effects, have be...
Article
Full-text available
This report deals with whether the experience of odors (i.e., odors as sensations) from biosolids at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) causes illness. There exists no repository of information on the numbers of complainants with illness, their specific complaints, or the relationship between degree of exposure and complaints. Nevertheless, anecdo...
Article
Full-text available
Draize rabbit eye test scores, as modified maximum average score (MMAS), for 68 pure bulk liquids were adjusted by the liquid-saturated vapor pressure P. These 68 adjusted scores, as log (MMAS/P), were shown to be completely equivalent to eye irritation thresholds (EIT), expressed as log (1/EIT), for 23 compounds in humans. Thus, for the first time...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of olfaction and chemesthesis often rely on nominal, liquid-phase dilutions to quantify the chemicals tested, even though the associated vapor concentrations constitute the actual stimuli. For more than a decade now, our systematic studies of the olfactory and chemesthetic potency of members of homologous chemical series have routinely incl...
Conference Paper
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See full paper at: https://escholarship.org/uc/item/3p58m424
Article
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In two experiments, implicit and explicit tests were used to investigate the lateralization of odor memory. Odors were at all times presented monorhinically. At test, odors were presented to either the ipsi- or the contralateral side of the nostril used for inspection. In Experiment 1, participants were first primed to a set of odors. At test, resp...
Article
Full-text available
In a series of experiments, we have explored the rules of olfactory detection agonism between the odorants butyl acetate and toluene. First, we obtained the concentration-detection function for the odor of the individual compounds. Second, we selected the concentrations of the two substances producing three levels of detectability (low, medium, and...
Article
Full-text available
Indoor nonindustrial work environments were designated a priority research area through the nationwide stakeholder process that created the National Occupational Research Agenda. A multidisciplinary research team used member consensus and quantitative estimates, with extensive external review, to develop a specific research agenda. The team outline...
Article
Full-text available
A study of 30 young adults (15 males, 15 females), screened to have normal olfaction, measured detection of the flavor of glutaraldehyde, a biocide that could occur in disinfected potable water. Over the range of interest, up to 100 p.p.m., flavor derived from olfactory stimulation. Higher concentrations would cause oral irritation. Fourteen subjec...
Article
Full-text available
Odour detection thresholds, that we have previously obtained, have been analysed by a general equation for selective transport. It is shown that such selective transport can account for some 77% of the total effect. The remainder is due to a specific size effect, that might involve odour-binding proteins, and a specific effect for aldehydes and car...
Article
Full-text available
We measured psychometric (i.e. concentration-response) functions for the detection of odor, nasal pungency and eye irritation from butyl acetate and toluene. Olfactory detection was measured in subjects with normal olfaction (i.e. normosmics) for whom nasal trigeminal detection does not interfere because it requires much higher concentrations. Nasa...
Article
An ASHRAE study explored how temperature and humidity altered emissions from building materials (e.g., carpet, vinyl tile) and how humans perceived the changes. The materials sat in stainless-steel barrels fed with conditioned air. Subjects sampled emissions at 22°C through a PTFE mask. Separate segments explored temperature (19°C and 26°C at 40% R...
Article
Full-text available
Stimulation of the human nasal passage with pungent vapor elicits motor responses in a zone around the eye. This investigation addressed whether quantification of such responses, particularly activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle, could yield a sensitive index of nasal pungency. We placed an array of small, high-contrast targets just beneath the...
Article
Full-text available
To probe into the rules of trigeminal chemosensory agonism in a binary mixture of chemicals we measured, first, the detectability (i.e., psychometric) function for eye irritation and for nasal pungency of butyl acetate and toluene, singly. (To avoid olfactory biases, nasal pungency was measured in a group of anosmics, i.e., persons lacking a functi...
Article
Full-text available
A avaliação das cavidades nasais é extremamente importante nos indivíduos portadores de patologias nasais e nos que estão expostos a substâncias potencialmente nocivas presentes no meio ambiente. Como a histologia da mucosa nasal é similar à das vias respiratórias inferiores, uma resposta inflamatória vista no nariz pode ser um sinal de alerta de i...
Article
Full-text available
Increased levels of air pollution have been linked with morbidity and mortality, but mechanisms linking physiologic responses to quality of life and productivity issues remain largely unknown. Individuals often report irritation of the nose and/or eyes upon exposures to environmental contaminants. Evaluation of these self-reports would be greatly a...
Article
Full-text available
A general equation set up for the study of transport properties has been applied to volatile organic compound (VOC) nasal pungency and eye irritation thresholds, as log (1/NPT) and log (1/EIT). The equation accounts for 93–95% of the total effect, thus suggesting that the main step is transport of the VOC from the gas phase to a receptor pha...
Article
Full-text available
We have previously used two general solvation equations to correlate and to interpret a wide variety of physico-chemical and biochemical properties of compounds (solutes). Application of these equations requires a knowledge of the relevant solute descriptors, viz. R2, the excess molar refraction, π2H the solute dipolarity/polarizability, ∑α2H, ∑β2H...
Article
Full-text available
There is no natural physical continuum for odor quality along which an odor quality discrimination (OQD) threshold can be measured. In an attempt to overcome this problem, the substitution-reciprocity (SURE) method defines a framework for the measurement of an OQD threshold. More specifically, it (i) defines a threshold concept for OQD, including t...
Article
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Literature values for the partition of nitric oxide between the gas phase and water and between the gas phase and organic solvents have been combined to yield water–solvent partition coefficients. Analysis of the gas–solvent and water–solvent partition coefficients using the solvation equations of Abraham shows that nitric oxide is only a very weak...
Article
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There are no previous references to the direct use of GLC data in the correlation of biological processes, but we show that GLC retention data can be used in the correlation of several such processes involving gaseous solutes. There are a number of reports of RP-HPLC and MEKC data being used in the correlation of biological processes, but they are...
Article
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The relationship between odor quality and molecular properties is arguably the most important issue in olfaction. Despite sophistication in the chemical characterization of molecules, accompanying perceptual characterization has had little quantitative usefulness, relying mostly on enumerative description. As a result of weak interest in the topic...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects made timed, same–different discriminations of odor quality, with the following principal findings: (i) latency reflected accuracy, with difficult discriminations, i.e. those between 50–50 mixtures and their components, requiring more time than less difficult discriminations, i.e. those between unmixed chemicals. This finding demonstrated t...
Article
Full-text available
Using representative members of each of three homologous series of chemicals—ketones, acetates and alcohols—we measured nasal pungency thresholds in anosmics via two stimulus-delivery systems. The first system consists of the fairly commonly used 270 ml, plastic ‘squeeze bottles’. The second system consists of 1900 ml, glass vessels with Teflon tub...