William Birch

William Birch
Museum Victoria · Geosciences

Doctor of Philosophy

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138
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Publications

Publications (138)
Article
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Utahite was first described in 1997 based mainly on powder X-ray diffraction data and electron microprobe data. No crystal structure was reported. The re-examination of utahite using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis has shown that utahite contains essential Mg, along with Cu, Zn, Te, O and H. The missing MgO was ori...
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The 10.2 kg Ellerslie meteorite was donated to the National Museum of Victoria in May 1905 by Mr Henry Crawford, who informed the curator at that time that it had been found on the Ellerslie Estate in August 1900. The Ellerslie Estate, which Mr Crawford co-owned, is some 40 km east of Enngonia in northern New South Wales, adjacent to the Queensland...
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This paper describes a suite of very rare manganese sulphates from the adit of an abandoned tungsten mine (Womobi mine) in northeastern Victoria, Australia. The minerals include szmikite, jôkokuite, ilesite and manganblödite and represent a post-mining suite that formed at an unknown time but with reactions probably still occurring as temperature a...
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The new mineral gobelinite, ideally CoCu4(SO4)2(OH)6⚫6H2O, is a new member of the ktenasite group and the Co analogue of ktenasite, ZnCu4(SO4)2(OH)6⚫6H2O. It occurs at Cap Garonne (CG), Var, France (type locality), and Eisenzecher Zug (EZ), Siegerland, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (cotype locality). The mineral forms pale green, bluish green or...
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Euhedral pseudobrookite crystals in vesicular basaltic rocks from The Anakies volcanoes in Victoria are now well known to mineral collectors. The pseudobrookite, along with accompanying minerals such as enstatite and titanian magnetite, formed by sublimation from a vapour phase during cooling of the lavas. The lack of any alteration in the crystals...
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The Maryborough meteorite is a new H5 ordinary chondrite discovered about 2 km south of Maryborough, Victoria, in May 2015. It is a single stone measuring approximately 39 × 14 × 14 cm and with a mass of 17 kg. Plentiful indistinct chondrules are up to 1 mm across in a strongly recrystallised plagioclase-bearing matrix. Olivine and orthopyroxene in...
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The Wedderburn meteorite from Victoria is a small nickel-rich iron belonging to the rare sLH subgroup of the IAB complex. Donated to the Mines Department in 1950, it came to public attention in 1953 when the initial description was published by Dr Austin Edwards in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria. Since then, pieces of the meteorit...
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Complex assemblages of Fe–Mn phosphate minerals occur in several granitic pegmatites in the Mount Wills region of Northeastern Victoria, Australia. The Blue Jacket and Knocker dykes are the most fractionated in the pegmatite field derived from late-stage melts of the Late Silurian Mount Wills Granite. The phosphates include members of the arrojadit...
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The Hagendorf Süd pegmatite in the Oberpfalz, northeastern Bavaria, ranks as one of the world's most mineral-rich granite pegmatites in terms of both the number of type minerals (23) and number of valid minerals found (184). It is also the world's most highly ranked type locality for the number of new secondary phosphate minerals that have been dis...
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The crystal structure of eztlite has been determined using single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction and supported using electron microprobe analysis and powder diffraction. Eztlite, a secondary tellurium mineral from the Moctezuma mine, Mexico, is monoclinic, space group Cm, with a = 11.466(2) Å, b = 19.775(4) Å, c = 10.497(2) Å, β = 102.62(3)°...
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The crystal structure of cesbronite has been determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and supported by electron microprobe analysis, powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Cesbronite is orthorhombic, space group Cmcm , with a = 2.93172 (16), b = 11.8414 (6), c = 8.6047 (4) Å and V = 298.72 (3) Å ³ . The chemical formula of cesbronite h...
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Tin- and tantalum-bearing LCT-type granitic pegmatites occur in a 45 km long belt between Eskdale and Mount Wills in north-eastern Victoria. Near Mount Wills, several compositionally zoned rare-element pegmatites contain complex assemblages of primary and secondary phosphate minerals, many of which are rare and previously unrecorded in Victoria. Th...
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The Silver King mine (also known as Forsyths) operated very intermittently between about 1911 and the late 1940s on Livingstone Creek, near Omeo, in northeastern Victoria. The deposit consists of six thin and discontinuous quartz lodes that are variably mineralised. Assays of up to 410 ounces of silver per ton were obtained but there are only a few...
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Kayrobertsonite, MnAl 2 (PO 4) 2 (OH) 2 Á6H 2 O, is a new secondary phosphate mineral from the Hagendorf Süd pegmatite, Hagendorf, Oberpfalz, Bavaria, Germany and the Foote Lithium Company mine, Kings Mountain district, Cleveland County, North Carolina, USA. Kayrobertsonite crystals occur as intergrown masses of snow-white, soft, finely fibrous nee...
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George Henry Frederick Ulrich (1830-1900) was educated at the Clausthal Mining School in Germany and arrived in Victoria in 1853. After a short period on the goldfields, he was employed on the Mining Commission and then on the Geological Survey of Victoria until its closure in 1868. In 1870 he was appointed Curator and lecturer at the newly establi...
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Tin- And tantalum-bearing LCT-type granitic pegmatites occur in a 45 km long belt between Eskdale and Mount Wills in north-eastern Victoria. Near Mount Wills, several compositionally zoned rare-element pegmatites contain complex assemblages of primary and secondary phosphate minerals, many of which are rare and previously unrecorded in Victoria. Th...
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The rare hydrated scandium phosphate kolbeckite ScPO 4 H 2 O occurs on historic specimens of volcanic rock from the famous Au-Te Emperor mine on Viti Levu island Fiji The kolbeckite forms lustrous yellowish green microcrystals up to 0 mm across in quartz lined cavities that formed during hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic rocks
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Native antimony is rare in Victoria despite the abundance of small stibnite deposits in the State A newly discovered patch of pure antimony veinlets in metamorphosed sandstone near Inglewood provided an opportunity to investigate the mineralogy and origin of the deposit It has a simple mineralogy of antimony with minor berthierite inclusions and an...
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Two new minerals – manganoblödite (IMA2012–029), ideally Na2Mn(SO4)2·4H2O, and cobaltoblödite (IMA2012–059), ideally Na2Co(SO4)2·4H2O, the Mn-dominant and Co-dominant analogues of blödite, respectively, were found at the Blue Lizard mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA. They are closely associated with blödite (Mn-Co-Ni-bearing), chalcanthite, gypsum,...
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The Newer Volcanic Province (NVP) in Victoria, with extension into south-eastern South Australia, represents the youngest chapter of Cenozoic volcanism in south-eastern Australia. However, most ages have been determined by the potassium–argon (K–Ar) method, and the age data are not comprehensive. In addition, few ages exist for the array of scoria...
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The Late Devonian (374 Ma) Cerberean Cauldron forms the northern part of the Marysville Igneous Complex, in Central Victoria, Australia, filled with around 900 km3 of intra-caldera ignimbrites. The basal volcanic formation is the rhyolitic high-Al Rubicon Ignimbrite, overlain by a larger volume of crystal-rich rhyolitic low-Al Rubicon Ignimbrite, w...
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Type specimens of the molybdoarsenates betpakdalite, natrobetpakdalite and obradovicite and the molybdophosphates mendozavilite, paramendozavilite and melkovite, and similar material from other sources, have been examined in an effort to elucidate the relations among these phases, which we designate as the heteropolymolybdate family of minerals. Us...
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Aluminium-bearing strunzite, [Mn0.65Fe0.26Zn0.08Mg0.01]2+[Fe1.50Al0.50]3+(PO4)2(OH)2·6H2 O, occurs as fibrous aggregates in a crystallographically oriented association with jahnsite on altered zwieselite samples from the phosphate pegmatite at Hagendorf Süd, Bavaria, Germany. Synchrotron X-ray data were collected from a 3 μm diameter fibre and refi...
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aBStract Metanatroautunite, Na[(UO 2)(PO 4)](H 2 O) 3 , from the Lake Boga granite, Victoria, Australia, has tetragonal symmetry, space group P4/ncc, with the unit-cell parameters: a = 6.9935(7), c = 17.5101(12) Å, V = 856.40(13) Å 3 , and Z = 4. The crystal structure has been solved and refined to R 1 = 0.0398 for 368 unique reflections [F > 4σ(F)...
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The Late Devonian Tolmie Igneous Complex (in north-eastern Victoria, Australia) contains S-type, intracaldera, rhyolitic ignimbrites with multiple generations of phenocrysts of biotite, garnet, cordierite and orthopyroxene; one unit also contains fayalitic olivine. Geothermometry and calculated phase relations indicate high-T deep- to mid-crustal o...
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The type specimen of peisleyite has been reinvestigated by a combination of scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. Morphological investigation showed that mats of peisleyite crystals, individually 1.69Ca0.18)Σ1.87(Al9.04Fe0.03)Σ9.07[(P6.28S1.38Si0.25)O4]Σ7.91(OH)6.66·27.73H2O, or...
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The Late Devonian Tolmie Igneous Complex (in north-eastern Victoria, Australia) contains S-type, intracaldera, rhyolitic ignimbrites with multiple generations of phenocrysts of biotite, garnet, cordierite and orthopyroxene; one unit also contains fayalitic olivine. Geothermometry and calculated phase relations indicate high-T deep- to mid-crustal o...
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The Lake Boga Granite in northern Victoria contains a suite of well-crystallised secondary uranyl phosphates, including torbernite, saléeite, metanatroautunite and ulrichite. The minerals crystallised in miarolitic cavities and on joints, after dissolution of primary uraninite and fluorapatite by oxidising groundwater. A more restricted assemblage...
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Nordgauite, MnAl2(PO4)2(F,OH)2·5H2O, is a new secondary phosphate from the Hagendorf-Süd pegmatite, Bavaria, Germany. It occurs as white to off-white compact waxy nodules and soft fibrous aggregates a few millimetres across in altered zwieselite–triplite. Individual crystals are tabular prismatic, up to 200 μm long and 10 μm wide. Associated minera...
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Iangreyite, ideally Ca2Al7(PO4)2(PO3OH)2(OH, F)15·8H2O, is anew mineral (IMA2009–087) from the Silver Coin mine, Nevada, USA and the Krásno ore district, Horní Slavkov, Czech Republic. At Silver Coin, iangreyite occurs as thin, colourless to white or cream, hexagonal tablets up to 0.4 mm in diameter and 0.02 mm thick associated with meurigite-Na, p...
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Non-stoichiometric, carbon-containing crandallite from Guatemala and plumbogummite from Cumbria have been characterized using electron microprobe (EMPA) and wet-chemical analyses, Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns, and infrared (IR), Raman and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopies. The samples contain 11.0 and 4.8 wt.%...
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The crystal structures of two polymorphic forms of bariopharmacosiderite have been determined. Bariopharmacosiderite-C, from Robinson's Reef, Clunes, Victoria, Australia, (Ba0.47K0.04Na0.02) (Pe3.97Al0.03)[(As0.72P0.28)O 4]3(OH)4·2.52H20, is cubic, space group P43m, a 7.942(1) Å, Z= 1, R = 0.089. Bariopharmacosiderite- β, from the sunny Comer mine,...
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Non-stoichiometric, carbon-containing crandallite from Guatemala and plumbogummite from Cumbria have been characterized using electron microprobe (EMPA) and wet-chemical analyses, Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns, and infrared (IR), Raman and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopies. The samples contain 11.0 and 4.8 wt.%...
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Secondary phosphate assemblages from the Hagendorf Süd granitic pegmatite, containing the new Mn-Al phosphate mineral, nordgauite, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Nordgauite nodules enclose crystals of the jahnsite–whiteite group of minerals, showing pronounced compositional zoning, spann...
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Sr- and Ca-rich waylandite, ( Bi0.54Sr0.31Ca0.25K0.01Ba0.01 )S1.12H0.18( Al2.96Cu0.02 )S2.98[ ( P0.97S0.03Si0.01 )S1.00O4 ]2( OH )6 {\left( {{\hbox{B}}{{\hbox{i}}_{0.{54}}}{\hbox{S}}{{\hbox{r}}_{0.{31}}}{\hbox{C}}{{\hbox{a}}_{0.{25}}}{{\hbox{K}}_{0.0{1}}}{\hbox{B}}{{\hbox{a}}_{0.0{1}}}} \right)_{\Sigma 1.12}}{{\hbox{H}}_{0.{18}}}{\left( {{\hbox{A}}...
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Bendadaite, ideally Fe²⁺Fe³⁺2(AsO4)2(OH)2·4H2O, is a new member of the arthurite group. It was found as a weathering product of arsenopyrite on a single hand specimen from the phosphate pegmatite Bendada, central Portugal (type locality). Co-type locality is the granite pegmatite of Lavra do Almerindo (Almerindo mine), Linópolis, Divino das Laranje...
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Coulsellite, CaNa3AlMg3F14, from the Cleveland tin mine at Luina, western Tasmania, has a rhombohedral distortion of the cubic pyrochlore A(2)B(2)X(6)Y structure, with a = 7.1756(1) angstrom, alpha = 59.867(1)degrees, space group R (3) over barm, Z = 1. The corresponding hexagonal cell parameters are a = 7.1620(1) angstrom, c = 17.5972(3) angstrom....
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The Late Devonian Tolmie Igneous Complex, in Central Victoria, Australia, is composed mainly of Ba-rich (up to 3000 ppm) S-type rhyolite ignimbrites with SiO2 varying from 69 to 79 wt% and low Mg#s (1 to 43). Two main ignimbrite flows fill the Wabonga Caldera, the Ryans Creek and the overlying Toombullup Ignimbrites, totalling 750 to 1000 km3 in vo...
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Kapundaite, ideally (Na,Ca)2Fe43+(PO4)4(OH)3·5H2O, is a new mineral (IMA2009-047) from Toms phosphate quarry, Kapunda, South Australia, Australia. The new mineral occurs as cavernous aggregates of fibers up to several centimeters across, associated with leucophosphite, natrodufrenite, and meurigite-Na crystals and amorphous brown, black, and/or gre...
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Mineralization at Maldon, Victorian goldfields, Australia, is part of the Western Lachlan Foldbelt and is hosted by deformed Lower Ordovician metasediments intruded by the Late Devonian Harcourt Granite. Gold–Bi–Te–S associations in the deposit include four gold-bearing minerals (maldonite, native gold, jonassonite, and aurostibite) and a range of...
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The crystal structure of a natural Na-rich gobbinsite from Bundoora, a northern suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia [(Na4.97K0.07Ca0.48)∑5.52(Al5.62Si10.29)∑15.91O32·11.91H2O, Z = 1, a = 10.1035(15), b = 9.7819(10), c = 10.1523(9) Å, and V = 1003.37(20) Å3, space group Pmnb (no. 62)], has been investigated by means of single-crystal X-ray diff...
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Kobokoboite, ideally Al 6(PO 4) 4(OH) 6·11H 2O, is a new mineral (IMA2009-057), from the Kobokobo pegmatite, South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kobokoboite forms 0.1 to 0.15-mm thick crusts and coatings of pearly white, glistening, platy crystals, usually on a matrix of frondelite and keckite. Other associated minerals reported...
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The thermal decomposition of arsenian plumbojarosite, Pb 0.59Fe3(AsO4)0.18(SO 4)1.82(OH)6, from the Lomo Deltoro mine, Mexico, has been studied using in situ X-ray powder diffraction, combined with thermogravimetric and chemical analyses. The minor arsenic becomes enriched in the crystalline products of decomposition as SO3 is evolved during heatin...
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Kintoreite, PbFe3H0.94[(PO4)0.97(SO4)0.03]2(OH)6, and zincian kintoreite, PbZn0.3Fe3H0.24[(PO4)0.54 (SO4)0.08(AsO4)0.38]2(OH)6, have rhombohedral symmetry, space group R3̅m, with hexagonal cell parameters a = 7.2963(5) Å, c = 16.8491(5) Å, and a = 7.3789(3) Å, c = 16.8552(7) Å, respectively. The structures have been refined using single-crystal X-r...
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Plimerite, ideally ZnFe3+4(PO4)3(OH)5, is a new mineral from the Block 14 Opencut, Broken Hill, New South Wales. It occurs as pale-green to dark-olive-green, almost black, acicular to prismatic and bladed crystals up to 0.5 mm long and as hemispherical aggregates of radiating acicular crystals up to 3 mm across. Crystals are elongated along [001] a...
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The Maldon goldfield in central Victoria, Australia, is the type locality for maldonite, Au 2 Bi. However the occurrence has never been investigated, due to the absence of type material, the rarity of specimens in museum collections, and the lack of accurate documentation from the period. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the...
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Waterworn crystals of gem corundum (sapphire) showing a wide range in colour are common in concentrates from an alluvial gold mine at Carapooee, near St Arnaud, in western Victoria. Chemical data for Fe, Mg, Cr, Ga and Ti, obtained by LA−ICP-MS methods, suggest the sapphires have mainly metamorphic and metasomatic source rocks, with a smaller magma...
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Angastonite, ideally CaMgAl2(PO4)2(OH)4·7H2O, is a newly defined mineral from the Penrice marble quarry, South Australia. The mineral occurs as snow-white crusts and coatings Lip to similar to 1 mm thick associated with minyulite, perhainite, crandallite and apatitc-(CaF). The streak is white, the lustre is pearly and the estimated hardness is 2 on...
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Free-standing aegirine-augite crystals occur in basaltic scoria cones representing the volcanic eruption points of Mt Shadwell and Mt Anakie, on the Cainozoic volcanic plains of Western Victoria, Australia. The crystals are found encrusting white quartz xenoliths in the scoria. They are pale yellow to orange, prismatic in habit and up to 1 cm long....
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Mining of Cenozoic alluvial deposits at Copeton and Bingara (Eastern Australia) has produced two million macrodiamonds (0.25 ct median size). Raman spectroscopy is used to identify included minerals within uncut Copeton diamonds, with sealed chamber remnant pressures of 31.7 to 35.6 kbar for coesite, 13.6 and 22.7 kbar for clinopyroxene, and 7.6 kb...
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The Devonian Lake Boga Granite in northern Victoria, while almost entirely under thin Murray Basin cover, is one of the largest plutons in the western Lachlan Fold Belt. Its only exposure is a quarry penetrating the Cenozoic sediments. In the quarry, prominent pod pegmatites and miarolitic cavities suggest a high level of emplacement. The granite,...
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Lakebogaite, ideally CaNaFe23+H(UO2)2(PO4)4(OH)2(H2O)8, is a new Ca–Na–Fe uranyl phosphate mineral from a quarry in Upper Devonian granite near Lake Boga, northern Victoria, Australia. It is associated with Na-analogue of meurigite (IMA 2007-024), torbernite, and saléeite on a matrix of microcline, albite, smoky quartz, and muscovite. Lakebogaite o...
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Pittongite, (Na,H2O)(x)[(W,Fe)(O,OH)(3)], x approximate to 0.7 (IMA 2005-034), is a new mineral species from a tungsten deposit at Pittong, near Ballarat, in Victoria, Australia. The name recalls the discovery site, in turn derived from an Australian aboriginal word for father. The mineral occurs as glistening, creamy yellow encrustations of very t...
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Investigation of coarse (>2 mm) heavy-mineral concentrates from the White Hills Gravel near St Arnaud in western Victoria provides new evidence for the age and provenance of this widespread palaeoplacer formation. A prominent zircon – sapphire – spinel assemblage is characteristic of Cenozoic basaltic-derived gemfields in eastern Australia, while a...