Willem Heiser

Willem Heiser
Leiden University | LEI · Institute of Psychology

PhD
My main interest currently is in the history and evolution of psychometrics, including statistics and psychology.

About

158
Publications
39,845
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,016
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 1989 - January 2014
Leiden University
Position
  • Professor of Data Theory, Psychology and Statistics

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
Background This study aimed to investigate whether people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) can benefit from reliving positive autobiographical memories in terms of mood and state self-esteem and elucidate the neural processes supporting optimal memory reliving. Particularly the role of vividness and brain areas involved in autonoetic cons...
Preprint
Background This study aimed to investigate whether people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) can benefit from reliving positive autobiographical memories in terms of mood and state self-esteem and elucidate the neural processes supporting optimal memory reliving. Particularly the role of vividness and brain areas involved in autonoetic cons...
Article
Full-text available
The δ -machine is a statistical learning tool for classification based on dissimilarities or distances between profiles of the observations to profiles of a representation set, which was proposed by Yuan et al. (J Claasif 36(3): 442–470, 2019). So far, the δ -machine was restricted to continuous predictor variables only. In this article, we extend...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper a simple but effective procedure to avoid degeneracies in ordinal Unfolding for preference rank data based on the Kemeny distance is proposed. Considering Unfolding as a particular MDS procedure with missing within-set proximities, unknown proximities are first estimated using correlations related to the Kemeny distance, and then the...
Chapter
Full-text available
Network methodology typically has two separate stages: (1) constructing a graph from relational data, and (2) drawing the graph on a map to comprehend its structure. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is discussed as a distance-driven graph drawing method. It is shown that popular drawing methods in computer science that minimize the potential energy o...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce the δ-machine, a statistical learning tool for classification based on (dis)similarities between profiles of the observations to profiles of a representation set consisting of prototypes. In this article, we discuss the properties of the δ-machine, propose an automatic decision rule for deciding on the number of clusters for the K-mean...
Article
Full-text available
Autobiographical memory is vital for our well‐being and therefore used in therapeutic interventions. However, not much is known about the (neural) processes by which reliving memories can have beneficial effects. This study investigates what brain activation patterns and memory characteristics facilitate the effectiveness of reliving positive autob...
Article
Full-text available
Background Interpersonal difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD) could be related to the disturbed self-views of BPD patients. This study investigates affective and neural responses to positive and negative social feedback (SF) of BPD patients compared with healthy (HC) and low self-esteem (LSE) controls and how this relates to indivi...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present the academic genealogy of presidents of the Psychometric Society by constructing a genealogical tree, in which Ph.D. students are encoded as descendants of their advisors. Results show that most of the presidents belong to five distinct lineages that can be traced to Wilhelm Wundt, James Angell, William James, Albert Micho...
Article
Typically, ranking data consist of a set of individuals, or judges, who have ordered a set of items—or objects—according to their overall preference or some pre-specified criterion. When each judge has expressed his or her preferences according to his own best judgment, such data are characterized by systematic individual differences. In the litera...
Article
Early prediction of academic performance is important for student support. The authors explored, in a multivariate approach, whether pre‐entry data (e.g., high school study results, preparative activities, expectations, capabilities, motivation, and attitude) could predict university students’ first‐year academic performance. Preregistered applican...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The way we view ourselves may play an important role in our responses to interpersonal interactions. In this study, we investigate how feedback valence, consistency of feedback with self-knowledge and global self-esteem influence affective and neural responses to social feedback. Methods: Participants (N = 46) with a high range of...
Preprint
Background. Early prediction of academic performance is important for student selection and support. We explored, in a multivariate approach, whether pre-entry data (e.g., expectations, capabilities, motivation, attitude) could predict university students’ first year academic performance. Methods. Pre-registered applicants for a bachelor’s program...
Article
The ten most frequently cited articles appearing in Psychometrika since its establishment in 1936 are highlighted in a series of ten commentaries. They are grouped in three themes, with chronological ordering within these groups. The first group regards some characteristic problems in factor analysis, the second group is about the analysis of proxi...
Article
A review is provided for the creation of the Psychometric Society in 1935, and the establishment of its journal, Psychometrika, in 1936. This document is part of the 80th anniversary celebration for Psychometrika's founding, held during the annual meeting of the Psychometric Society in July of 2016 in Asheville, NC.
Article
Full-text available
Preference rankings usually depend on the characteristics of both the individuals judging a set of objects and the objects being judged. This topic has been handled in the literature with log-linear representations of the generalized Bradley-Terry model and, recently, with distance-based tree models for rankings. A limitation of these approaches is...
Article
Dynamic testing may be useful in assessing cognitive potential in disadvantaged populations such as ethnic minorities. Majority and minority culture children's performance on a dynamic test of figural matrices was examined using a pretest-training-posttest design. Dynamically tested children were compared to practice- and attention-control groups a...
Article
Multiple-choice (MC) analogy items are often used in cognitive assessment. However, in dynamic testing, where the aim is to provide insight into potential for learning and the learning process, constructed-response (CR) items may be of benefit. This study investigated whether training with CR or MC items leads to differences in the strategy progres...
Article
A first application of multilevel latent class analysis (MLCA) to educational large-scale assessment data is demonstrated. This statistical technique addresses several of the challenges that assessment data offers. Importantly, MLCA allows modeling of the often ignored teacher effects and of the joint influence of teacher and student variables. Using d...
Article
In this paper we propose a latent class distance association model for clustering in the predictor space of large contingency tables with a categorical response variable. The rows of such a table are characterized as profiles of a set of explanatory variables, while the columns represent a single outcome variable. In many cases such tables are spar...
Article
Working memory and inductive reasoning ability each appear related to children's achievement in math and reading. Dynamic measures of reasoning, based on an assessment procedure including feedback, may provide additional predictive value. The aim of this study was to investigate whether working memory and dynamic measures of analogical reasoning ar...
Conference Paper
As a multitude of real data problems involve preference ranking data, in the last decades analysis of rankings has become increasingly important and interesting in several fields such as behavioral sciences, machine learning and decision making. A combination of cluster analysis of preference ranking data with vector models and unfolding technique...
Article
Full-text available
Classification and spatial methods can be used in conjunction to represent the individual information of similar preferences by means of groups. In the context of latent class models and using Simulated Annealing, the cluster-unfolding model for two-way two-mode preference rating data has been shown to be superior to a two-step approach of first de...
Article
Working memory is related to children’s ability to solve analogies and other inductive reasoning tasks. The aim of this study was to examine whether working memory also plays a role in training and transfer effects of inductive reasoning in the context of a short training procedure within a pretest-training-posttest-transfer design. Participants we...
Article
Full-text available
Rankings and partial rankings are ubiquitous in data analysis, yet there is relatively little work in the classification community that uses the typical properties of rankings. We review the broader literature that we are aware of, and identify a common building block for both prediction of rankings and clustering of rankings, which is also valid f...
Article
Various forms of feedback are used in formative assessment and interactive learning environments. The effects of different types of feedback are often examined at a group level. However, effective feedback may differ in learners with different characteristics or between learners at different stages in the learning process. In this paper explanatory...
Article
In this article we propose a model-free diagnostic for single-peakedness (unimodality) of item responses. Presuming a unidimensional unfolding scale and a given item ordering, we approximate item response functions of all items based on ordered conditional means (OCM). The proposed OCM methodology is based on Thurstone & Chave's (1929)54. Thurston...
Article
Full-text available
This prospective study examined the prognostic value of the Big Five personality model for changes in comorbidity patterns of emotional disorders both from a person- and trait-centered perspective. Moreover, it is investigated whether the predictive effect of personality can be attributed to symptom severity at baseline. We followed a cohort of 256...
Article
Full-text available
Providing outcome monitoring feedback to therapists seems to be a promising approach to improve outcomes in clinical practice. This study aims to examine the effect of feedback and investigate whether it is moderated by therapist characteristics. Patients (n=413) were randomly assigned to either a feedback or a no-feedback control condition. There...
Article
All major models for asymmetric proximities are a combination of a symmetric similarity component and an asymmetric dominance component. The differences and similarities between the methods that are discussed in this paper are revealed by applying a certain decomposition to the model parameters, clearly separating the dominance and symmetric simila...
Article
The clinical variability between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may point at the existence of subtypes of the disease. Identification of subtypes is important, since a focus on homogeneous groups may enhance the chance of success of research on mechanisms of disease and may also lead to tailored treatment strategies. Cluster analysis (CA) i...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in strategy use (choice and accuracy) were analyzed. A sample of 362 Grade 6 students solved complex division problems under 2 different conditions. In the choice condition students were allowed to use either a mental or a written strategy. In the subsequent no-choice condition, they were required to use a written strategy. L...
Article
The fundamentals of preference mapping are revisited in the context of a new restricted unfolding method that has potential for wide application to product optimisation for consumers. Since more of an attribute is not necessarily preferred, the unfolding distance model provides estimates of ideal points for consumers and therefore provides a more a...
Article
Full-text available
The Developmental Profile is an instrument for personality assessment. It covers both maladaptive and adaptive characteristics. The current study examined its internal consistency and construct validity in a Dutch sample of 763 participants from various clinical and nonclinical settings. The internal consistency reliability estimates were good for...
Article
Almost no cross-sectional studies directly compared the rate and pattern of comorbidity of affective disorders in relation to personality traits of patients seen in primary care versus specialty mental health care. Using data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, we compared 1086 primary care patients with 790 consecutive specialize...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a cluster-MDS model for two-way one-mode continuous rating dissimilarity data. The model aims at partitioning the objects into classes and simultaneously representing the cluster centers in a low-dimensional space. Under the normal distribution assumption, a latent class model is developed in terms of the set of dissimilar...
Article
Full-text available
In this rejoinder, we discuss substantive and methodological validity issues of large-scale assessments of trends in student achievement, commenting on the discussion paper by Van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Robitzsch, Treffers, and Köller (2009). We focus on methodological challenges in deciding what to measure, how to measure it, and how to foster stab...
Article
Full-text available
In the Netherlands, national assessments at the end of primary school (Grade 6) show a decline of achievement on problems of complex or written arithmetic over the last two decades. The present study aims at contributing to an explanation of the large achievement decrease on complex division, by investigating the strategies students used in solving...
Article
It has been argued that principal component analysis (PCA) is not appropriate for analyzing data conforming to single-peaked response models, also referred to as unfolding models. An overview of these findings is given, which relates them to the distinction between two types of unfolding models; namely, models that are either a quadratic function o...
Article
Correspondence analysis is an exploratory technique for analyzing the interaction in a contingency table. Tables with meaningful orders of the rows and columns may be analyzed using a model-based correspondence analysis that incorporates order constraints. However, if there exists a permutation of the rows and columns of the contingency table so th...
Article
In unfolding for two-way two-mode preference ratings data, the categorization of the set of individuals while the categories are represented in a low dimensional space may be an advisable procedure to facilitate their understanding. In addition to considering groups of individuals of a similar preference pattern, homogeneous groups of objects are a...
Article
Full-text available
In the Netherlands, national assessments at the end of primary school (Grade 6) show a decline of achievement on problems of complex or written arithmetic over the last two decades. The present study aims at contributing to an explanation of the large achievement decrease on complex division, by investigating the strategies students used in solving...
Article
A set of features is the basis for the network representation of proximity data achieved by feature network models (FNMs). Features are binary variables that characterize the objects in an experiment, with some measure of proximity as response variable. Sometimes features are provided by theory and play an important role in the construction of the...
Article
Full-text available
The cross-cultural validity of the OQ in the Dutch population has been examined by comparing the psychometric properties and equivalence in factor structure and normative scores of the Dutch OQ with the original American version. Data were collected at university (N = 268), in community (N = 810) and in three mental health care organizations (N = 1...
Article
Full-text available
The development of multidimensional data analysis in the Netherlands can be traced back to early attempts in the beginning of the 20th century by Gerard Heymans to account for individual differences in personality. He was one of the first who collected and analyzed multivariate data sets, including many categorical variables, and who constructed a...
Article
The cross-cultural validity of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ) in the Dutch population has been examined by comparing the psychometric properties and equivalence in factor structure and normative scores of the Dutch OQ with the original American version. Data were collected from a university (n = 268), in a community (n = 810) and from three mental...
Article
Full-text available
A multidimensional unfolding technique that is not prone to degenerate solutions and is based on multidimensional scaling of a complete data matrix is proposed: distance information about the unfolding data and about the distances both among judges and among objects is included in the complete matrix. The latter infor-mation is derived from the per...
Article
Feature network models are graphical structures that represent proximity data in a discrete space while using the same formalism that is the basis of least squares methods employed in multidimensional scaling. Existing methods to derive a network model from empirical data only give the best-fitting network and yield no standard errors for the param...
Article
Full-text available
To prospectively examine the contribution of angina and cardiac history to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression in cardiac patients, over 6 months post-hospitalization. Participants were myocardial infarction (MI), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) outpatients under the age of 70 years....
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the relationship between two alternative methods for the analysis of multivariate categorical data is systematically explored. It is shown that the person score of the first dimension of classical optimal scaling correlates strongly with the latent variable for the two-parameter item response theory (IRT) model. Next, under the ass...
Article
Full-text available
It is well known that considering a non-Euclidean Minkowski metric in Multidimensional Scaling, either for the distance model or for the loss function, increases the computational problem of local minima considerably. In this paper, we propose an algorithm in which both the loss function and the composition rule can be considered in any Minkowski m...
Article
Full-text available
Microarray compendia profile the expression of genes in a number of experimental conditions. Such data compendia are useful not only to group genes and conditions based on their similarity in overall expression over profiles but also to gain information on more subtle relations between genes and conditions. Getting a clear visual overview of all th...
Chapter
A square similarity matrix is called a Robinson matrix if the highest entries within each row and column are on the main diagonal and if, when moving away from this diagonal, the entries never increase. This paper formulates Robinson cubes as three-way generalizations of Robinson matrices. The first definition involves only those entries that are i...
Article
Full-text available
The cross-cultural validity of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ) in the Dutch population has been examined by comparing the psychomet-ric properties and equivalence in factor structure and normative scores of the Dutch OQ with the original American version. Data were collected from a university (n = 268), in a community (n = 810) and from three mental...
Article
Full-text available
The problem considered in the present paper is how to cluster data of nominal measurement level, where the categories of the variables are equivalent (the variables are replications of each other). One suitable technique to obtain such a clustering is latent class analysis (LCA) with equality restrictions on the conditional probabilities. As an alt...
Article
Full-text available
One basic reason that measurement in psychology requires statistics is that psychologists do not use copper instruments anymore, as they used to do in the nineteenth century. Instead, they determine test or total scores on the basis of miniature experiments with discrete outcomes, and use a variety of standard statististical techniques for reaching...
Article
K-means cluster analysis is known for its tendency to produce spherical and equally sized clusters. To assess the magnitude of these effects, a simulation study was conducted, in which populations were created with varying departures from sphericity and group sizes. An analysis of the recovery of clusters in the samples taken from these populations...