Will Kymlicka

Will Kymlicka
Queen's University | QueensU · Department of Philosophy

About

312
Publications
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Introduction
Will Kymlicka is the Canada Research Chair in Political Philosophy at Queen's University (Kingston, Canada).

Publications

Publications (312)
Chapter
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One important critique of multiculturalism is that it promotes “essentialism”, reifying the identities and practices of minority groups. In Anne Phillips’ words, multiculturalism “exaggerates the internal unity of cultures, solidifies differences that are currently more fluid, and makes people from other cultures seem more exotic and distinct than...
Article
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In the postwar period, projects of social justice have often drawn upon ideas of national solidarity, calling upon shared national identities to mobilize support for the welfare state. Several commentators have argued that increasing immigration, and the multiculturalism policies it often gives rise to, weaken this sense of national solidarity. Thi...
Article
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Early defenders of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights invoked species hierarchy: human beings are owed rights because of our discontinuity with and superiority to animals. Subsequent defenders avoided species supremacism, appealing instead to conditions of embodied subjectivity and corporeal vulnerability we share with animals. In the past d...
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While animal rights have been a central topic within moral philosophy since the 1970s, it has remained virtually invisible within political philosophy. This article explores two key reasons for the difficulties in locating animals within political philosophy. First, even if animals are seen as having intrinsic moral status, they are often seen as u...
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Previous research has shown that the public tends to see some groups as less deserving of social rights. Our focus in this article is whether they are also seen as less entitled to engage in political claims-making. Recent theorists of inclusive nationalism argue that whether minorities are seen as having the right to codetermine the future may dep...
Article
It is increasingly acknowledged that animals have an intrinsic moral status, in part due to the influential work of many moral philosophers. However, surprisingly little has been written by philosophers on whether animals are owed social membership and the rights that attach to membership in society. In this paper, I explore why the idea of social...
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introduction to special issue on 50th anniversary of multiculturalism in Canada in Canadian Issues (Fall 2021). The entire issue is available at: https://acs-aec.ca/en/publications-en/multiculturalism-50-and-the-promise-of-a-just-society/
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Liberal nationalists argue that identification with the nation promotes feelings of mutual obligation, including support for redistribution. Existing attempts to test this hypothesis have focused on whether the higher sense of national identity among the majority increases support redistribution. We argue for a twofold shift in focus. First, beyond...
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In most countries, the education system seeks to instill two kinds of solidarity: a thick sense of national solidarity with one’s co-citizens, and a thinner sense of global solidarity with all of humanity. Many commentators argue that we need to rebalance these two forms of solidarity, de-emphasizing national solidarity and re-centering global soli...
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Compared to other Western democracies, there has been relatively stable support for multiculturalism in Canada since its adoption in 1971, both amongst the general public and amongst the three main political parties. Conservative opposition to multiculturalism has, therefore, typically taken the form of “stealth” reforms to undercut its progressive...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the postwar period, projects of social justice have often drawn upon ideas of national solidarity, calling upon shared national identities to mobilize support for the welfare state. Several commentators have argued that increasing immigration, and the multiculturalism policies it often gives rise to, weaken this sense of national solidarity. Thi...
Book
For centuries, animals have worked alongside humans in a wide variety of workplaces, yet they are rarely recognized as workers or accorded labour rights. Many animal rights advocates have argued that using animals for their labour is inherently oppressive, and that animal labour should therefore be abolished. Recently, however, some people have arg...
Chapter
Labour has been associated historically with a cluster of values, including individual security, self-development and freedom, social standing and recognition, and meaning. Insofar as these values are also relevant to animals, this suggests that we should seek to include animals into the world of labour. We should recognize that animals, as well as...
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The question of animal labour has emerged as an important topic in both the academic study of human–animal relations and in public debates about the rights of animals. While the human use of animal labour has been a site of intense instrumentalization and exploitation, some people argue that (good) work can be a site of cooperation, mutual flourish...
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Western societies have experienced a broadening of inclusive membership, whether we consider legal, interpersonal, or cultural membership. Concurrently, we have witnessed increased tensions around social citizenship, notably harsher judgments or boundaries over who “deserves” public assistance. Some have argued these phenomena are linked, with expa...
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This chapter explores the sources of an inclusive solidarity in diverse societies, building on the intuition in liberal nationalism that solidarity is rooted in a sense of shared membership in a national community, but moving beyond the focus on the national identity of the majority population which dominates existing research. The chapter examines...
Article
In recent work, Geoffrey Brahm Levey has argued that we can distinguish various schools of multiculturalism on the basis of their methodology (in particular, how they relate theory to practice), and their substantive normative commitments (in particular, their normative commitments regarding liberalism and nationalism). In this article, I offer som...
Preprint
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This paper explores processes by which a broadening of legal, social and cultural membership in Western societies appears to be accompanied by a reduction in the social rights of citizenship, in part due to harsher judgements concerning the deservingness of low-income populations. As more diverse groups are extended formal national membership, fewe...
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Rethinking Society for the 21st Century - by International Panel on Social Progress (IPSP) July 2018
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Peter Jones argues that human rights can address violations of the determination principle, but cannot address violations of the selfhood principle. In this commentary, it is argued that international human rights norms should address both violations, for two key reasons. First, these violations are continuous in their underlying ideologies and in...
Book
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In December 2013, the Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP) filed a petition for a common law writ of habeas corpus in the New York State Supreme Court on behalf of Tommy, a chimpanzee living alone in a cage in a shed in rural New York. Under animal welfare laws, Tommy’s owners, the Laverys, were doing nothing illegal by keeping him in those conditions. N...
Technical Report
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In this brief, we argue that there is a diversity of ways in which humans (Homo sapiens) are ‘persons’ and there are no non-arbitrary conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can include all humans and exclude all nonhuman animals. To do so we describe and assess the four most prominent conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can be found in the rulings concernin...
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There are multiple links between debates on multiculturalism, race, and animal rights. In this chapter, I focus on three such linkages: (1) does multiculturalism imply that minority cultural practices involving animals should be exempted from animal welfare/animal cruelty provisions?; (2) do Western societies apply different standards to minority p...
Book
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Rainer Bauböck opens this volume with a question that is crucial to our thinking on citizenship in the twenty-first century: who has a claim to be included in a democratic political community? Bauböck's answer addresses the major theoretical and practical issues of the forms of citizenship and access to citizenship in different types of polity, the...
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In Black Rights/White Wrongs, Charles Mills continues his critique of contemporary American political philosophy for ignoring issues of racial oppression, and in particular for ignoring the way that liberal social contracts rest on underlying domination contracts. In this commentary, I will discuss some of the new research inspired by Mills’ accoun...
Book
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Los textos del presente libro se organizan en torno a tres ejes relevantes en el campo de los estudios críticos animales: la construcción ideológica, histórica y social de la dominación sobre los animales, la interseccionalidad entre las dominaciones de especie, raza, género y clase, y las conexiones entre la ética, la filosofía política y las rela...
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Do increasing, and increasingly diverse, immigration flows lead to declining support for redistributive policy? This concern is pervasive in the literatures on immigration, multiculturalism and redistribution, and in public debate as well. The literature is nevertheless unable to disentangle the degree to which welfare chauvinism is related to (a)...
Book
Building and sustaining solidarity is an enduring challenge in all liberal-democratic societies. The claims of solidarity require individuals to tolerate views and practices they dislike, to accept democratic decisions that go again their beliefs or interests, and to moderate the pursuit of their own economic self-interest to help the disadvantaged...
Chapter
Full-text available
Building and sustaining solidarity is an enduring challenge in all liberal-democratic societies. The claims of solidarity require individuals to tolerate views and practices they dislike, to accept democratic decisions that go again their beliefs or interests, and to moderate the pursuit of their own economic self-interest to help the disadvantaged...
Article
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Este artículo explora la relación entre el desarrollo de las normas relativas a los derechos de las minorías en el derecho internacional y el desarrollo del interés por los derechos de las minorías en la filosofía política, más concretamente en el multiculturalismo liberal. El autor considera que, si bien estos movimientos tuvieron orígenes diferen...
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As the chapters is this section illustrate, we have to rethink our old categories of wild and domesticated animals. New relationships of mutual impact and hybrid management have been made necessary by relentless human expansion, anthropogenic climate change, and other ecological impacts. The animals involved in these new relations do not fit into t...
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This chapter contends that interculturalists may think they are defending diversity, but their crude anti multiculturalist rhetoric may play into the hands of xenophobes who reject both multiculturalism and interculturalism. It focuses on the intercultural strategy to build a new political narrative in which interculturalism emerges from the allege...
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Is international migration a threat to the redistributive programmes of destination countries? Existing work is divided. This paper examines the manner and extent to which increases in immigration are related to welfare state retrenchment, drawing on data from 1970 to 2007. The paper makes three contributions: (1) it explores the impact of changes...
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Much contemporary animal rights theory operates within a liberal rights framework which is prone to a kind of legalism—mistaking rights on paper for genuine transformation. This charge has been made of the theory developed in Donaldson and Kymlicka’s Zoopolis, which extends not only liberal ideas of basic rights to animals but also liberal concepti...
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One of the most important citizenship struggles in recent decades has focused on people with cognitive disabilities (henceforth CD). Advocates have challenged exclusionary conceptions of citizenship that relegate people with CD to a kind of second-class citizenship or wardship, accorded at best certain paternalistic protection from harms and provis...
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This article discusses the retreat from multiculturalism in Europe. It questions whether the crisis of multiculturalism has had any impact on the accommodation of national minorities and/or ethnic groups. It opens with an interview with the former osce High Commissioner on National Minorities, Knut Vollebaek, which is followed by commentaries of fo...
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Sue Donaldson et Will Kymlicka menent depuis longtemps un compagnonnage intellectuel, comme en temoignent les remerciements adresses par Kymlicka a sa compagne dans ce qui etait jusqu’ici son ouvrage principal, Multicultural Citizenship. A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights, publie en 1995. Les productions des deux auteur-e-s de cet article etaient...
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This special issue explores the prospects for what Jacob Mundy calls ‘transformative minority politics’ in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region – that is, a form of minority politics that strengthens democratic reform in the region, and that helps deepen a culture of human rights and democratic citizenship. The cases examined in the speci...
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Canada today faces challenges that were not foreseen when the Multiculturalism policy was first adopted in 1971, and serious doubts have been raised about whether the policy can be adapted or updated to deal with these new realities. Even those who supported multiculturalism in the past have wondered whether it is time now to move to a ‘post-multic...
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Building and sustaining solidarity is an enduring challenge in all liberal-democratic societies. Ensuring that individuals are willing to accept these “strains of commitment,” to borrow John Rawls’ apt phrase, has been a worry even in relatively homogeneous societies, and the challenge seems even greater in ethnically and religiously diverse societ...
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In this interview, Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka reply to some questions and objections to their book Zoopolis (Oxford 2011). A distinctive feature of their approach is the idea that domesticated animals should be seen as cocitizens of our political community. Donaldson and Kymlicka discuss how this view of animal citizenship relates to issues re...
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Citizenship has been at the core of struggles by historically excluded groups for respect and inclusion. Can citizenship be extended even further to domesticated animals? We begin this article by sketching an argument for why justice requires the extension of citizenship to domesticated animals, above and beyond compassionate care, stewardship or u...
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Many commentators—including some animal rights theorists—have argued that non-human animals cannot be seen as members of the demos because they lack the critical capacities for self-rule and moral agency which are required for citizenship. We argue that this worry is based on mistaken ideas about both citizenship, on the one hand, and animals, on t...
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In their commentaries on Zoopolis, Nurse, Ryland, and Svärd raise several challenges to our argument for a "political theory of animal rights." They not only object to the specific models of animal citizenship and animal sovereignty we offer, but also express doubt that the categories of political theory can truly shed light on the animal question....
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In much of the Western world, and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception of a wholesale ‘retreat’ from multiculturalism. Governments that once embraced a multicultural approach to diversity are said to be replacing it with a strong emphasis on civic integration. This assumption that new civic integration policies displace older mu...
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Durante los últimos 15 años hemos sido testigos de una gran expansión de los esfuerzos para desarrollarnormas internacionales sobre los derechos de las minorías, tanto en el ámbito global comoen el regional. Estos acontecimientos parecen prometer protección ante graves injusticias a algunosde los grupos más vulnerables del mundo contemporáneo. A la...
Chapter
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The era of neoliberalism is often defined as a set of changes in economic policy and in economic relationships, many of which created new challenges and insecurities for individuals. But it also reshaped the structure of social relationships, including relationships in the family, workplace, neighborhood, and civil society. It may even have reshape...
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While Canada is widely seen as a leader in accommodating different forms of diversity, the unique needs of official language minority communities (OLMCs) are not adequately recognized in the constitution, and often fall through the cracks of the “Canadian model”. Can we imagine a new deal for OLMCs, perhaps in the form of new legislation or even a...
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Academic and public debates go through cycles, and one of the current fashions is to defend a (new, innovative, realistic) 'interculturalism' against a (tired, discredited, naive) 'multiculturalism'. As Meer and Modood show, there is very little intellectual substance underlying this fad. It is not based on a careful conceptual analysis of the prin...
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In many western democracies today, there are calls to strengthen a sense of common citizenship as a way of building ‘social cohesion’ in increasingly diverse societies. Citizenship is to be promoted by, amongst other things, adding or strengthening citizenship education in schools, providing citizenship classes to immigrants, imposing new citizensh...

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