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Will P J M Spooren

Will P J M Spooren
F. Hoffmann_La Roche · Neuroscience

PhD

About

166
Publications
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Publications

Publications (166)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Understanding the development of the neuronal circuitry underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is critical to shed light into its etiology and for the development of treatment options. Resting state EEG provides a window into spontaneous local and long-range neuronal synchronization and has been investigated in many ASD studies, but...
Article
Full-text available
Background The neurocognitive mechanisms underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remain unclear. Progress has been largely hampered by small sample sizes, variable age ranges and resulting inconsistent findings. There is a pressing need for large definitive studies to delineate the nature and extent of key case/control differences to direct resea...
Article
Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is accompanied by highly individualized neuroanatomical deviations that potentially map onto distinct genotypes and clinical phenotypes. This study aimed to link differences in brain anatomy to specific biological pathways to pave the way toward targeted therapeutic interventions. Methods: The authors ex...
Article
Full-text available
Social-communication (SC) and restricted repetitive behaviors (RRB) are autism diagnostic symptom domains. SC and RRB severity can markedly differ within and between individuals and may be underpinned by different neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms. Modeling SC-RRB balance could help identify how neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms map ont...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Reward processing has been proposed to underpin atypical social behavior, a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous neuroimaging studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the specificity of atypicalities for social rewards in ASD. Utilizing a large sample, we aimed to assess altered reward processing...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social-communication (SC) and restricted repetitive behaviors (RRB) are autism diagnostic symptom domains. SC and RRB severity can markedly differ within and between individuals and is underpinned by different neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms. Modeling SC-RRB balance could help identify how neural circuitry and genetic mechanisms map onto su...
Article
Full-text available
Notwithstanding several research efforts in the past years, robust and replicable molecular signatures for autism spectrum disorders from peripheral blood remain elusive. The available literature on blood transcriptome in ASD suggests that through accurate experimental design it is possible to extract important information on the disease pathophysi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition with key deficits in social functioning. It is widely assumed that the biological underpinnings of social impairment are neurofunctional alterations in the "social brain," a neural circuitry involved in inferring the mental state of a social partner. However, previous evi...
Article
BACKGROUND Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging-based studies on functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have generated inconsistent results. Interpretation of findings is further hampered by small samples and a focus on a limited number of networks, with networks underlying sensory processing being largely underexa...
Article
Despite the high clinical burden, little is known about pathophysiology underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have found atypical synchronization of brain activity in ASD. However, no consensus has been reached on the nature and clinical relevance of these alterations...
Article
Full-text available
ᅟ EU-AIMS is the largest European research program aiming to identify stratification biomarkers and novel interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within the program, the Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) has recruited and comprehensively phenotyped a rare sample of 76 monozygotic and dizygotic twins, discordant, or concordant fo...
Article
Background: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging-based studies on functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have generated inconsistent results. Interpretation of findings is further hampered by small samples and a focus on a limited number of networks, with networks underlying sensory processing being largely undere...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the high clinical burden little is known about pathophysiology underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have found atypical synchronization of brain activity in ASD. However, no consensus has been reached on the nature and clinical relevance of these alterations....
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental syndrome with a high human and economic burden. The pathophysiology of ASD is largely unclear, thus hampering development of pharmacological treatments for the core symptoms of the disorder. Abnormalities in glutamate and GABA signaling have been hypothesized to underlie ASD symptoms,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the high clinical burden little is known about pathophysiology underlying autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have found atypical synchronization of brain activity in ASD. However, no consensus has been reached on the nature and clinical relevance of these alterations....
Chapter
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of inherited mental retardation caused by a CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion and transcriptional shutdown of the FMR1 gene. FXS patients present with a complex and often severe neuropsychiatric phenotype with considerable heterogeneity caused in part by varying trinucleotide repeat sizes,...
Article
Full-text available
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as fragile X syndrome (FXS) result in lifelong cognitive and behavioural deficits and represent a major public health burden. FXS is the most frequent monogenic form of intellectual disability and autism, and the underlying pathophysiology linked to its causal gene, FMR1, has been the focus of intense research. Key...
Article
To expand, analyze, and extend published behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we present a study of three ASD genetic mouse models: Feng's Shank3(tm2Gfng) model, hereafter Shank3/F, Jiang's Shank3(tm1Yhj) model, hereafter Shank3/J, and the Cacna1c deletion model. The Shank3 models mimick gene mutations associated with P...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The tremendous clinical and aetiological diversity among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been a major obstacle to the development of new treatments, as many may only be effective in particular subgroups. Precision medicine approaches aim to overcome this challenge by combining pathophysiologically based treatments w...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP) is to date the largest multi-centre, multi-disciplinary observational study on biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current paper describes the clinical characteristics of the LEAP cohort and examines age, sex and IQ differences in ASD core symptoms and common co-occ...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: The tremendous clinical and aetiological diversity among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been a major obstacle to the development of new treatments, as many may only be effective in particular subgroups. Precision medicine approaches aim to overcome this challenge by combining pathophysiologically based treatments wi...
Article
Full-text available
The tremendous clinical and etiological variability between individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has made precision medicine the most promising treatment approach. It aims to combine new pathophysiologically based treatments with objective tests (stratification biomarkers) to predict which treatment may be beneficial for a particular per...
Preprint
Full-text available
To expand, analyze and extend published behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we present a study of three ASD genetic mouse models: Feng’s Shank3 tm2Gfng model, hereafter Shank3/F , Jiang’s Shank3 tm1Yhj model, hereafter Shank3/J , and the Cacna1c deletion model. The Shank3/F and Shank3/J models mimick gene mutations ass...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder comprises several neurodevelopmental conditions presenting symptoms in social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors. A major roadblock for drug development for autism is the lack of robust behavioral signatures predictive of clinical efficacy. To address this issue, we further characterized, in a uniform and ri...
Chapter
Full-text available
Glu is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. The first indications that Glu exerted excitatory actions on cerebral cortex were obtained by Hayashi in 1954, and later, observations by Watkin and colleagues showed that Glu can depolarize and excite individual neurons in the cat spinal cord. However, it took the scientific commun...
Article
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious public health burden and a leading cause of disability. Its pharmacotherapy is currently limited to modulators of monoamine neurotransmitters and second-generation antipsychotics. Recently, glutamatergic approaches for the treatment of MDD have increasingly received attention, and preclinical research su...
Article
Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) have potential for the treatment of psychiatric diseases including depression, fragile X syndrome (FXS), anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and levodopa induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. Herein we report the optimization of a weakly active screening hi...
Article
The United Nations and World Health Organisation have identified autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as an important public health issue across global mental health services. Although a range of tools exist to identify and quantify ASD symptoms, there is a lack of information about which ASD measures are used in different services worldwide. This paper...
Article
Full-text available
We have made little recent progress developing effective new treatments for neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Novel molecular mechanisms have been identified, but have not translated into the clinic. We suggest an alternative: combinations of treatments targeting different aspects of final common pathways in biologically defined cl...
Article
The NK3 receptor is a GPCR that is prominently expressed in limbic areas of the brain, many of which have been implicated in schizophrenia. Phase II clinical trials in schizophrenia with two selective NK3 antagonists (osanetant and talnetant) have demonstrated significant improvement in positive symptoms. The objective of this study was to characte...
Article
Full-text available
The main reason for the current lack of effective treatments for the core symptoms of autism is our limited understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying this heterogeneous group of disorders. A primary value of genetic research is enhancing our insight into the biology of autism through the study of identified autism risk genes. In the cur...
Article
Full-text available
Developing new pharmacotherapies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a challenge. ASD has a complex genetic architecture, several neurobiological phenotypes and multiple symptom domains. However new opportunities are emerging that could lead to the development of 'targeted' and individualized pharmacological interventions. Here, first we review t...
Article
Full-text available
A [euro]30 million initiative bringing together academic centres, industry, charities and patient groups provides an unprecedented opportunity for translational research on autism.
Article
Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect millions of individuals worldwide. Despite increased autism diagnoses over the past 30 years, therapeutic intervention is often 'trial and error'. This approach has identified some beneficial agents, but complex heterogeneous disorders require a more personalized treatment regimen. Many ASD risk fa...
Article
Full-text available
The genetic heterogeneity of autism poses a major challenge for identifying mechanism-based treatments. A number of rare mutations are associated with autism, and it is unclear whether these result in common neuronal alterations. Monogenic syndromes, such as fragile X, include autism as one of their multifaceted symptoms and have revealed specific...
Article
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been successfully tested in the SOD1-G93A mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and proposed for clinical treatment. However, beneficial effects required gene therapy or intrathecal application. Circumventing the dosing issues we recently found that polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified IG...
Article
Full-text available
Discovering novel treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a challenge. Its etiology and pathology remain largely unknown, the condition shows wide clinical diversity, and case identification is still solely based on symptomatology. Hence clinical trials typically include samples of biologically and clinically heterogeneous individuals. 'C...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have demonstrated a profound lack of habituation in 129P3 mice compared to the habituating, but initially more anxious, BALB/c mice. The present study investigated whether this non-adaptive phenotype of 129P3 mice is primarily based on anxiety-related characteristics. To test this hypothesis and extend our knowledge on the behaviou...
Data
Full-text available
Schematic representations of the open field and the object recognition test.Corrected P value thresholds of significance for the open field and object recognition test.Overview of all behavioural results in the open field after MPEP or diazepam treatment.Overview of CORT levels before and after open field or object recognition testing.Overview of c...
Article
Full-text available
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Previous studies have implicated mGlu5 in the pathogenesis of the disease, but a crucial unanswered question is whether pharmacological mGlu5 inhibition is able to reverse an already established FXS phenotype in mammals. Here we have used the novel, potent, and s...
Article
Ro 64-6198, the prototypical non-peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor agonist, has potent anxiolytic-like effects in several preclinical models and species. However the effects of Ro 64-6198 on distinctive anxiety-provoking conditions related to unconditioned conflict behavior as well as its role in despair-like behavior remain to...
Article
Due to its potent neurotrophic activity, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been proposed many times for therapeutic application in disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). However, insufficient brain delivery to yield beneficial central without peripheral side effects have prevented clinical development in most instances. We recently r...
Article
Full-text available
The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) is a glutamate-activated class C G protein-coupled receptor widely expressed in the central nervous system and clinically investigated as a drug target for a range of indications, including depression, Parkinson's disease, and fragile X syndrome. Here, we present the novel potent, selective, and orally...
Article
Full-text available
The basal ganglia play an important role in motor control, which is dependent on dopaminergic input. Preparation of a motor response has been associated with dopamine release in the basal ganglia, and response readiness may therefore serve as a pharmacodynamic marker of dopamine activity. We measured response readiness using the amplitude of the co...
Article
Full-text available
Drugs of abuse are initially used because of their rewarding properties. As a result of repeated drug exposure, sensitization to certain behavioral effects of drugs occurs, which may facilitate the development of addiction. Recent studies have implicated the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5 receptor) in drug reward, but its role in sensitiz...
Article
The rational design of a novel series of pyrrolidine derivatives as neurokinin-3 receptor antagonists is reported starting from a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist. Typical representatives in this series showed in vivo efficacy after oral administration in a NK3 mediated functional assay. This series of NK3 antagonists shows promise to del...
Article
Clinical results of osanetant and talnetant (selective-NK₃ antagonists) indicate that blocking the NK₃ receptor could be beneficial for the treatment of schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to characterize the in vitro and in vivo properties of a novel dual NK₁/NK₃ antagonist, RO4583298 (2-phenyl-N-(pyridin-3-yl)-N-methylisobutyramide der...
Article
During a program directed at selective NK(1) receptor antagonists, we serendipitously discovered an NK(1) receptor ligand with additional affinity for the NK(3) receptor. Recognising an opportunity for a drug discovery program aiming for dual NK(1)/NK(3) receptor antagonists, we prepared a series of analogues from a novel, versatile building block....