Willard Tinago

Willard Tinago
University College Dublin | UCD · School of Medicine & Medical Science

PhD

About

42
Publications
38,094
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264
Citations
Introduction
Willard Tinago currently works at the School of Medicine, University College Dublin. Willard does research in Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology and Clinical Trials. Their most recent publication is 'GIS-based stratification of malaria risk zones for Zimbabwe'.
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
University of Zimbabwe
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (42)
Article
BACKGROUND: We conducted the first national TB prevalence survey to provide accurate estimates of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB disease among adults aged ≥15 years in 2014. METHODS: A TB symptoms screen and chest X-ray (CXR) were used to identify presumptive TB cases who submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, liquid and solid...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C (HCV) infection is common among people who inject drugs (PWID), yet well described barriers mean that a minority have accessed HCV treatment. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to examine feasibility, acceptability, clinical and cost effectiveness of an integrated model of HCV care for opioid substitution treatment (OST) pa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increased amongst people living with HIV (PLWH) and are driven by persistent immune activation. The role of socioeconomic status (SES) in immune activation amongst PLWH is unknown, especially in low-income sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where such impacts may be particularly severe. Methods We recruited M...
Poster
Introduction: Ireland has seen almost 250,000 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 to date, and almost 5,000 COVID-related deaths. Healthcare workers (HCWs) bore a particularly high burden of infections, at one point representing over 30% of infections. We aimed to describe COVID-19 seroprevalence in HCWs with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and fa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although reports suggest that most individuals with COVID-19 develop detectable antibodies post infection, the kinetics, durability, and relative differences between IgM and IgG responses beyond the first few weeks after symptom onset remain poorly understood. Methods Within a large, well-phenotyped, diverse, prospective cohort of subje...
Poster
Full-text available
The interferon lambda (IFNL) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs368234815 has been associated with altered host responses to viral infection. We aimed to determine its impact on CD4:CD8 T-cell ratio normalisation in people with HIV (PWH).
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 laboratory-confirmed cases can provide insights into viral transmission and genetic diversity at a population level. However, less is known about the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including lockdowns, on circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages and variants of concern, the relative...
Preprint
Background: Although reports suggest that most individuals with COVID-19 develop detectable antibodies post infection, the kinetics, durability, and relative differences between IgM and IgG responses beyond the first few weeks after symptom onset remain poorly understood. Methods: Within a large, well-phenotyped, diverse, prospective cohort of subj...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives We aim to investigate whether circulating microparticle (CMPs) subsets were raised amongst people living with HIV in Malawi, and whether they associated with arterial stiffness. Methods ART-naive adults with a new HIV diagnosis and CD4 <100 cells/uL had microparticle characterisation and carotid femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (cfPWV) at 2 w...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between polymorphisms at the interferon lambda (IFNL) locus and CD4+:CD8+ ratio normalisation in people living with HIV (PLWH) on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART); and to examine whether these polymorphisms influence the composition of T lymphocyte compartments in...
Article
Background: Whilst reporting improved renal and bone safety profiles, studies have noted changes in lipid profiles among people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) switching away from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). We aimed to characterize changes in lipids observed after switching to...
Article
BACKGROUND: Inflammation drives vascular dysfunction in HIV, but in low-income settings causes of inflammation are multiple, and include infectious and environmental factors. We hypothesised that patients with advanced immunosuppression could be stratified into inflammatory phenotypes that predicted changes in vascular dysfunction on ART. METHODS:...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Inflammation drives vascular dysfunction in HIV, but in low-income settings causes of inflammation are multiple, and include infectious and environmental factors. We hypothesised that patients with advanced immunosuppression could be stratified into inflammatory phenotypes that predicted changes in vascular dysfunction on ART. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Hepatitis C is one of the main causes of chronic liver diseases worldwide. One of the major barriers to effecting EU- and WHO-mandated HCV elimination by 2030 is underdiagnosis. Community-based screening strategies have been identified as important components of HCV models of care. HepCheck Europe is a large-scale intensified screening...
Article
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Objectives: To examine HCV prevalence and management among people who inject drugs (PWID) attending primary care and community-based health services at four European sites using baseline data from a multicentre feasibility study of a complex intervention (HepLink). Methods: Primary care and community-based health services in Dublin, London, Buch...
Article
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A pool of susceptible children to measles and rubella (MR) may increase partly due to non-vaccination of children and as a result lead to MR epidemics. The objective of this study was to establish reasons for non-vaccination in 2016 Measles-Rubella campaign in Zambia. A country-wide cross sectional study was conducted among children aged 9 months t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Prevalence of HCV in homeless populations ranges from 3.9 to 36.2%. The HepCheck study sought to investigate and establish the characterisation of HCV burden among individuals who attended an intensified screening programme for HCV in homeless services...
Article
Despite a fivefold increased risk of thromboembolism in patients with cancer, the mechanism of arterial thromboembolism is poorly understood. To address this, we investigated platelet function in cancer patients and healthy controls using an assay that mimics the arterial vasculature. Blood samples from cancer patients (n = 36) and healthy controls...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria burden has considerably declined in the last 15 years mainly due to large-scale vector control. The continued decline can be sustained through malaria risk stratification. Malaria stratification is the classification of geographical areas according to malaria risk. In this study, ecological niche modelling using the maximum entropy algorith...
Article
Objectives: Altered platelet function has been proposed as an underlying mechanism to explain increased risk of myocardial infarction in people living with HIV associated with use of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir (ABC). We aimed to examine changes in platelet biomarkers in people living with HIV switching from ABC. Metho...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Creatinine is the biomarker of choice for use in estimates of kidney function in oncology patients. However as non-renal factors such as muscle mass can influence creatinine concentrations, we evaluated cystatin C as an alternative biomarker and its incorporation in GFR estimating formulae in an oncology setting. Measured GFR is infreq...
Article
Background: The HIV Care Cascade model can be used to measure how clinical services align with United Nations’ (UN) HIV treatment targets. Previous models have highlighted sequential losses at each step of the Cascade with a significant proportion being not retained in care (NRIC). Objective: We aimed to assess the feasibility of meeting the UN tar...
Article
Objective: Although low bone mineral density (BMD) is prevalent in HIV, changes in BMD over time remain unclear. We aimed to compare rates of, and factors associated with, BMD change between HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects. Methods: In a prospective, 3-year cohort, HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects provided annual demographic and cli...
Article
Full-text available
Background Omega-3 long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs)–docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)– and omega-6 LC-PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA), are essential for optimum physical and mental development in children. Prior to this study, the blood omega-3 LC-PUFA levels were unknown in Zimbabw...
Article
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Background Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry l...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction A study compared rates of measles transmission and force of infection in pre-vaccination era (1967), and at measles vaccine coverage rates of 50-80% (1978-84) and > 90% (1989). Using measles surveillance data cumulative proportions of measles cases by age were determined for the years 1967, 1978-89 (pooled) and 1989. From the cumulativ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A study was carried out to determine secular changes in all-cause mortality rates for children aged < 5 years in 1960-1989 and their association with measles and malnutrition mortality rates in the same age group in the same period in city of Gweru, Zimbabwe. The study utilized under-fives mortality data from births and deaths registration office a...
Chapter
A study was carried out in Gweru city urban district (population- 158233) in Zimbabwe to determine the impact of measles vaccine applied at 9 months of age on measles transmission patterns. A retrospective observational study that used data from measles vaccination records and measles disease surveillance was conducted. Linear regression analysis a...
Chapter
Full-text available
study compared rates of measles transmission and force of infection in pre-vaccination era (1967), and at measles vaccine coverage rates of 50- 80% (1978-84) and >90% (1989).Using measles surveillance data cumulative proportions of measles cases by age were determined for the years 1967, 1978-89 (pooled) and 1989. From the cumulative curves estimat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Multiple dose measles vaccination intervention was applied in Gweru City, Zimbabwe, in 1990-96, following a single dose applied at 9 months of age during 1983-89. In the same periods in Bulawayo, only a single dose of measles vaccine was applied to children at 9 months of age. This study investigated the impact on measles transmission p...
Article
Full-text available
Reference intervals are used as an aid in the interpretation of laboratory results. Most developing countries do not have reference intervals specific to adolescents. This study was aimed at establishing hematological and biochemical reference intervals for adolescents aged ≥ 12 years to < 18 years. A community based, cross sectional study was cond...
Article
Full-text available
A study was carried out to determine secular changes in all-cause mortality rates for children aged 1 = 16.2, Q 3 = 42.6) and these rates significantly and linearly declined in this period (χ 2 for linear trend=165.74, p 2 for linear trend = 812.49, p 2 for linear trend = 2411.54, p 2 = 0.7048) with malnutrition mortality rates uniquely explaining...
Article
Full-text available
Background Increasing numbers of HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa are exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are few data on lipid changes on first-line ART, and even fewer on second-line. Methods DART was a randomized trial comparing monitoring strategies in Ugandan/Zimbabwean adults initiating first-line ART and switching...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although effective antiretroviral therapy(ART) increases CD4+ T-cell count, responses to ART vary considerably and only a minority of patients normalise their CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Although retention of naïve CD4+ T-cells is thought to predict better immune responses, relationships between CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets and CD4+/CD8+ ratio ha...
Article
Although current guidelines recommend resistance testing prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) reinitiation after treatment interruptions, virological failure of first-line ritonavir-boosted, protease-inhibitor (PI/r)-containing ART is associated with low emergent PI resistance. In patients experiencing unscheduled treatment interruptions (UTrIs) o...