Wilhelm Barthlott

Wilhelm Barthlott
University of Bonn | Uni Bonn · Nees Institute for Biodiversity of Plants

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700
Publications
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Publications

Publications (700)
Article
Full-text available
Plants and other organisms have evolved structures and mechanisms for colonizing land since the Early Ordovician. In this context, their surfaces, the crucial physical interface with the environment, are mainly considered barriers against water loss. It is suggested that extreme water repellency (superhydrophobicity) was an additional key innovatio...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of floating ferns Salvinia to keep a permanent layer of air under water is of great interest, e.g., for drag‐reducing ship coatings. The air‐retaining hairs are superhydrophobic, but have hydrophilic tips at their ends, pinning the air–water interface. Here, experimental and theoretical approaches are used to examine the contribution of...
Chapter
The interface between leaves and the surrounding environment is formed by the wax-covered plant cuticle, which is hydrophobic and highly impermeable to water and dissolved solutes. The surface itself may become superhydrophobic by complex three-dimensional wax crystals. There is evidence that this system evolved already early with the colonization...
Article
Superhydrophobicity is a physical feature of surfaces occurring in many organisms and has been applied (e.g. lotus effect) in bionic technical applications. Some aquatic species are able to maintain persistent air layers under water ( Salvinia effect) and thus become increasingly interesting for drag reduction and other ‘bioinspired’ applications....
Article
Extreme water repellent ‘superhydrophobic’ surfaces evolved in plants and animals about 450 Ma: a combination of hydrophobic chemistry and hierarchical structuring causes contact angles of greater than 150°. Technical biomimetic applications and technologies for water repellency, self-cleaning (Lotus Effect) and drag reduction (Salvinia Effect) hav...
Article
Full-text available
KOENIGIANA Band 13 (1) 2019 35–42 Bonn, Juni 2019 ISSN 2627-0005 Religionen und Naturschutz Natur und ihr Erhalt spielen in den Schriften und Vorstellungen aller Weltreligionen eine bedeutende Rolle (Übersichten Assisi Declarations 1986, Pye et al. 1997, Micksch et al. 2015, Jenkins et al. 2017). Dies gilt auch für die beiden global dominierenden R...
Article
Full-text available
Angiosperms and their pollinators are adapted in a close co-evolution. For both the plants and pollinators, the functioning of the visual signaling system is highly relevant for survival. As the frequency range of visual perception in many insects extends into the ultraviolet (UV) region, UV-patterns of plants play an important role in the flower-p...
Article
Full-text available
In technical systems, static pressure and pressure changes are usually measured with piezoelectric materials or solid membranes. In this paper, we suggest a new biomimetic principle based on thin air layers that can be used to measure underwater pressure changes. Submerged backswimmers (Notonecta sp.) are well known for their ability to retain air...
Chapter
https://www.klima-warnsignale.uni-hamburg.de/wp-content/uploads/pdf/de/biodiversitaet/warnsignal_klima-die_biodiversitaet-kapitel-1_5.pdf
Book
https://www.bfn.de/fileadmin/BfN/service/Dokumente/skripten/Skript448.pdf
Article
Full-text available
Cite this article: Busch J, Barthlott W, Brede M, Terlau W, Mail M. 2019 Bionics and green technology in maritime shipping: an assessment of the effect of Salvinia air-layer hull coatings for drag and fuel reduction. One contribution of 14 to a theme issue 'Bioinspired materials and surfaces for green science and technology'.
Article
Knowledge of spatial patterns of biological diversity is fundamental for ecological and biogeographical analyses and for priority setting in nature conservation, particularly in West Africa where the existing high biodiversity is increasingly threatened by human activities. The maximum entropy approach was used to model the geographic distribution...
Article
Full-text available
The time dependence of the formation of lotus wax tubules after recrystallization from various chloroform-based solutions on an HOPG surface at room temperature was studied by atomic force microscopy (magnetic AC mode) taking series of consecutive images of the formation process. The growth of the tubules oriented in an upright fashion follows a se...
Data
Video 4. Lotus tubule growth on HOPG from 0.2 mg/mL chloroform wax solution. Only trace images are used for making videos. Size = 3.25 × 3.25 µm, scan rate = 0.519 Hz, 512 lines/image.
Data
Video 6. Lotus tubule growth on HOPG from 0.8 mg/mL (NH4)2SO4 salt saturated chloroform wax solution. Only trace images are used for making videos. Size = 1.2 × 1.2 µm, scan rate = 1.04 Hz, 512 lines/image.
Data
Video 7. Lotus tubule growth on HOPG from 0.8 mg/mL (NH4)2SO4/water saturated chloroform wax solution. Only trace images are used for making videos. Size = 2.05 × 2.05 µm, scan rate = 1.04 Hz, 512 lines/image.
Data
Video 1. Lotus tubule growth on HOPG from 0.8 mg/mL chloroform wax solution. Only (forward) trace images are used for making videos. Size = 1.35 × 1.35 µm, scan rate = 0.796 Hz, 512 lines/image.
Data
Video 2. Lotus tubule growth on HOPG from 1 mg/mL chloroform wax solution. Only trace images are used for making videos. Size = 2.5 × 2.5 µm, scan rate = 0.512 Hz, 512 lines/image.
Data
Video 3. Lotus tubule growth on HOPG from 10 mg/mL chloroform wax solution. Only trace images are used for making videos. Size = 4.9 × 4.9 µm, scan rate = 0.512 Hz, 512 lines/image.
Data
Video 5. Lotus tubule growth on HOPG from 0.8 mg/mL water saturated chloroform wax solution. Only trace images are used for making videos. Size = 3 × 3 µm, scan rate = 1.04 Hz, 512 lines/image.
Article
Full-text available
Underwater air retention of superhydrophobic hierarchically structured surfaces is of increasing interest for technical applications. Persistent air layers (the Salvinia effect) are known from biological species, for example, the floating fern Salvinia or the backswimmer Notonecta. The use of this concept opens up new possibilities for biomimetic t...
Data
Additional AFM images. The supporting information shows AFM images of the air–water interface and the corresponding 3D representations obtained with different set points.
Article
Persistent air layer retention under water (Salvinia effect) is a result of a complex hierarchical structuring of surfaces. Besides providing an impressive silvery appearance it may serve various ecological functions like fluid drag reduction, respiration (plastron effect), sensing and camouflage. In article number 1700273, Jörg J. Schneider, Wilhe...
Article
The Salvinia effect refers to the stable retention of an air layer when submerged in water and is a result of complex hierarchical structuring, ultimate example of which is the surface of the floating fern Salvinia molesta. The air retention capability is technologically interesting as the retained air layer reduces drag force, prevents biofouling,...
Article
Full-text available
An overview of plant surface structures and their evolution is presented. It combines surface chemistry and architecture with their functions and refers to possible biomimetic applications. Within some 3.5 billion years biological species evolved highly complex multifunctional surfaces for interacting with their environments: some 10 million living...
Article
Fog collecting meshes show a great potential to ensure the availability of a supply of sustainable fresh water in certain arid regions. In most cases, the meshes are made of hydrophilic smooth fibers. Based on the study of plant surfaces, we analyzed the fog-collection of different polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers with different cross-sectio...
Chapter
Rethinking the relationship between Homo sapiens and Planet Earth in the Anthropocene is fundamental for a sustainable future for humankind. The complex Earth system and planetary boundaries demand new approaches to addressing our current challenges. Bionics, namely learning from the diversity of life for nature-based technical solutions, is an inc...
Article
The cleanup of accidental oil spills in water is an enormous challenge; conventional oil sorbents absorb large amounts of water in addition to oil and other cleanup methods can cause secondary pollution. In contrast, fresh leaves of the aquatic ferns Salvinia are superhydrophobic and superoleophilic, and can selectively absorb oil while repelling w...
Article
A comprehensive survey of the construction principles and occurrences of superhydrophobic surfaces in plants, animals and other organisms is provided and is based on our own scanning electron microscopic examinations of almost 20 000 different species and the existing literature. Properties such as self-cleaning (lotus effect), fluid drag reduction...
Article
Autogamous species are usually distinguishable from xenogamous relatives by smaller flowers, fewer or even no floral rewards and lower pollen–ovule (P/O) ratios. Many Rhipsalis spp. are small flowered, selfing and include the most widespread species in Cactaceae. However, Rhipsalis also includes a large number of narrowly endemic species and is mos...
Article
Fog collectors can enable us to alleviate the water crisis in certain arid regions of the world. A continuous fog collection cycle consisting of a persistent capture of fog droplets and their fast transport to the target is a prerequisite for developing an efficient fog collector. In regard to this topic, a biological superior design has been found...
Article
Full-text available
Immersed in water superhydrophobic surfaces (e.g., lotus) maintain thin temporary air films. In certain aquatic plants and animals, these films are thicker and more persistent. Floating ferns of the genus Salvinia show elaborated hierarchical superhydrophobic surface structures: a hairy cover of complex trichomes. In the case of S. molesta, they ar...
Data
Wilhelm Barthlott : Publications as PDF available on www.lotus-salvinia.de.: Biodiversity and Bionics We have regularly many requests by students for PDFs of our publications within the research field Biodiversity and Bionics (complete list under www.lotus-salvina.de). We present here a list with links to all abstracts and flyers public available,...
Article
We analyzed the fog collection efficiency of three different sets of samples: replica (with and without microstructures), copper wire (smooth and microgrooved) and polyolefin mesh (hydrophilic, superhydrophilic and hydrophobic). The collection efficiency of the samples was compared in each set separately to investigate the influence of microstructu...
Article
Full-text available
We report a novel, practical technique for the concerted, simultaneous determination of both the adhesion force of a small structure or structural unit (e.g., an individual filament, hair, micromechanical component or microsensor) to a liquid and its elastic properties. The method involves the creation and development of a liquid meniscus upon touc...
Article
Full-text available
The Cactaceae with c. 1,435 species are the most important plant family of the arid regions of the Americas. Recent revisions and molecular studies resulted in an improved knowledge of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group. Due to their high value as ornamental plants, countless publications with data on ecological preferences and geographic occ...
Conference Paper
Abstract: Present world is now facing water shortage for about one billion people. However, fog is an important source of water in certain arid regions, e.g., Namib, Atacama etc. Interestingly, certain plants and animals living in these areas have found distinctive ways to collect fog for their survival. Their surfaces have been being investigated...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fog is an important source of water in certain arid regions e.g. Namib desert, Atacama desert etc. Efficient and innovative technologies are in need of to exploit the fog to compensate the water crisis in arid regions. The existing technology that has been being used to collect fog for last few decades is a polyolefin mesh but it is not efficient e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The surfaces of leaves and petals are interfaces of plants to their environment. As plants grow in different conditions and their surfaces have to provide many functionalities, nature developed a great variety of structures and chemistry . These multifunctional plant surfaces serve as models for many technical applications. The self cleaning abilit...
Article
Superhydrophobic, hierarchically structured, technical surfaces (Lotus-effect) are of high scientific and economic interest because of their remarkable properties. Recently, the immense potential of air-retaining superhydrophobic surfaces, for example, for low-friction transport of fluids and drag-reducing coatings of ships has begun to be explored...
Article
Full-text available
Some plants and animals feature superhydrophobic surfaces capable of retaining a layer of air when submerged under water. Long-term air retaining surfaces (Salvinia-effect) are of high interest for biomimetic applications like drag reduction in ship coatings of up to 30%. Here we present a novel method for measuring air volumes and air loss under w...
Book
Full-text available
The Orchidaceae with some 22 000 species is one of the two largest plant families. Despite of the vast literature on orchids, rather little is known about their seeds, which are generally considered as wind dispersed, small and reduced “dust seeds”. Based on some 1400 collections of orchid seeds analysed by SEM and other methods over the last four...
Article
Full-text available
Xylander, Meine sehr verehrten Damen und Herren, vor allem aber: Lieber Ranga Yogeshwar, Im Herbst vergangenen Jahres fragte mich Professor Xylander, ob ich bereit wäre, heute anlässlich der Verleihung des Meridian-Filmpreises an Ranga Yogeshwar die Laudatio zu halten. Meine Freude und Zusage waren ganz spontan und ich bedanke mich für die ehrenvol...
Article
The surface microstructures on ray florets of 62 species were characterized and compared with modern phylogenetic data of species affiliation in Asteraceae to determine sculptural patterns and their occurrence in the tribes of Asteraceae. Their wettability was studied to identify structural-induced droplet adhesion, which can be used for the develo...
Article
Full-text available
Range-restricted species account for a large proportion of global biodiversity, and many such species are highly threatened by deforestation and intensifying land use in the tropics. The effects of land use on the diversity of range-restricted species have rarely been studied and remain unknown for vascular epiphytes – diverse and important element...
Article
Full-text available
We have analysed the global patterns of moss species diversity based on a dataset created from checklists, online databases, and herbarium records. We collected more than 100 000 distribution records for over 400 different geographical units and standardized species taxonomy using the TROPICOS database of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Maps of over...
Article
Full-text available
The limited resources available for the conservation of biodiversity and eco-system services call for prioritisation schemes. For instance, in the process of systematic conservation planning site selection is partly determined by efficiency gains. In this paper we present an alternative method for global spatial priority-setting based on ecological...