William A. Anderson

William A. Anderson
University of Waterloo | UWaterloo · Department of Chemical Engineering

PhD

About

146
Publications
44,258
Reads
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4,766
Citations
Introduction
My group's current research work encompasses a variety of projects related to environmental and chemical engineering. These include: antimicrobial materials for infection transmission control, development of rapid water test kits for detecting microbial contamination, anesthetic gas emissions control, and photochemical air treatment.
Additional affiliations
January 1991 - present
University of Waterloo
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1991 - present
University of Waterloo
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Chemical plant and process design, Air pollution control
Education
September 1986 - January 1991
University of Waterloo
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering
January 1984 - August 1986
University of Waterloo
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering
September 1976 - April 1981
University of Waterloo
Field of study
  • Chemical Engineering

Publications

Publications (146)
Article
This study used non-catalytic hydrothermal deconstruction to examine the deconstruction of a mixture of numerous PPE items, including isolation gowns, gloves, goggles, face shields, surgical masks, and filtering-facepiece respirators. A mixture of PPE items was subjected to hydrothermal deconstruction at temperatures varying between 250 °C and 350...
Article
To minimise the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, there has been a substantial increase in the production and usage of synthetic personal protective equipment (PPE) globally. Consequently, single-use PPE have been widely adopted without appropriate regulations for their disposal, leading to extensive environmental contamination worldwide. This...
Article
Full-text available
Increased demand for single-use personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a marked increase in the amount of PPE waste and associated environmental pollution. Developing efficient and environmentally safe technologies to manage and dispose of this PPE waste stream is imperative. We designed and evaluated a hyd...
Article
Antimicrobial polymer composites have long been utilized in the healthcare field as part of the first line of defense. These composites are desirable in that they pose a minimal risk of developing contagions with antibiotic resistance. For this reason, the field of antimicrobial composites has seen steady growth over recent years and is becoming in...
Article
In this study, thermal cracking and catalytic cracking over zirconium-based catalysts of the vacuum residue were achieved in the presence of supercritical steam at 400–450 °C, 20 bar, and 2–4 h. Two different catalysts (ZrFeNi and ZrCoNi) were prepared using a sol–gel precipitation method and characterized using X-ray diffraction, EDX-spectrum, sca...
Article
Full-text available
The arrival of SARS-CoV-2 to Aotearoa/New Zealand in February 2020 triggered a massive response at multiple levels. Procurement and sustainability of medical supplies to hospitals and clinics during the then upcoming COVID-19 pandemic was one of the top priorities. Continuing access to new personal protective equipment (PPE) was not guaranteed; thu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is a brief, non-technical review of the impacts of wood burning on air quality, with a focus on fine particulate matter air pollutants. It is specific to Ontario, Canada, and is meant to provide background scientific information for decision-makers considering the regulation of wood burning on residential and public properties.
Article
Full-text available
Vitamin C (VC), widely used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, is susceptible to degradation, and new formulations are necessary to maintain its stability. To address this challenge, VC encapsulation was achieved via electrostatic interaction with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC)-chitosan (GCh) followed by cross-linking with p...
Article
Full-text available
In the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, hospitals are often stretched beyond capacity. There are widespread reports of dwindling supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), particularly N95-type filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), which are paramount to protect frontline medical/nursing staff, and to minimize further spread of the v...
Article
The existence of bacteria and fungi on surfaces can be a serious threat to health causing numerous infections. With these microorganisms developing resistance over the years, there is an increasing need to develop surfaces that can kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. In this work, we report the synthesis of sulphonated poly (ether eth...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, hospitals are stretched beyond capacity. There are widespread reports of dwindling supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), which are paramount to protect frontline medical/nursing staff and to minimize further spread of the virus. We carried out a rapid review to summarize the existing evidenc...
Presentation
List current recommendations for N95 use, extended use, and reuse. Emergency contingencies when supplies are depleted in a pandemic. When to discard N95 masks. Understand how germicidal UV operates and its key parameters. Considerations and efficacy for N95 mask UV disinfection. UV effects on N95 mask performance. Potential use of microwaves...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A quick review of the available literature describing the conditions for success in UV disinfection of N95 respirators. Given the current pandemic situation and a depleting supply of N95 masks required by healthcare workers, some institutions may be considering the disinfection and re-use of these supplies. This review indicates how this might be a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This project addressed the question of whether the water flowrate has a significant effect on microbial contaminant removal from hands during washing. Sponsored by CSA Group (https://www.csagroup.org/article/testing-the-effect-of-faucet-flowrate-on-handwashing-efficacy/)
Article
The presence of ammonia in wastewater from industry activities is an important environmental issue; therefore, an adsorption process is one viable alternative process that can be used to reduce concentrations, and accordingly, 10 resins and 6 zeolites were tested for the removal of ammonia from real wastewater (3.8 to 8 mg/L NH 3 − N) containing ot...
Conference Paper
The rocking disposable bioreactor is a novel type of design which distinguishes itself from other common disposable bioreactors such as the stirred-tank and orbitally-shaken bioreactors by its unique geometry and mass transfer mechanisms. In this system, the fermentation medium is contained within a disposable polymer bag that sits on a platform wh...
Article
Humidity can have an appreciable influence on the photocatalytic degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. It has been proposed that there are multiple layers of water molecules on the surface of the photocatalyst, and a VOC molecule must penetrate this layer and be able to diffuse to the photocatalytic surface for a reaction to occu...
Article
This paper reports on the multitasking potential of a silver/iron oxide/zinc oxide (Ag/Fe2O3/ZnO) heterostructure, which was used for the photocatalytic decomposition of ciprofloxacin (CPX) and bacterial disinfection. The Ag/Fe2O3/ZnO heterostructure was successfully prepared using a facile precipitation method, and characterization results showed...
Article
The ammonia component represents a sizable portion of pollutants in mining wastewater (MW) and because of its high selectivity toward ammonia, a LEWATIT resin was tested in the batch adsorption using different masses with 22.7 mg/L NH3 − N and in the continuous adsorption using two fixed-bed columns. Also, resin regeneration was achieved using dilu...
Article
The impact of specific power input on gas-liquid mass transfer and mixing has not been extensively reported for rocking disposable bioreactors. An electrical method was applied for measuring the specific power input into a disposable rocking (Wave) bioreactor at benchtop scales. The peak power input was shown to be suitable for characterizing the i...
Conference Paper
Municipalities have made progress in waste diversion from landfill through “blue box” programs for recyclables and “green bin” programs for organics. However, there remains a significant amount of unsorted mixed waste placed curbside for disposal, termed “black bag” waste. To identify possible alternative pathways for this waste requires a better u...
Conference Paper
Hospitals vent halogenated anesthetic gases such as sevoflurane directly to the atmosphere in diluted concentrations. Although there are no known immediate health risks to the public, these gases are relatively potent greenhouse gases and may contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion. There is therefore some desire and increasing regulatory and c...
Article
Full-text available
The emission of mercury (II) from coal combustion and other industrial processes may have impacts on water resources, and the detection with sensitive but rapid testing methods is desirable for environmental screening. Towards this end, silver nanoprisms were chemically synthesized resulting in a blue reagent solution that transitioned towards red...
Article
Rocking disposable bioreactors are a newer approach to smaller‐scale cell growth that use a cyclic rocking motion to induce mixing and oxygen transfer from the headspace gas into the liquid. Compared to traditional stirred‐tank and pneumatic bioreactors, rocking bioreactors operate in a very different physical mode and in this work the oxygen trans...
Preprint
The emission of mercury (II) from coal combustion and other industrial processes continues to be a concern and have local impact on water resources. The detection of these ions in water with sensitive but rapid testing methods is desirable for environmental screening and fieldwork. Nanoparticles of various chemistries have shown promise for this pu...
Article
Full-text available
Ultraviolet (UV) light with a wavelength of 254 nm is known to be germicidal, and thus has been increasingly employed as a method of disinfection for indoor environments. Solar UV wavelengths (300 to 400 nm) are known to initiate the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles from the photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC)...
Preprint
Ultraviolet (UV) light with a wavelength of 254 nm has proven to be effective at inactivating microorganisms, and thus has been increasingly employed as a method of disinfection for indoor environments. Solar UV wavelengths (300 to 400 nm) are known to initiate the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles from photo-oxidation of volat...
Article
Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization and enhanced absorption studies of porous octahedral shaped Cu-BTC (copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) metal organic frameworks (MOFs). The Cu-BTC MOFs were synthesized by facile hydrothermal process and characterized by various techniques in order to examine the structural, morphological, thermal...
Article
In this paper, CdS/TiO2 nanoparticles were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized in detail to understand its crystalline, structural, morphological, thermal and optical properties using various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The characterization results confirmed that the prepared nanoparticles exhibited high purity, crystallinity...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to test the effect of two different morphologies of silver nanoparticles, spheres, and prisms, on their antibacterial properties when coated with poly-L-arginine (poly-Arg) to enhance the interactions with cells. Silver nanoparticle solutions were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy,...
Article
Full-text available
Though refineries and petrochemical industries meet society's energy demands and produce a range of useful chemicals, they can also affect air quality. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified polluted air as the single largest environmental risk, and hence it is necessary to strive for and maintain good air quality. To manage potential h...
Article
The impact of SO2 on CO2 capture using chilled aqueous ammonia was investigated in the present study. Experimental observations showed that the mass transfer of CO2 in aqueous ammonia decreased with the increasing concentration of SO2 in the gas phase. A mathematic model based on reaction plane three-film theory was developed and validated to predi...
Article
Full-text available
The removal of high concentrations of 1-butanol in an air stream was evaluated with a biotrickling filter for potential application to an industrial off-gas. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory-scale system, packed with perlite, in a co-current downward mode with constant recycling of water. The performance was monitored for different inlet...
Article
Full-text available
An accurate and reliable method of measurement is essential to the monitoring of pollutants such as antibiotics in the environment. Antibiotics are considered one of the serious problems since they pose high risk on human health by developing possible antimicrobial resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Tetracycline (TC) is one of the most commonly d...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incinera...
Article
Magnetic iron oxide-gold nanoparticles (IONPs-AuNPs) could provide a useful platform for biosensing purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the formation of such particles using a simple electrostatic self-assembly technique, and then to demonstrate their application using a glucose detection assay. AuNPs were attached to the IONPs surfa...
Article
In this study we report a method for the rapid and sensitive estimation of bacterial cell concentration in solution based on a colorimetric enzyme/gold nanoshells conjugate system. The CTAB capped gold nanoshells are electrostatically attracted by both the bacterial surface and the enzyme β-galactosidase. The preferential binding of cationic (CTAB)...
Article
Full-text available
Vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were hydrothermally synthesized on a glass substrate with the assistance of a pre-coated ZnO seeding layer. The crystalline structure, morphology and transmission spectrum of the as-synthesized sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), an...
Article
Chlorobenzene removal was investigated in a non-thermal plasma reactor using CeO2/HZSM-5 catalysts. The performance of catalysts was evaluated in terms of removal and energy efficiency. The decomposition products of chlorobenzene were analyzed. The results show that CeO2/HZSM-5 exhibited a good catalytic activity, which resulted in enhancements of...
Article
Full-text available
The use of mobile ultraviolet (UV) germicidal irradiation has been documented to reduce contamination levels and HAIs in hospitals. However, there is a general lack of information on the efficacy of wall-mounted, automated UV systems that are designed to irradiate rooms whenever they are left unoccupied. In this study, the Aseptix 1 UVC device (whi...
Article
For the development of emission control strategies, activated carbon, zeolite, molecular sieves, and a silica gel were tested for adsorption of the newer anesthetic gases isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane from air. The activated carbon Norit GCA 48 was selected for the best performance, and adsorption isotherms at room temperature were develo...
Article
Experiments were performed in a customized double stirred tank reactor to study the kinetics of CO2 absorption into NH3 solutions at concentrations ranging from 0.42 to 7.67 kmol·m-3 and temperatures between 273.15 and 293.15 K. The results show that the reactive absorption was first order with respect to CO2 but fractional order (1.6-1.8) with res...
Article
This paper reports on a simple and green approach to fabricate cellulose nanocrystal@polyrhodanine (CNC@PR) core–sheath nanoparticles. Polymerization of rhodanine on the surface of negatively charged CNC was achieved using ferric chloride as the initiator and oxidant. The coating conditions were optimized by varying the ratio of CNC and monomer as...
Article
Self assembled cauliflower-like AgCl/ZnO hierarchical nanostructures were successfully synthesized using template-free chemical method. The as-synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing number of applications using titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2) highlights the need to continuously and systematically investigate its toxicity. Particle size, surface area and dose are the classical parameters considered when performing toxicity studies. However, consideration of the size-related properties and altered reac...
Article
Full-text available
The failure to remove tetracycline (TC) in most conventional wastewater treatment systems results in the discharge and accumulation of TC in the environment, which in turn, increases the potential for developing TC-resistance in naturally occurring microorganisms. Thus, there is a need to explore other processes that can enhance TC degradation duri...
Article
Full-text available
The aggregation of nanoparticles has been shown to significantly reduce the activity of nanomaterials, resulting in inferior performance. As an alternative to the use of traditional capping agents, stabilization of unstable nanoparticles with water-dispersible and biocompatible nanopaticle is a promising strategy. A bioinspired coating strategy was...
Article
The simplest chlorinated aromatic compound, chlorobenzene, was selected as a model organic pollutant to examine the photochemical destruction process in the gas phase, for potential application to flue gas treatment where oxygen, water, and sulfur dioxide may also be present. The degradation products under various reaction conditions were detected...
Article
Removal of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) from soils using surfactant-enhanced solubilisation was studied both in batch and continuous flow arrangements to determine if there were advantages to using a combination of non-ionic (Tween and Brij) and anionic surfactants. It was observed that the presence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodec...
Article
The destruction of a chlorinated aromatic compound by UV photolysis and advanced oxidation was examined for potential use in air emissions treatment. The fluence rate distribution in a photoreactor was analyzed by a finite model, and this was used to estimate quantum yield and photonic efficiency for the photochemical decomposition of chlorobenzene...
Article
In this work we have carried out systematic studies to identify the critical role of a coenzyme (β-NADPH) to synthesize silver nanoparticle. Interestingly, both roles of reducing and stabilizing agents are played by β-NADPH. Nanoparticles obtained by this route exhibit a good crystallinity, a narrow size distribution and excellent stability in aque...
Chapter
Full-text available
Regulatory Requirements. For the three sample facilities in this analysis the removal efficiency (termed destruction efficiency for RTO’s) for biological oxidation processes is substantially lower than that of thermal oxidation and adsorption abatement techniques. Despite this, biological oxidation systems can meet regulatory thresholds. Meeting re...
Article
Locally isolated strains of a thermoalkalotolerant Streptomyces sp. and Aspergillus fumigatus were used for the in vitro biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from AgNO3 solutions. An autolysed cell-free culture filtrate from each strain was used, indicating that the formation mechanism depends on intra-cellular components for both organisms, since...
Article
Chemical pre-oxidation processes have been successfully employed to enhance the bioremediation of groundwater and wastewater. Chemical oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide, chlorine and ozone are able to convert biorefractory compounds into less toxic and more readily biodegradable compounds, thereby significantly decreasing the time necessary for bi...
Article
Industrial processes that use solvent-based coatings emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which when released into the environment are smog precursors. The purpose of this work is to develop a VOC abatement technology that not only destroys such VOCs with high efficiency but also extracts the energy found in these compounds to do useful work els...
Article
Soil contaminated with persistent pesticides, such as DDT, poses a serious risk to humans and to wildlife. A surfactant-aided soil-washing technique was studied as an alternative method for remediation of DDT-contaminated soil. An ex situ soil washing method was investigated using nonionic and anionic surfactants due to the clayey structure of the...
Article
A finite model was established to predict the radiation field around a line lamp treating contaminated air, taking into account the effects of the radius of the lamp and sleeve, as well as other physical parameters. Both irradiance and fluence rate could be calculated, and the model was validated with measured data and by comparison with a conventi...
Article
Octane was eliminated from contaminated air in a biofilter at concentrations ranging from 500-2,000 ppm, with a maximum elimination capacity of 90 g/m(3) h. After periods of shutdown of up to 30 days, the biofilter rapidly reacclimated, recovering its destruction and removal efficiency (overall octane removal) within 1-2 h of restart; this recovery...
Article
Knowledge of intraparticle reactant and product diffusivities is important for catalytic reaction engineering purposes, including systems where enzymes or microbial cells are entrapped within hydrophilic gel particles. In this work, a Bayesian regression method was applied to estimate diffusivities from dynamic solute uptake experimental data. This...
Article
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) was produced from Penicillium brevicompactum by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using pearl barley, and submerged fermentation (SmF) using mannitol. It was found that SSF was superior to SmF in terms of MPA concentration (1219 mg/L vs. 60 mg/L after 144 h fermentation), and the product yields were 6.1 mg/g pearl barley for SS...
Article
A bioreactor system composed of a stirred tank and three tubular bioreactors in series was established, and continuous ethanol fermentation was carried out using a general Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and a very high gravity medium containing 280 g L−1 glucose, supplemented with 5 g L−1 yeast extract and 3 g L−1 peptone. Sustainable oscillations...
Article
Phytochemistry and antibacterial potency of some crude and partially purified fractions of Senna alata flower was examined against 22 bacterial strains. The crude plant extracts, containing steroids, anthraquinone glycosides, volatile oils and tannins, exhibited a high minimum inhibitory concentration of 500 mug/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, St...
Article
Penicillin acylase (PAC) precursor, proPAC, was overproduced in a soluble or insoluble form in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli through the expression of the leader-less pac gene (ll-pac) devoid of the coding region for the signal peptide of PAC. Also, a portion of the overexpressed proPAC was further processed to form mature PAC, indicating that...
Conference Paper
A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of pulsed electric field (PEF) inactivation of a heterogeneous community of microbes in milk over electric field strength of 10 - 40 kV/cm and 10 to 120 pulses per millilitre. High electric field strength and pulse number decreased microbial growth but inoculum-size affected PEF effectiveness when o...
Article
This article critically reviews some ethanol fermentation technologies from sugar and starch feedstocks, particularly those key aspects that have been neglected or misunderstood. Compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ethanol yield and productivity of Zymomonas mobilis are higher, because less biomass is produced and a higher metabolic rate of...
Article
A Streptomyces sp. was isolated that produced novel thermoalkalotolerant cellulase activity after growth on crystalline cellulose at 50 degrees C. Three major components of the cellulases (CMCase, Avicelase and cellobiase) were produced with maximal activities (11.8, 7.8 and 3.9 IU/ml) and maximum specific activities 357, 276 and 118 IU/mg protein,...
Article
A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of pulsed electric field (PEF) inactivation of a heterogeneous community of microbes. The aim was to assess the impact of process parameters on an indigenous population of microbes present in milk, rather than pure cultures used in other studies. Tests over an electric field strength range of 10-40...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we explicitly incorporate the principles espoused by the systems approach as an essential component in the ongoing movement to revamp the undergraduate chemical engineering curricula in response to major transformations that have taken place within the field and the profession. We propose to accomplish this goal by enhancing the use o...
Article
The bacterial community structure in a biofilter treating ethanol was investigated using community level physiological profiling. Laboratory scale biofilters of two sizes (5 or 11.5 cm internal diameter with 30 or 67 cm packed height, respectively) were packed with compost and a humidified airstream loaded with ethanol passed through them. Good rem...