William J. Boone

William J. Boone
Miami University | MU · Program in Learning Sciences and Human Development Department of Educational Psychology

Ph.D. University of Chicago (1991)
Rasch Analysis

About

149
Publications
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Introduction
I received my Ph.D. from the University of Chicago’s Measurement, Evaluation and Statistical Analysis Program. As a professor I specialize in the application of Rasch Measurement techniques to build/evaluate tests & surveys. I am the lead author of the books Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences (2014), & Advances in Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences (2020). Currently I travel throughout the world to help others learn Rasch Measurement techniques.
Education
August 1989 - December 1991
University of Chicago
Field of study
  • Psychometrics (Rasch Measurement)
August 1982 - December 1985
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Field of study
  • Geophysics (Seismology)
August 1978 - May 1982
Indiana University Bloomington
Field of study
  • Geology with coursework in Mathematics and German

Publications

Publications (149)
Article
Full-text available
A range of pedagogical learning theories has been proposed to guide science teachers' classroom teaching. This study presents the results of the development and use of an 18-item Arabic language rating scale survey to assess Omani teachers' (N = 400) views towards the application of selected pedagogical learning theories of potential use in their s...
Article
Past research has documented the relevance principals have for school improvement. However, how principals lead schools is dependent on institutional context. Furthermore, an international comparison of leadership might be susceptible to bias because the majority of leadership research is from Anglophone countries. The goal of the paper was to test...
Article
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This article presents the results of evaluating a dataset collected with the Community of inquiry (CoI) survey (Arbaugh, The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning 9:1–21, 2008) using Rasch psychometric techniques to evaluate instrument functioning. Data were collected over a two-year period yielding a sample of 704 surve...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers' diagnostic competences are essential with respect to student achievement, classroom assessment, and instructional quality. Important components of diagnostic competences are teachers' professional knowledge including content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), their diagnostic activities as...
Article
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Item banks are generally considered the basis of a new generation of educational measurement. In combination with specialized software, they can facilitate the computerized assembling of multiple pre-equated test forms. However, for advantages of item banks to become fully realized it is important that the item banks store a relatively large number...
Article
It is important for instruments measuring playfulness constructs to be valid and reliable because these instruments help inform playfulness-related theories. This study uses Rasch psychometric techniques to evaluate the functioning of the OLIW instrument (Proyer, 2017a), a questionnaire that assesses four adult playfulness traits (Other-directed, L...
Chapter
To be up-to date, teachers should be able to follow current research on teaching and learning in physics. Therefore, they have to be able to assess if the results presented in publications are meaningful and trustworthy. In this chapter, we detail requirements research studies should comply with in order that measuring results, conclusions and gene...
Article
Women with breast cancer are at risk of being overweight/obese which may consequently increase mortality. Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating behavior which might be beneficial for weight outcomes. The present study validated the Persian Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) among overweight/obese Iranian females with breast cancer. Women who were ov...
Chapter
An earlier version of the book was inadvertently published in which the availability of the extra supplementary material was incorrectly mentioned in the following pages of the book:
Article
Given the important role that teachers play in supporting student mental health, it is critical teachers feel confident in their ability to fill such roles. To inform strategies intended to improve teacher confidence in supporting student mental health, a psychometrically sound tool assessing teacher school mental health self-efficacy is needed. Th...
Chapter
A technique that can be used in a Rasch analysis to evaluate how a test is functioning is use of the Test Information Function (TIF). In this chapter, we discuss how to read and interpret the TIF of a test. Specific attention is paid to where, and in which scenario, the peak of a TIF should be located on a TIF plot and the meaning of the width of t...
Chapter
This chapter presents and discusses the wide range of “cross plots” that have been presented in published Rasch articles. In this chapter we discuss a variety of cross plots and what to look for in cross plots when one is attempting to develop a measurement instrument. This chapter also presents an assessment and summary of the range of cross plots...
Chapter
This chapter presents a potential set of steps an analyst might follow to develop a survey or test using Rasch theory. The steps could be used to develop a new instrument and the steps can also be used to revise existing instrumentation
Chapter
Many Rasch analysis programs include a point measure correlation computation. In this chapter, we focus on how this correlation can be used to quickly spot errors in answer keys, as well in the presence of survey items that were not flipped, but should have been flipped. This chapter provides an added technique by which researchers can identify iss...
Chapter
Throughout Advances in Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences we have used the term “validity” with regard to Rasch techniques. Often we have considered content validity and construct validity. In this chapter, we discuss how Rasch techniques can be used to address a wide range of validity issues. For example, content validity, construct validity, pr...
Chapter
Wright Maps have revolutionized how researchers and practitioners evaluate tests and survey and how such information is communicated. This chapter makes use of the two introductory chapters to Wright Maps presented in Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences (Chap. 6 Wright Maps: First Steps, Chap. 7 Wright Maps: Second Steps). In this chapter, we pres...
Chapter
In Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, we detailed the steps and thinking that are needed to link one test to another test (and to link one survey to another survey). In this chapter we introduce readers to “Common Person Test Equating”. This is the technique in which two tests measuring the same trait, but not sharing any common items, can be li...
Chapter
In Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences, we presented a number of techniques that can be used to identify potential items and respondents who did not confirm to the goal of measuring a single variable. This chapter presents the details of how to compute a disattenuated correlation and how to interpret such a value with the goal of gathering additio...
Chapter
Often tests includes partial credit items. The computation of “measures” for a partial credit test is harder to understand for those learning Rasch than when analysing a multiple choice test or a rating scale survey. This chapter presents both the thinking of what it means to measure with partial credit items and the steps needed to conduct a Rasch...
Chapter
This chapter builds upon the material presented in the preceding chapter, but helps readers think about what is needed if an analyst wishes to link two partial credit tests in which there are some common partial credit items serving as links. We talk readers through the thinking that is needed, and the steps that must be taken, to link two partial...
Chapter
The final chapter of this Advances in Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences includes a summary of the concepts we have presented. We also provide an overview of how Advances in Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences links to Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences. Finally, we provide a broad set of steps a researcher might use based on the topics of pre...
Chapter
In Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences we described some steps that researchers can take in order to link a test or a survey to another test through use of test (or survey) item anchoring. This chapter describes an additional set of steps that can be followed in order to link a test to a bank of test items. Specifically, we outline the steps requi...
Chapter
In this chapter, we introduce readers to several Rasch techniques that provide added techniques by which analysts can evaluate the degree to which items help discriminate respondents on a test. Also, we discuss added techniques by which readers can optimize how items are used to communicate the performance of respondents completing a test. Knowledg...
Chapter
Item characteristic curves are often presented in Rasch articles and presentations; however, how should researchers read such curves and look at such curves to better evaluate test or survey items? What is the pattern that researchers want to see from data that are used to determine an ICC? Just as was presented (for the ‘Hills’) in chapter 9 of Ra...
Chapter
This chapter builds upon the linking chapter that we presented in Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences. In this chapter, we present a technique that can be used when a researcher attempts to link two tests that measure the same trait when the two tests do not share any common items. The linking process involves a first step of identifying items tha...
Chapter
An added technique that can be used to investigate the dimensionality of a test or survey (e.g., do all items define the same trait?) is Principal Component Analysis of Residuals. In this chapter, we talk readers through the steps required to conduct a Principal Component Analysis of Residuals- from the eigenvalues that may need to be observed to s...
Chapter
The core components of Rasch measurement techniques are the mathematics and the philosophy of the Rasch model. To compute Rasch person measures and Rasch item measures, an analyst must apply the Rasch model to an appropriate data set. This chapter presents the ins and outs of different estimation techniques that are used by different Rasch software...
Chapter
Rasch techniques are of immense value because Rasch techniques allow researchers to develop and use high quality tests, surveys, and other measurement tools. Advances in Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences presents a range of topics that were not presented in Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences (e.g. partial credit analysis of data, common person...
Chapter
In Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences we discussed at length the use of what we named “The Hills” (Chap. 9 How Well Does That Rating Scale Work? How Do You Know, Too?). The Hills provide a technique by which analysts can evaluate how each rating scale step is helping to measure each respondent. This chapter extends the technique presented in Rasc...
Chapter
In this chapter we consider the wide range of presentation techniques for tables and figures used in Rasch articles. For example an item entry table with Rasch calibrations of items is provided in most articles. But there can be differences from article to article as to what is included in an item entry table beyond the item calibration. In this ch...
Article
Full-text available
Inquiry-based teaching is considered as contributing to content-related, procedural, and epistemic learning goals of science education. In this study, a quasi-experimental research design was utilized to investigate to what extent embedding inquiry activities in an explicit and an implicit instructional approach fosters students’ ability to engage...
Chapter
At times it can be overwhelming for the beginner to learn how to confidently interpret Rasch results. This chapter presents (1) the basics of Rasch theory, (2) a user-friendly overview of key indices in Rasch analysis and how to interpret those indices, (3) an overview of specific types of Rasch presentation techniques that can be used to communica...
Book
This volume follows the publication of Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences. This new book presents additional topics not discussed in the previous volume. It examines key topics such as partial credit analysis of data, common person linking, computing equating constants, investigating discrimination, evaluating dimensionality, how to better utiliz...
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies on single instructional quality features have been reported for mathematics and science instruction. For summarizing single instructional quality features, researchers have created a model of three basic dimensions (classroom management, supportive climate, and cognitive activation) of instructional quality mainly through observ...
Article
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[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Quantitative Methods in PER: A Critical Examination.] The Rasch model is a probabilistic model which describes the interaction of persons (test takers or survey respondents) with test or survey items and is governed by two parameters: item difficulty and person ability. Rasch measurement parallels ph...
Article
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To obtain a general understanding of science, model use as part of National Education Standards is important for instruction. Model use can be characterized by three aspects: (1) the characteristics of the model, (2) the integration of the model into instruction, and (3) the use of models to foster scientific reasoning. However, there were no empir...
Article
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Even graduate physics students have many misconceptions about basic wave optics phenomena. This suggests that there is much room for improvement of the traditional wave optics curriculum. An effective way for initiating a curriculum change is to reconsider and revise the expected learning outcomes and corresponding assessment instruments. By system...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Beobachten ist eine zentrale wissenschaftliche Erkenntnismethode, die gerade für Vorschulkinder einen guten Einstieg in naturwissenschaftliches Lernen bietet ( de Bóo, 2006 ; Johnston, 2009 ; Kohlhauf, 2013 ). Da biologische Förderung im Vorschulbereich bisher meist unsystematisch abläuft ( Kohlhauf, 2013 ), war es Ziel der hier be...
Article
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This evaluation research study investigated the impact of differences in independent and collaborative teaching models in a blended graduate teacher education program. Using the Community of Inquiry model as a framework to evaluate the student experience in this program, data were collected over a two-year period regarding student perceptions of co...
Article
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Achieving competence in scientific inquiry or mastering scientific practices is an essential element of scientific literacy. Clearly, if students’ Scientific Inquiry Competence (SIC) is to be improved, a critical step is to reliably measure it and provide from this measurement feedback for teaching. Although numerous instruments were presented in l...
Article
In order to progress as a field, school psychology research must be informed by effective measurement techniques. One approach to address the need for careful measurement is Rasch analysis. This technique can (a) facilitate the development of instruments that provide useful data, (b) provide data that can be used confidently for both descriptive an...
Article
Full-text available
The Third Edition of the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA) was evaluated for its effectiveness as an international assessment tool for use by early childhood educators to develop, assess, and improve program quality worldwide. This expanded study was conducted in nine countries [People’s Republic of China (2 sites), Guatemala, India, Italy, M...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is one of the most challenging problems facing today’s global society (e.g., IPCC2013). While climate change is a widely covered topic in the media, and abundant information is made available through the internet, the causes and consequences of climate change in its full complexity are difficult for individuals, especially non-scient...
Presentation
The purpose of this study is to describe the first step of item development for the Secondary-Biology Concept Inventory (S-BCI). Specifically, this study focuses on how data from a multi-panel expert review was used in the S-BCI item content validation and refinement process.
Article
Full-text available
This essay describes Rasch analysis psychometric techniques and how such techniques can be used by life sciences education researchers to guide the development and use of surveys and tests. Specifically,Rasch techniques can be used to document and evaluate the measurement functioning of such instruments. Rasch techniques also allow researchers to c...
Article
This project aims to develop a measurement tool for assessing the conceptual understanding of secondary grade-level biology students (ages 11 to 18) that is reliable and valid. The study reported here describes the validity assessment of Secondary Biology Concept Inventory (S-BCI). A pool of assessment tasks was designed to target major biology con...
Article
When collecting data, science education researchers frequently have multiple respondents evaluate multiple artifacts using multiple criteria. Herein, the authors introduce Multifaceted Rasch Measurement (MFRM) analysis and explain why MFRM must be used when “judges’” data are collected. The authors use data from elementary science methods students...
Article
This study examined the relationship between response to intervention (RTI) implementation integrity in reading and student reading outcomes. Data were collected from 64 principals and school psychologists at 43 elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the degree to which implementation of RTI tiers and key components...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a mixed-reality teaching environment, called TeachME™ Lab (TML), on early childhood education majors’ science teaching self-efficacy beliefs. Sixty-two preservice early childhood teachers participated in the study. Analysis of the quantitative (STEBI-b) and qualitative (journal entries) dat...
Chapter
In many research projects, it is important to be able to link different forms of a test or a survey. In this chapter, we explain how item anchoring can be conducted in order to link forms. Also, we provide guidance to strategies one uses to select the items to “link” forms, thus allowing all respondents to be expressed on the same measurement scale...
Chapter
This chapter builds on the principles taught in Chaps. 1, 2, 3 and 4 to introduce the concept of item measures. The self-efficacy survey is again analyzed using Rasch Winsteps software, and readers are guided through the interpretation of Winsteps item measure output. This chapter also helps readers understand the importance of “item entry number”...
Chapter
This chapter introduces Rasch analysis techniques and lays the groundwork for conducting and understanding Rasch analysis of rating scale data. Examples are given related to the use of Rasch analysis to evaluate test data. Readers are introduced to a 13-item self-efficacy scale used frequently in examples and end-of-chapter exercises. Readers are g...
Chapter
This chapter provides readers with specific guidance as to how to evaluate aspects of their rating scale (e.g., how well the scale works). A simple non-Rasch technique is presented that involves a global examination of the percentage of all answers to all items for each rating category. Next is a discussion of the ins and outs of evaluating the pro...
Chapter
Throughout this book, we discuss the Rasch model. This chapter presents details as to why the Rasch model is the model of choice when researchers are conducting an analysis when they wish to pool the answers of a respondent to a set of items that involve one construct. Readers learn that the Rasch model is quite different from the IRT perspective i...
Chapter
There are many resources which can be used by beginners after they have mastered the material in this book. This chapter provides an overview of resources which can be consulted as newcomers to Rasch techniques and Winsteps advance in their learning. Topics considered involve the detailed Winsteps manual, journals, suggested articles in the fields...
Chapter
This chapter continues the discussion of Wright maps by considering two related issues in detail. First, the examination of person measures and item measures simultaneously is introduced. In particular, readers are presented with examples enabling them to interpret a person measure given the item measures. Following this discussion, the chapter mov...
Chapter
This chapter guides readers through the data preparation steps for Rasch analysis using Winsteps. In this chapter, readers learn how they can create a control file for Winsteps and conduct a Rasch analysis. Readers will be able to use data files contained on the textbook companion website and a free, scale-down version of Winsteps (Ministeps) to fo...
Chapter
One of the key techniques researchers use in measurement is to investigate Differential Item Functioning (DIF). In this chapter, we give examples to help define what DIF is and why it is important to understand. Readers are provided with guidance on how to interpret numerous critical Winsteps tables which help one identify items exhibiting DIF. Par...
Chapter
This chapter builds upon the concepts presented in Chap. 15, making use of setting boundaries on a Wright map to thoughtfully divide student measures into groups (e.g., low, medium, high). This chapter considers the situation in which the different groupings of students have already been defined (e.g., pain levels have already been defined as Level...
Chapter
In many projects, it is important to be able to compute Rasch person measures and item measures. This chapter introduces the use of Rasch to confidently compute “pass/fail” points for a test. This point can be thought of as the location of a line at a particular measure on a Wright map. Persons below the line fail. Some research projects may requir...
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview of key thinking that readers will master by working through Chaps. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23. In particular, readers are reminded that by conducting Rasch measurement, that one is conducting high-quality measurement, the type that is needed for research. Wi...
Chapter
This chapter provides the first steps in the construction and interpretation of Wright maps. These maps have revolutionized the development and use of instruments and the communication of research results in health, education, psychology, and business. Readers are guided through a “must do” construction of a Wright map using the self-efficacy data....
Chapter
In earlier chapters, readers learn of the importance of where items are located on a trait and where persons fall on a trait when item measures are considered. Of importance to the measurement of persons and items is the sample size of items and persons. This chapter introduces the issue of sample size and the myriad of issues related to sample siz...
Chapter
In many research projects, data are collected using a number of different rating scales (Yes/No, Strongly Agree–Agree–Disagree–Strongly Disagree, Often–Sometimes–Seldom–Never), but all the items involve measurement of the same trait. This chapter demonstrates the steps a researcher can take to use items from a number of rating scales (which measure...
Article
Full-text available
This manuscript details our efforts to assess and compare students' learning about electricity in three countries. As our world is increasingly driven by technological advancements, the education of future citizens in science becomes one important resource for economic productivity. Not surprisingly international large-scale assessments are viewed...
Article
Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have pervasive challenges in social interactions with peers. This study examined the feasibility of eliciting children’s perceptions of their conversation participation with peers for the purposes of assessment and intervention planning. Methods: Two school-age children with ASD com...
Article
Full-text available
Decreasing student interest and achievement during the transition from elementary to secondary school is an international problem, especially in science education. The question of what factors influence this decline has been a widely discussed topic. This study focuses on investigating the relationship of elementary school teachers’ content knowled...
Article
Few studies have examined Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation adherence at the school level. Although tools designed to assess the implementation of RTI exist, the technical properties have not been rigorously documented, and psychometric techniques now being used to develop instrumentation appear not to have been used. The purpose of thi...
Article
The purpose of this study was to make use of proposed definitions of environmental literacy to (1) guide the application of Rasch analysis and (2) utilize the developed instrumentation to further inform the work of environmental educators. A total of 2311 preservice teachers attending Faculty of Education departments of four public universities loc...
Article
Full-text available
The landscape of science education is being transformed by the new Framework for Science Education (National Research Council, A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2012), which emphasizes the centrality of scientific practices—such as explanation, arg...
Chapter
Full-text available
The overarching aim of science education research is to improve the quality of science instruction and foster students’ learning about science. Teachers want to know how they can guide individual students to learn about science and how they can teach a class of students about science. Principals and teachers, among others, want to know how to suppo...
Book
W.J. Boone, Miami University, Cincinnati, USA; J.R. Staver, Purdue University, Lafayette, USA; M.S. Yale, Purdue University, Irving, USA Rasch Analysis in the Human Sciences ▶ Offers step-by-step instruction on how-to use Rasch analysis ▶ Features a combination of Rasch conversations, Rasch data analyses, Rasch theory, and formative assessments ▶ W...
Chapter
This chapter provides readers with a thorough understanding of Rasch person measures, practice interpreting Winsteps output tables containing person measures, and how (and why) these measures are used for parametric statistical tests. Readers are asked to rerun the data from Chap. 3, and then they are provided with step-by-step interpretation of th...
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview of Rasch Analysis in the human sciences. Particular attention is given to describing the chapter organization, so readers will advance as quickly as possible in their understanding of Rasch measurement (Why Did We Write This Book, Rasch Measurement, Goal/Organization/Scope of Chapters, Road Map Tips/Caveats). The c...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides an introduction to techniques and indices used to evaluate the reliability of an instrument. These techniques go beyond the pre-Rasch attempts to summarize reliability which are often used in research. Next, Rasch person reliability and item reliability are presented. Consideration is made as to whether one should look at all...
Chapter
When researchers learn about Rasch, along with terms such as logit, person measure, item measure, and Wright maps, they will also learn about the ogive curve. The Winsteps score-measure table is used to aid readers in a creation of an ogive. Following this plotting of raw scores and measures, the chapter considers different pairs of students and ho...
Chapter
This chapter begins the second part of the book in which a range of Rasch techniques are presented that make use of topics presented in the preceding 11 chapters. When a Rasch analysis is run, a person having the same measure as an item (dichotomous item) has a 50/50 chance of correctly answering the item. In some cases it is preferable to be more...
Chapter
When conducting an analysis of test data or survey data using Rasch techniques, missing data often is not a big problem – a student skipping an item on a test can be measured using the items they attempt. In fact, when linking test or survey forms, the issue can be thought of, in part, as a missing data issue. In this chapter we discuss why missing...
Chapter
Many Rasch analyses involve respondents completing a test or a survey. However, one other scenario involves the analysis of respondents whose responses to a set of items are evaluated by judges. Well-known examples of this situation include Olympic figure skating and market research in which a group of people are asked to evaluate an item using a n...
Chapter
This chapter makes use of the topics presented in the preceding 21 chapters of this book. We suggest one possible order in which a researcher might investigate tables and review/edit a control file. Certainly, the order of tables will depend on many issues, including the experience of the researcher and the research goals. In addition to detailing...
Article
Full-text available
Research on teachers’ professionalism and professional development has increased in the last two decades. A main focus of this line of research has been the cognitive component of teacher professionalism, i.e., professional knowledge. Most of the previous studies on teacher knowledge—such as the Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) (Hill et al....