Wilfried Winiwarter

Wilfried Winiwarter
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis | IIASA

About

193
Publications
70,495
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13,373
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2017 - present
University of Zielona Góra
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (193)
Article
City clusters play an important role in air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction in China, primarily due to their high fossil energy consumption levels. The “2 + 26” Cities, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and 26 other perfectures in northern China, has experienced serious air pollution in recent years. We employ the Greenhouse Gas and Air...
Article
Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is an important greenhouse gas (GHG) that also contributes to depletion of ozone in the stratosphere. Agricultural soils account for about 60% of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions. Most national GHG reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change assumes nitrogen (N) additions drive emissions during the grow...
Article
Full-text available
The scientific evidence assembled in this Focus Collection on ‘Reactive nitrogen and the UN sustainable development goals’ emphasizes the relevance of agriculture as a key sector for nitrogen application as well as its release to the environment and the observed impacts. Published work proves the multiple connections and their causality, and presen...
Article
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Plain Language Summary Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third most important greenhouse gase (GHG) after CO2 and CH4 causing global warming. Among world regions, North America (defined herein as U.S., Canada, and Mexico) is the second largest source of N2O emissions globally, and previous source estimates for this region vary widely. This study aims to p...
Article
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Emissions of reactive nitrogen as ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), together with sulfur dioxide (SO2), contribute to formation of secondary PM2.5 in the atmosphere. Satellite observations of atmospheric NH3, NO2, and SO2 levels since the 2000s provide valuable information to constrain the spatial and temporal variability of their emissions....
Article
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Fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers) in the atmosphere is associated with severe negative impacts on human health, and the gases sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia are the main PM2.5 precursors. However, their contribution to global health impacts has not yet been...
Article
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International trade of agricultural products has complicated and far-reaching impacts on land and nitrogen use efficiencies. We analysed the productivity of cropland and livestock and associated use of feed and fertilizer efficiency for over 240 countries, and estimated these countries’ cumulative contributions to imports and exports of 190 agricul...
Article
Cropland ammonia (NH3) emission is a critical driver triggering haze pollution. Many agricultural policies were enforced in past four decades to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency while maintaining crop yield. Inadvertant reductions of NH3 emissions, which may be induced by such policies, are not well evaluated. Here, we quantify the China’s cropl...
Article
Ammonia (NH3) emissions, the majority of which arise from livestock production, are linked to high concentration of PM2.5 and lower air quality in China. NH3 mitigation options were well studied at the small-scale (laboratory or pilot), however, they lack of a large-scale test in China. This study fills this crucial gap by evaluating the cost-benef...
Article
Sustainable food systems face trade-offs between demands of low environmental pressures per unit area and requirements of increasing production. Organic farming has lower yields than conventional agriculture and requires the introduction of nitrogen (N) fixing legumes in crop rotations. Here we perform an integrated assessment of the feasibility of...
Article
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The benefits of the artificial fixation of reactive nitrogen (Nr, nitrogen [N] compounds other than dinitrogen), in the form of N fertilizers and materials are huge, while at the same time posing substantial threats to human and ecosystem health by the release of Nr to the environment. To achieve sustainable N use, Nr loss to the environment must b...
Article
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Reliable quantification of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, together with trends and uncertainties, is essential to monitoring the progress in mitigating anthropogenic emissions under the Paris Agreement. This study provides a consolidated synthesis of CH4 and N2O emissions with consistently derived state-of-the-art bottom-up (BU) and top...
Article
Excess N application on agricultural land greatly impacts the environment in multiple ways, driven by population growth and improving quality of human diets. Therefore, it is essential to quantify the sources of the emissions of N compounds and their determinants (e.g. biological N fixation (BNF), mineral fertilizer, manure N and N deposition) to d...
Article
Reducing ammonia (NH3) volatilization from croplands while satisfying the food demand is strategically required to mitigate haze pollution. However, the global pattern of NH3 volatilization remains uncertain, primarily because of the episodic nature of NH3 volatilization rates and the high variation of fertilization practices. Here, we improve a gl...
Article
Full-text available
Reliable quantification of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, together with trends and uncertainties, is essential to monitoring the progress in mitigating anthropogenic emissions under the Paris Agreement. This study provides a consolidated synthesis of CH4 and N2O emissions with consistently derived state-of-the-art bottom-up (BU) and top...
Article
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important contributor to climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion and yet it receives little attention in either the global climate or ozone agreements. More concerted efforts to address N2O could be key in meeting the 2°C target and a suite of Sustainable Development Goals. The past several years has seen major ad...
Article
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Displaying Nitrogen (N) indicators on a global grid poses unique opportunities to quantify environmental impacts from N application in different world regions under a variety of conditions. Such calculations require the use of maps showing the geo-spatial distribution of crop production. Although there are several crop maps in the scientific litera...
Chapter
Following discussions at the 6th International Nitrogen Conference, Kampala (24th–27th November 2013), the delegates agreed the Kampala Statement-for-Action on Reactive Nitrogen in Africa and Globally. The Statement-for-Action highlights the global challenge of aiming for just enough nitrogen: enough to meet human needs for food, fuel and fibre, wh...
Chapter
Human interference with the nitrogen cycle has doubled reactive nitrogen inputs to the global biosphere over the past century, leading to changes across multiple environmental issues that require urgent action. Nitrogen fertilizers and biological nitrogen fixation have allowed benefits of increased crop harvest and livestock production, while in so...
Chapter
In the global setting of the International Nitrogen Initiative (INI), the European Centre facilitates enhanced cooperation and integration among European researchers, policy makers and practitioners on environmental issues related to reactive nitrogen. INI-Europe represents a region that is characterized by agronomic challenges posed by high popula...
Chapter
Humans have altered the natural nitrogen and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles by the massive input of fertilizers to the agricultural system to boost production. As a result a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus have been mobilised and delivered to the environment, creating threats to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem functioning and human heal...
Article
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Nitrogen pollution is an important environmental issue gaining traction in policy circles. However, there is little understanding of current nitrogen policies around the world: whether they account for nitrogen’s unique ability to exacerbate multiple environmental impacts or balance nitrogen’s dual role as an essential agricultural input and major...
Article
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Over the last decades, energy and pollution control policies combined with structural changes in the economy decoupled emission trends from economic growth, increasingly also in the developing world. It is found that effective implementation of the presently decided national pollution control regulations should allow further economic growth without...
Article
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Nitrous oxide (N2O), like carbon dioxide, is a long-lived greenhouse gas that accumulates in the atmosphere. Over the past 150 years, increasing atmospheric N2O concentrations have contributed to stratospheric ozone depletion¹ and climate change², with the current rate of increase estimated at 2 per cent per decade. Existing national inventories do...
Article
China’s fertilization practices contribute greatly to the global biogeochemical nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows, which have exceeded the safe-operating space. Here, we quantified the potentials of improved nutrient management in the food chain and spatial planning of livestock farms on nutrient use efficiency and losses in China, using a nutr...
Article
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Emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and removals from land, including both anthropogenic and natural fluxes, require reliable quantification, including estimates of uncertainties, to support credible mitigation action under the Paris Agreement. This study provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of bottom-up anthropogenic emissions data from...
Article
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Global food systems contribute to climate change, the transgression of planetary boundaries and deforestation. An improved understanding of the environmental impacts of different food system futures is crucial for forging strategies to sustainably nourish a growing world population. We here quantify the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of global food...
Article
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Croplands are the single largest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) globally, yet their estimates remain difficult to verify when using Tier 1 and 3 methods of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Here, we re-evaluate global cropland-N2O emissions in 1961–2014, using N-rate-dependent emission factors (EFs) upscaled from 12...
Article
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Global bioenergy potentials have been the subject of extensive research and continued controversy. Due to vast uncertainties regarding future yields, diets and other influencing parameters, estimates of future agricultural biomass potentials vary widely. Most scenarios compatible with ambitious climate targets foresee a large expansion of bioenergy...
Article
Humanity's transformation of the nitrogen cycle has major consequences for ecosystems, climate and human health, making it one of the key environmental issues of our time. Understanding how trends could evolve over the course of the 21st century is crucial for scientists and decision-makers from local to global scales. Scenario analysis is the prim...
Article
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Concepts of material flow and mass consistency of nitrogen compounds have been used to elucidate nitrogen’s fate in an urban environment. While reactive nitrogen commonly is associated to agriculture and hence to large areas, here we have compiled scientific literature on nitrogen budget approaches in cities, following the central role cities have...
Article
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Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third most important long-lived GHG and an important stratospheric ozone depleting substance. Agricultural practices and the use of N-fertilizers have greatly enhanced emissions of N2O. Here, we present estimates of N2O emissions determined from three global atmospheric inversion frameworks during the period 1998–2016. We...
Article
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25 Emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) and removals from land, including both anthropogenic and natural fluxes, require reliable quantification, along with estimates of their inherent uncertainties, in order to support credible mitigation action under the Paris Agreement. This study provides a state-of-the-art scientific overview of bottom-up anthro...
Article
This study analyzed ammonia reduction potential and related costs and benefits of several ammonia emission reduction technologies applicable for dairy production from cattle in China. Specifically, these included diet manipulation, manure acidification, manure/slurry covers and solid manure compaction. Ammonia emissions for China were estimated usi...
Article
Full-text available
Croplands are the single largest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) globally, yet their estimates remain difficult to verify when using Tier 1 and 3 methods of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Here, we re-evaluate global cropland-N2O emissions in 1961-2014, using N-rate-dependent emission factors (EF)upscaled from 1,20...
Article
This paper explores the fate of reactive nitrogen (Nr) on the landscape scale of present agricultural production practice on arable and grassland soils. We use the soil modelling tool LandscapeDNDC (landscape scale DeNitrification-DeComposition model) to quantify resulting flows of Nr distributed to the atmosphere, hydrosphere and the crops. Test a...
Conference Paper
The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) has been used to study the development in air quality in Europe from 1979 to 2015. The large changes in anthropogenic emissions both within and outside Europe—especially since the beginning of the 1990s—led to a decrease in many air pollutants. The model analysis captured this observed trend. Using the E...
Article
Our understanding and quantification of global soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and the underlying processes remain largely uncertain. Here, we assessed the effects of multiple anthropogenic and natural factors, including nitrogen fertilizer (N) application, atmospheric N deposition, manure N application, land cover change, climate change, and ri...
Poster
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Livestock production systems are under increasing pressure to become sustainable. Manure management is an important component within animal agriculture that affects the sustainability of livestock production. Activities associated with manure management have impacts on climate, air quality and animal welfare. Current and past literature have addres...
Article
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Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and also an ozone-depleting substance that has both natural and anthropogenic sources. Large estimation uncertainty remains on the magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of N2O fluxes and the key drivers of N2O production in the terrestrial biosphere. Some terrestrial biosphere models have been evol...
Article
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Dietary manipulation of animal diets by reducing crude protein (CP) intake is a strategic NH3 abatement option as it reduces the overall nitrogen input at the very beginning of the manure management chain. This study presents a comprehensive meta-analysis of scientific literature on NH3 reductions following a reduction of CP in cattle and pig diets...
Article
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We describe a consistent framework developed to quantify current and future anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide and the available technical abatement options by source sector for 172 regions globally. About 65% of the current emissions derive from agricultural soils, 8% from waste, and 4% from the chemical industry. Low-cost abatement options...
Article
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Farm livestock manure is an important source of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Concerns over the environmental impact of emissions from manure management have resulted in research efforts focusing on emission abatement. However, questions regarding the successful abatement of manure-related emissions remain. This study uses a meta-analytical approac...
Article
The Hai River Basin (HRB), one of the most populated areas in China, is experiencing high NH3 emissions, mostly from agricultural sources, and suffering from strongly enhanced PM2.5 concentrations in all urban areas. Further population growth and urbanization projected until 2030 may exacerbate this situation. Here, the NUFER (NUtrient flows in Foo...
Conference Paper
Choices over different animal housing systems affect the welfare of animals, the environment and the economics of farming. In agronomic studies, animal welfare is usually measured in terms of biological functioning (reproductive fitness and lack of disease). We argue that biological functioning alone is insufficient to capture animal welfare, and e...
Article
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This paper analyses the emissions and cost impacts of mitigation of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs) at a global level, in scenarios aimed at meeting a range of long-term temperature goals (LTTGs). The study combines an integrated assessment model (TIAM-Grantham) representing CO2 emissions (and their mitigation) from the fossil fuel combustion and i...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we develop the framework of a system dynamics-based model for future studying the equity of resource distribution in rural areas, at a country scale and farm resolution. Our main hypothesis for conceptual development of the model is the following: the unequal spatial distribution of N fertilizer availability and use within a country...
Article
Full-text available
One of the 'grand challenges' of this age is the anthropogenic impact exerted on the nitrogen cycle. Issues of concern range from an excess of fixed nitrogen resulting in environmental pressures for some regions, while for other regions insufficient fixed nitrogen affects food security and may lead to health risks. To address these issues, nitrogen...
Article
The United States’ legal strategy for addressing climate change in recent years has relied on authority from existing legislation. This has led to measures on a number of different greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, methane and hydrofluorocarbons. However, one greenhouse gas has been largely forgotten: nitrous oxide. Nitrous oxide is the thi...
Poster
Full-text available
Analysis of emissions from crop production indicates that N2O (nitrous oxide) emissions from fertilizer application have the largest impact on global warming as compared to emissions from other production operations (Adler et al. 2007). This emphasizes the need to abate nitrogen flows from agricultural production. Various abatement options are avai...
Article
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This study assesses abatement costs of three measures aimed at reducing nitrogen (N) emissions from livestock production: two protein-adjusted feeding strategies for pigs, and higher-quality forage for dairy cattle. In a partial cost approach, we quantified the effect of different measures on N losses and production costs. We accounted for emission...
Article
With 7.5% total nutritional value, pork is a staple food for many members of the Austrian population. Among members of the general public, little is known about the environmental impacts “from farm to fork” in the production of pork. This paper identifies three main impact categories for the environmental profile of Austrian pork using the Life Cyc...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive Summary The main resources for global food production (land, soil, water, biodiversity, some nutrient elements) are finite and some even scarce. Moreover wasting resources is often harmful to society and the environment. The pressure on our natural resources is large, and at risk of increasing in the coming decades due to the projected in...
Article
This paper compares existing livestock emissions and projections on three different spatial levels (global, European, national) and on two sets of system boundaries (inventory data and emission data considering the whole lifecycle). It aims to provide insight in the validity of scenario data of national Austrian livestock emissions. This entails th...
Conference Paper
This study focuses on manure management as a source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1) Understand emission sources and quantify GHG emissions 2) Identify effective GHG mitigation options and estimate their reduction potential to reduce GHG emissions 3) Determine trends and estimates of pollutant interactions from implementing proposed mitigati...
Article
Environmental effects of reactive nitrogen (Nr) are a result of intense anthropogenic activities.1 They are evident in different parts of the world. Proper treatment is, inter alia, a scale issue. With individual countries in most of Europe too small for comprehensive coverage of all effects, regulation of pollution in Europe co-emerged with politi...
Article
Nitrogen budgets cover pools and flows of nitrogen (N) contained in human-made goods and compounds, which may potentially affect the global nitrogen cycle and in consequence the human environment. Acknowledging the importance of food and other agricultural products, this paper additionally investigates frequently neglected flows of N related to con...
Article
In the present paper, national and externally organized projections of greenhouse gas emissions for Austria were compared to gain insight on the underlying scenario data assumptions. National greenhouse gas emission trends extend until 2030, an assessment of European Union (EU) countries to 2050. In addition, data for 2000-2100 was extracted from t...