Wilco w. van Dijk

Wilco w. van Dijk
Leiden University | LEI · Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences

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121
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
People experience financial scarcity when they have insufficient financial resources to meet demands, and this experience can affect decision-making in various ways. One proposed consequence of financial scarcity is increased temporal discounting, which is a tendency to value immediate outcomes more strongly than delayed outcomes. To test whether f...
Article
In nine studies (total N = 12,249), we evaluated the psychometric properties of the Psychological Inventory of Financial Scarcity (PIFS). The PIFS assesses experienced financial scarcity and captures four aspects of this subjective experience: an appraisal of insufficient financial resources, an appraisal of lack of control over one's financial sit...
Article
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Social welfare aims to support financially vulnerable households by protecting them from financial shocks and providing them with a basic standard of living. Many eligible households, however, do not take up social welfare. We present the results of in‐depth interviews with 31 members of financially vulnerable households in two large Dutch cities a...
Article
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The approach-avoidance task (AAT) is an implicit task that measures people’s behavioral tendencies to approach or avoid stimuli in the environment. In recent years, it has been used successfully to help explain a variety of health problems (e.g., addictions and phobias). Unfortunately, more recent AAT studies have failed to replicate earlier promis...
Article
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Using longitudinal data before and during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic for a representative sample of Dutch households, we examined the role of financial stress, defined as the subjective experience of lacking financial resources to cope with demands, in mental health changes. Also, we examined financial stress and mental health re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using longitudinal data before and during the first six months of the pandemic for a representative sample of Dutch households, we examined the role of financial stress in mental health trajectories during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, we examined possible relations of financial stress and mental health with households' income, financial buffers, an...
Article
Rising student debt, overborrowing among Dutch students, and the complexity of students’ loan decisions signal the need for interventions that evoke more thoughtful loan decisions among Dutch students. In a large field experiment (N= 48,700) we addressed this need by testing interventions that encourage them to recalibrate their monthly loan amount...
Article
Objective To examine whether an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) that included finance-related barriers better explained dietary quality. Design Cross-sectional survey. Participants One-thousand and thirty-three participants were included from a Dutch independent adult panel. Main Outcome Dietary quality. Analysis Five TPB models were...
Article
Full-text available
Financial well-being is a desirable state as it benefits individuals, families, organizations, and society, and these benefits reach beyond the financial domain. We assessed financial well-being as two components (current financial stress and expected future financial security) and used data from a representative sample of adults in the United King...
Preprint
Full-text available
We empirically test an integral model for healthcare and child support benefits take-up using a probability sample of the Dutch population (N = 905). To examine how different psychological factors, in conjunction, explain take-up, we apply model averaging with Akaike’s Information Criterion (AICC). For both types of benefits, people’s perceptions o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social welfare aims to support financially vulnerable households by protecting them from financial shocks and providing them with a basic standard of living. Many eligible households, however, do not take up social welfare. We present the results of in-depth interviews with 31 members of financially vulnerable households in two large Dutch cities a...
Preprint
Social welfare aims to support financially vulnerable households by protecting them from financial shocks and providing them with a basic standard of living. Many eligible households, however, do not take up social welfare. We present the results of in-depth interviews with 31 members of financially vulnerable households in two large Dutch cities a...
Article
COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on people worldwide. We conducted an international survey (n = 3646) examining the degree to which people's appraisals and coping activities around the pandemic predicted their health and well-being. We obtained subsamples from 12 countries—Bangladesh, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, India, Israel, the Netherlands,...
Article
Full-text available
In two experimental studies, we investigated the affective (Studies 1 and 2) and behavioral (Study 2) effects of not being trusted. In an adapted version of the Trust Game paradigm, participants were all assigned the position of Person B, and learned that their opponent (Person A) had decided to not let them divide monetary outcomes. This had eithe...
Article
COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on people worldwide. We conducted an international survey (n = 3646) examining the degree to which people's appraisals and coping activities around the pandemic predicted their health and well-being. We obtained subsamples from 12 countries—Bangladesh, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, India, Israel, the Netherlands,...
Article
Full-text available
A confidence-based climate between public administrations and citizens is essential. This paper argues and provides empirical evidence that depending on the perceived interaction history, different policies are needed to build versus maintain confidence. Applying the extended Slippery Slope Framework of tax compliance, an online and a laboratory ex...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the effects of prepopulated returns and accuracy confirmation on compliance. Participants were asked to report correct liabilities for different types of returns, whereby some had to confirm the accuracy of each reported liability and others not. Results showed that correctly prefilled returns yielded the highest rate of compliance follow...
Article
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Approach and avoidance tendencies have helped explain phenomena as diverse as addiction (Mogg, Field, & Bradley, 2005), phobia (Rinck & Becker, 2007), and intergroup discrimination (Bianchi, Carnaghi, & Shamloo, 2018; Degner, Essien, & Reichardt, 2016). When the original approach-avoidance task (AAT; Solarz, 1960) that measures these tendencies was...
Article
The present study used a Solomon four-group quasi-experimental design to examine the short-term effect of a large-scale national financial education program on children’s knowledge and skills in responsible spending and performing transactions effectively. Our study included a representative sample of Dutch pupils in the fifth grade of primary scho...
Article
Full-text available
The current article examined the characteristics of real-life revenge acts. A demographically diverse sample of avengers described autobiographical revenge acts and the preceding offense. They rated the severity of both acts, the time before taking revenge, and motives for the timing. Independent raters also rated the severity of both acts and code...
Chapter
Financial problems have a large negative impact on people’s lives. It is therefore important that they engage in healthy financial behavior, for example, putting money aside in savings to cover unexpected and necessary expenses. Saving money, however, does not come easy for many people and they can need some help with it. In the present chapter, we...
Article
We address the differences between schadenfreude and happiness and those between gluckschmerz and anger. We argue that these emotions are largely elicited by distinct interactions of appraisals that trigger distinct emotional responses. Moreover, we discuss both schadenfreude and gluckschmerz in relation to the emotional lexicon of several language...
Article
We examine the conditions under which power decreases trust and the process by which this occurs. Three experiments and a field study revealed that occupying an unstable power position decreases trust as it raises power holders’ concerns about losing power. We replicate this finding across studies differing in measures and design, using different s...
Article
Full-text available
Despite tax compliance being mandatory and charitable giving being voluntary, both can be seen as two sides of the same coin. Paying taxes and making monetary donations are two complementary ways to financially provide for the common good. Using goal-framing theory, an experimental study with a mixed-factorial design (N = 435) was conducted to test...
Article
We explore why people feel the socially improper emotions of schadenfreude (pleasure at another person’s or group’s misfortune) and gluckschmerz (pain at another person’s or group’s good fortune). One explanation follows from sentiment relations. Prior dislike leads to both schadenfreude and gluckschmerz. A second explanation relates to concerns ov...
Article
Two studies investigate schadenfreude (pleasure at the misfortune of others) as an emotional response to news about out-group misfortunes in a political and consumer context by analyzing reactions of voters for opposition parties to the downfall of a Dutch coalition government (Study 1), and of BlackBerry-users to negative news reports about Apple’...
Article
Little is known about the situational factors that turn feelings of revenge into actual acts of revenge. Addressing this gap in the literature, this study selected a representative sample of people who acted on their feelings of revenge (avengers) and of people who did not (nonavengers), obtaining a reflection of typical antecedents of revenge. Res...
Article
The current research examined whether social power affects what people find funny. In two experiments, participants’ psychological state of social power was experimentally manipulated and their evaluations of offensive jokes were assessed. Results showed that participants in a psychological state of high power – as compared to low power – evaluated...
Article
Authorities frequently justify their sanctions as attempts to deter people from rule breaking. Although providing a sanction justification seems appealing and harmless, we propose that a deterrence justification decreases the extent to which sanctions are effective in promoting rule compliance. We develop a theoretical model that specifies how and...
Book
Full-text available
Quando qualcuno è colpito da una sventura, un incidente o una disgrazia, a volte proviamo Schadenfreude: un’emozione che si definisce solitamente come “provare piacere per la sventura altrui”. Quella della Schadenfreude è un’esperienza comune: è un’emozione che sembra intrinseca all’essere sociale. Questo libro offre un’ampia rassegna delle ricerch...
Article
Full-text available
People derive their sense of belonging from perceptions of being a moral person. Research moreover suggests that social cues of rejection rapidly influence visual scanning, and result in avoidant gaze behavior, especially in socially anxious individuals. With the current eye-tracking experiment, we therefore examined whether moral integrity threats...
Article
In the present study, we examined the impact of emotion regulation on the intensity bias in guilt and shame. Fifty-two undergraduates either forecasted their emotions and emotion regulation following a guilt- and shame-eliciting situation or reported their actual experienced emotions and employed emotion regulation. Results showed a clear intensity...
Article
In this article we address why and when people feel schadenfreude (pleasure at the misfortunes of others) in both interpersonal and intergroup contexts. Using findings from our own research programmes we show that schadenfreude is intensified when people are chronically or momentarily threatened in their self-worth, whereas it is attenuated when th...
Article
We propose that power fundamentally changes why leaders punish and we develop a theoretical model that specifies how and why this occurs. Specifically, we argue that power increases the reliance on deterrence, but not just deserts, as a punishment motive and relate this to power fostering a distrustful mindset. We tested our model in 9 studies usin...
Article
The present research provides a replication and extension of L. A. Colyn and A. K. Gordon's (2013) study on gender differences in schadenfreude. An experiment—in which both the gender of the unfortunate other and the dimension on which the misfortune occurred were manipulated—showed that female participants reported more schadenfreude when a same-g...
Article
Full-text available
A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more "inclusive" or a more "exclusive" cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfact...
Article
Full-text available
People frequently condemn harmless sexual taboo behaviours. Based on self-affirmation theory, we predicted that providing an opportunity to self-affirm decreases the tendency to morally condemn harmless sexual taboos. In Experiment 1, we found evidence that self-affirmation decreases the moral condemnation of harmless sexual taboos and ruled out th...
Article
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In the present research we examined whether the psychological meaning of people's categorisation goals affects facial muscle activity in response to facial expressions of emotion. We had participants associate eye colour (blue, brown) with either a personality trait (extraversion) or a physical trait (light frequency) and asked them to use these as...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has yielded inconsistent findings concerning the relationship between envy and schadenfreude. Three studies examined whether the distinction between benign and malicious envy can resolve this inconsistency. We found that malicious envy is related to schadenfreude, while benign envy is not. This result held both in the Netherlands...
Article
In this article we provide empirical support for anger as an underlying mechanism of costly punishment in three studies. A first study showed that participants punished other players more the less these players cooperated in a Public Goods Game and that this effect was mediated by experienced anger. A second study showed that participants appraised...
Book
Full-text available
When someone suffers a mishap, a setback or a downfall, we sometimes find ourselves experiencing schadenfreude - an emotion defined as deriving pleasure from another's misfortune. Schadenfreude is a common experience and an emotion which is seemingly inherent to social being. This book offers a comprehensive summary of current theoretical and empir...
Chapter
Full-text available
When someone else suffers a mishap, a setback, a downfall, or another type of misfortune, people often experience sympathy and have feelings of concern and sorrow for the other. However, these events can also elicit schadenfreude – pleasure at the misfortunes of others. Whereas our moral tradition exalts and praises sympathetic people because they...
Chapter
Full-text available
Don’t mention the war! I mentioned it once, but I think I got away with it all right (Basil Fawlty in the “The Germans” episode of Fawlty Towers) The Dutch authors of this chapter are both passionate fans of the sport of football. That is, the sport in which all participants actually use their feet to play the ball, referred to as “soccer” by North...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book is about that joyful feeling you may experience when someone else suffers a mishap, a setback, a downfall, a calamity, an adversity, or any other type of misfortune. The German language has coined the word Schadenfreude for this pleasure at the misfortunes of other people. The main aim of this edited volume is to offer a comprehensive sum...
Chapter
Revenge is probably as old as humankind itself. Take, for example, the Greek myth of Medea. When her husband Jason leaves her for Glauce, daughter of Creon, King of Corinth, Medea kills her two sons to avenge her husband’s betrayal and says: “It is the supreme way to hurt my husband.” Revenge’s propensity to debouch into drama has made it an excell...
Article
Full-text available
A previous study has shown that the degree of trust into others might be biased by inducing either a more "inclusive" or a more "exclusive" cognitive-control mode. Here, we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by environmental factors, such as odors, that are likely to impact cognitive-control states. Arousing olfact...
Article
Full-text available
We examined how appeals to collective guilt and pride can motivate people to help members of a disadvantaged outgroup. Results from two experiments supported the prediction that appeals to collective pride are more effective than appeals to collective guilt in prompting high identifying group members', but not low identifying group members' willing...
Article
Full-text available
Voice pitch may not only influence the listeners but also the speakers themselves. Based on the theories of embodied cognition and previous research on power, we tested whether lowering their pitch leads people to feel more powerful and think more abstractly. In three experiments, participants received instructions to read a text out loud with eith...
Article
In the present study we examined the role of four specific forms of reappraisal in people's overestimation of their future experiences of anger and sadness. Results show that forecasters predicted to experience more intense anger and sadness following social exclusion than experiencers actually felt. This impact bias was shown in both the overall i...
Article
Full-text available
In this experiment we demonstrate that low self-evaluation individuals experience more schadenfreude following an unfavorable performance of a contestant on a TV show after receiving negative feedback on a self-relevant task, as compared with those who received positive feedback. Moreover, we show that high self-evaluation individuals do not differ...
Article
Full-text available
In two studies we demonstrated that self-esteem has a negative relationship with schadenfreude toward a high achiever and that this relationship was mediated by the self-threat evoked by this high achiever. Moreover, we showed that this indirect relationship was contingent on an opportunity to affirm the self. When no self-affirmation opportunity w...
Article
Full-text available
In two experiments we demonstrated that a self-evaluation threat intensifies schadenfreude. Moreover, we showed that a self-evaluation threat predicts schadenfreude in both threat-related and threat-unrelated domains and when controlling for feelings of envy and dislike towards the target and evaluations of the misfortune in terms of deservingness....
Article
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We conducted a study to investigate the motivational dynamics of protest participation. Previous research suggests that instrumental and identity motives together with group-based anger predict people's intentions to participate in protest. The present research combines these motives with ideology into a single model. So far, no study has tested su...
Article
Full-text available
The present study tested the hypothesis that Schadenfreude, pleasure at another's misfortune, results when a misfortune is perceived as deserved. Participants responded to interviews in which information was provided about a student who suffered a misfortune. The male or female student had either high or average achievements and was either responsi...
Article
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Regret and disappointment have in common the fact that they are experienced when the outcome of a decision is unfavourable: They both concern “what might have been”, had things been different. However, some regret and disappointment theorists regard the differences between these emotions as important, arguing that they differ with respect to the co...
Article
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The emphasis in the social-psychological collective action literature is on why individuals take part in collective action; however, it does not elaborate on how different mobilizing contexts may appeal to distinct motivational dynamics to participate. The present study connects the microlevel of motivational dynamics of individual protesters with...
Article
The author examined affective forecasting and the impact bias among track athletics. Results show that athletes clearly overestimated the intensity of their experienced negative emotions, whereas they accurately predicted the intensity of their experienced positive emotions. The author discusses these findings in relation to athletes' regulation pr...
Article
The authors tested the hypothesis that people experience less schadenfreude and more sympathy toward high achievers with deserved achievements who suffer misfortunes as opposed to those with undeserved achievements. The results support the hypothesis and show that this effect is mediated by the perceived deservingness of the misfortune.
Article
Recent research has shown that individuals are prepared to incur costs to punish non-cooperators, even in one-shot interactions. However, why would people punish non-cooperators with no apparent benefits for the punishers themselves? This behavior is also known as altruistic punishment. When defection is discovered, an individual evaluates this act...
Article
Recent research has shown that individuals are prepared to incur costs to punish non-cooperators, even in one-shot interactions. However, why would people punish non-cooperators with no apparent benefits for the punishers themselves? This behavior is also known as altruistic punishment. When defection is discovered, an individual evaluates this act...
Article
The author examined affective forecasting and the impact bias among track athletics. Results show that athletes clearly overestimated the intensity of their experienced negative emotions, whereas they accurately predicted the intensity of their experienced positive emotions. The author discusses these findings in relation to athletes' regulation pr...
Article
The authors tested the hypothesis that the more individuals are responsible for their own misfortune, the more schadenfreude (i.e., pleasure derived from another's misfortune) and less sympathy the misfortune evokes in others. The results support the hypothesis, thereby providing further evidence for the role responsibility plays in emotional react...
Article
People commonly overestimate the intensity of their emotions toward future events. In other words, they display an impact bias. This research addresses the question whether people learn from their experiences and correct for the impact bias. We hypothesize that athletes display an impact bias and, counterintuitively, that increased experience with...
Article
Full-text available
Four experiments explored whether lacking power impairs executive functioning, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive presses of powerlessness increase vulnerability to performance decrements during complex executive tasks. In the first three experiments, low power impaired performance on executive-function tasks: The powerless were less effecti...
Article
Two factors known to affect the use of self in social prediction, target similarity and order of predictions, are considered in concert to understand how the use of self varies across the prediction of different targets. Replicating earlier studies, we predicted and found that people use the self more when predicting similar others than when predic...
Article
The present research examined the relationship between adherence to honor norms and emotional reactions after an insult. Participants were 42 Dutch male train travelers, half of whom were insulted by a confederate who bumped into the participant and made a degrading remark. Compared with insulted participants with a weak adherence to honor norms, i...
Article
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Using extensive diary data from people taking their driver's license exam, the authors investigated the role of time in affective forecasting accuracy. Replicating existing findings, participants grossly overestimated the intensity and duration of their negative affect after failure and only slightly overestimated the intensity and duration of thei...
Article
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The study investigated the relation between coping strategies of inmates and their psychological and physical well-being. General affective states such as optimism were related to both psychological and physical well-being. Moreover, inmates who experienced specific negative emotions such as regret, anxiety, and sadness reported more psychological...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research yielded conflicting results concerning the role of envy in predicting Schadenfreude (pleasure at another's misfortune). Some studies showed that envy predicts Schadenfreude, whereas others did not. Results of the present research reconcile these opposing findings, by showing that envy is a predictor of Schadenfreude when the targe...