Wilbur Eugene Roberts

Wilbur Eugene Roberts
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis | IUPUI · Department of Orthodontics and Oral Facial Genetics

DDS, PhD, DHC (Med)

About

195
Publications
70,069
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,743
Citations
Citations since 2017
31 Research Items
2269 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (195)
Article
Routine alignment with fixed appliances and aligners is indeterminate mechanics because equilibrium equations are only applicable to two abutments: teeth, segments, or arches. Orthodontists must depend on compliance and resilience of materials (archwires and aligners) for initial alignment. However, stabilized segments and arches are "large multiro...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of the Review Compare pathophysiology for infectious and noninfectious demineralization disease relative to mineral maintenance, physiologic fluoride levels, and mechanical degradation. Recent Findings Environmental acidity, biomechanics, and intercrystalline percolation of endemic fluoride regulate resistance to demineralization relative...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review Compare noninfectious (part I) to infectious (part II) demineralization of bones and teeth. Evaluate similarities and differences in the expression of hard tissue degradation for the two most common chronic demineralization diseases: osteoporosis and dental caries. Recent Findings The physiology of demineralization is similar for...
Article
This article presents an update on a clinical case report of interdisciplinary treatment for bimaxillary protrusion with multiple missing teeth and a challenging atrophic alveolar defect in the esthetic zone. The comprehensive treatment included orthodontics, bone augmentation with an autogenous chin block in the anterior maxilla, and an implant su...
Article
Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the 6-month survival (success) rate for infrazygomatic crest (IZC) bone screws relative to patient age, insertion angle, sinus penetration, and terminal insertion torque. Methods One hundred consecutive patients (27 males, 73 females; mean age 25.8 years; age range, 11.0-53.8 years) received IZC tem...
Article
Clear aligners are esthetical mechanics that provide good pushing (compressive) loads when they are well-fitted to the surfaces of teeth. They were considered excellent for a pushing (compression) type movement, but poor for pulling (tension) to close large molar spaces, and were inappropriate for short clinical crowns with few if any undercuts. Ho...
Chapter
Full-text available
Understanding the mechanisms of bone growth and craniofacial development, as well as recognizing the processes of bone modeling versus remodeling, are key to the practice of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Although bone manipulation is important to most aspects of dentistry, orthodontists are craniofacial bone specialists. As such, a thor...
Article
Purpose : The purpose of this Best Evidence Consensus Statement was to evaluate the existing literature on the stomatognathic system's ability to adapt to occlusal changes. Materials and Methods : The search term stomatognathic system was not useful as it resulted in over 400,000 results nor was the search term temporomandibular joint adaptation w...
Article
Orthodontic bone screws (OBSs) provide intraoral anchorage by penetrating oral mucosa and seating firmly in basilar bone (BB). Retromolar (prosthetic‐type) implants introduced the extra‐alveolar (E‐A) concept for BB anchorage to move teeth throughout the alveolar process, but the clinical procedures were complex and expensive. Titanium alloy (Ti) m...
Article
Full-text available
Inadequate posterior anchorage is a serious limitation for aligner treatment involving extraction of four first premolars. Inappropriate axial inclinations may compromise intermaxillary occlusion and stability. OrthoBoneScrew ® (OBS) anchorage is designed to augment the Invisalign ® clear aligner G6 solution to produce more predictable outcomes as...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To assess the mechanical environment for three fixed appliances designed to retract the lower anterior segment. Materials and Methods: A cone-beam computed tomography scan provided three-dimensional morphology to construct finite element models for three common methods of lower anterior retraction into first premolar extraction spaces:...
Article
The temporomandibular joint is a highly conserved articulation because it promotes survival and propagation via the essential functions of mastication, communication, and routine mating success (dentofacial esthetics). The temporomandibular joint is a unique secondary joint formed between the endochondral temporal bone and the mandibular secondary...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A functional appliance is commonly used to optimize the development of the facial skeleton in the treatment of Class II malocclusion. Recent three-dimensional(3D) image-based analysis offers numerous advantages in quantitative measurement and visualization in orthodontics. The aim of this study was to localize in 3D the skeletal effect...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Introduction: A 15-year-7-month-old female with a history of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) presented with chief complaints of poor dental esthetics and anterior openbite. History and Etiology: AI is a hereditary disorder that is usually manifested as an autosomal dominate trait involving defective ENAM gene(s). For the present patient, defi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: A 20-year-old female presented for orthodontic consultation to evaluate chief complaints of multiple caries, lower arch spacing and a protrusive lower lip. Diagnosis: Clinical and radiographic examination revealed a straight facial profile (G-Sn-Pg’ 3 ̊), protrusive lower lip, hypermentalis activity, lower dental midline deviated to t...
Article
Full-text available
A 15-year-old female presented with a chief complaint of unesthetic smile and protrusive lips. Lower facial height and convexity were within normal limits, but the lower lip was protrusive (3mm to the E-Line). Bimaxillary retrusion (SNA 79.5˚, SNB 76˚, and ANB 3.5˚) and a high mandibular angle (SN-MP 38˚) were noted. Lower incisors were prominent (...
Article
Full-text available
introduction: A 19 year- 4 month male presented with a chief complaint (CC) of poor dental and facial esthetics. Diagnosis: Increased facial convexity (16 ̊) and lower facial height (59%) were associated with a steep mandibular plane (FMA 31 ̊), retrusive maxilla (SNA 80.5 ̊) and mandible (77 ̊), plus an intermaxillary base discrepancy (ANB 3.5 ̊)....
Article
Objectives:: To compare failure rates for stainless steel (SS) and titanium alloy (TiA) bone screws (BSs) placed in the infrazygomatic crest (IZC). Materials and methods:: A total of 386 consecutive patients (76 male, 310 female; mean age 24.3 years, range 10.3-59.4 years) received IZC BSs (SS or TiA) via a double-blind, split-mouth design. BSs...
Article
A 33-year-old woman had a chief complaint of difficulty chewing, caused by a constricted mandibular arch and a unilateral full buccal crossbite (scissors-bite or Brodie bite). She requested minimally invasive treatment but agreed to anchorage with extra-alveolar temporary anchorage devices as needed. Her facial form was convex with protrusive but c...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The periodontal aspects of orthodontics are reviewed with an emphasis on arch expansion and management of crowding in the lower anterior segment. Gingival Recession: Gingival biotype (width of keratinized tissue) and bone morphotype (thickness of labial bone) are the critical diagnostic factors for prevention and treatment of gingival r...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Investigate the developmental physiology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a unique articulation between the cranium and the mandible. Recent findings: Principal regulatory factors for TMJ and disc development are Indian hedgehog (IHH) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2). The mechanism is closely associated with ear mor...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Elucidate temporomandibular joint (TMJ) development and pathophysiology relative to regeneration, degeneration, and adaption. Recent findings: The pharyngeal arch produces a highly conserved stomatognathic system that supports airway and masticatory function. An induced subperiosteal layer of fibrocartilage cushions TMJ functi...
Article
A 36-year-old woman with good periodontal health sought treatment for a compensated Class II partially edentulous malocclusion associated with a steep mandibular plane (SN-MP, 45°), 9 missing teeth, a 3-mm midline discrepancy, and compromised posterior occlusal function. She had multiple carious lesions, a failing fixed prostheses in the mandibular...
Article
It is usually desirable to recover horizontally impacted mandibular molars. Impacted third molars may also be valuable dental units if the adjacent first or second molars are compromised or missing. Uprighting horizontally impacted third molars prior to extraction may be a wise measure to avoid damaging the second molar and its periodontium and inf...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Maxillary constriction is routinely addressed with rapid maxillary expansion (RME). However, the heavy forces delivered by most RME appliances to expand the palate may lead to deleterious effects on the teeth and supporting tissues. The objective of this study was to explore a more physiologic maxillary expansion with light continuous...
Article
A 12-year-old girl presented with a Class II Division 1 malocclusion, complicated by a complete transposition of the maxillary left canine into the position normally occupied by the left lateral incisor. Dental and medical histories were noncontributory. Brackets were bonded on all maxillary teeth, from first molar to first molar, except for the le...
Article
Full-text available
Simplified mechanics are reported for uprighting horizontally impacted mandibular molars with ramus bone screws. A 27-year-old male presented with a chief complaint of food impaction and problematic occlusion of his posterior teeth. The panoramic radiograph revealed multiple impacted molars: both upper third molars, and all lower second and third m...
Article
A man, aged 28 years 9 months, came for an orthodontic consultation for a skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB angle, −3°) with a modest asymmetric Class II and Class III molar relationship, complicated by an anterior crossbite, a deepbite, and 12 mm of asymmetric maxillary crowding. Despite the severity of the malocclusion (Discrepancy Index, 37),...
Article
Introduction: In the absence of adequate animal or in-vitro models, the biomechanics of human malocclusion must be studied indirectly. Finite element analysis (FEA) is emerging as a clinical technology to assist in diagnosis, treatment planning, and retrospective analysis. The hypothesis tested is that instantaneous FEA can retrospectively simulate...
Chapter
Full-text available
Bone growth and development is central to the practice of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. This chapter reviews in detail the basics of bone biology of facial bones, its growth and development, its adaptive mechanisms to mechanical forces applied along with a note on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) adaptation and how dentofacial orthopedics...
Article
Full-text available
Summary OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of surface roughness on the removal torque and bone-to-implant contact of four different orthodontic mini-implants. Mini-implants and circular discs were made from alloy Ti6Al4V grade 5. On the basis of surface treatment, the study was divided into four groups-group 1: machined (n = 32), no surface tre...
Article
Bimaxillary protrusion in a 28-year-old woman was complicated by multiple missing, restoratively compromised, or hopeless teeth. The maxillary right central incisor had a history of avulsion and replantation that subsequently evolved into generalized external root resorption with Class III mobility and severe loss of the supporting periodontium. Th...
Article
Objective: To compare the initial failure rate (≤4 months) for extra-alveolar mandibular buccal shelf (MBS) miniscrews placed in movable mucosa (MM) or attached gingiva (AG). Materials and methods: A total of 1680 consecutive stainless steel (SS) 2 × 12-mm MBS miniscrews were placed in 840 patients (405 males and 435 females; mean age, 16 ± 5 ye...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the relationship between root resorption (RR) and bone turnover in two different types of tooth movement in dogs. Materials and methods: A total of 16 dogs in two different groups were used. Tooth movement of dog premolars resulted from approximately 200 g of force. Histomorphometric analysis of premolar roots was asses...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To assess the three-dimensional (3D) skeletal response to a standardized 5 mm of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in growing children (6-15 years) with maxillary width deficiency and crowding. Materials and methods: A bonded appliance was used prior to the eruption of the maxillary first premolars (Mx4s), and a banded appliance was use...
Article
The purpose of this research was to evaluate microdamage accumulation after mini-implant placement by self-drilling (without a pilot hole) and self-tapping (screwed into a pilot hole) insertion techniques. The null hypothesis was that the mini-implant insertion technique would have no influence on microcrack accumulation and propagation in the cort...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Although much imaging research has focused on the localization and management of the impacted canines, optimal biomechanics for successful recovery are not clear. The purpose of this research was to delineate the three-dimensional (3D) effects of a single force applied using a Kilroy spring on a palatally impacted maxillary canine positioned a...
Article
Full-text available
Utilize American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) cast/radiographic evaluation (CRE) to compare a series of 63 consecutive patients, finished with manual wire bending (conventional) treatment, vs a subsequent series of 69 consecutive patients, finished by the same orthodontist using the SureSmile™ (SS) method. Records of 132 nonextraction patients were...
Conference Paper
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the components of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) discrepancy index (DI) and duration of orthodontic treatment. Methods: A retrospective assessment of 732 patient records with permanent dentition was performed. Pretreatment radiographs and casts were used to determine the DI score. Other data...
Article
Full-text available
To test the hypothesis that there is no relationship between the components of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) discrepancy index (DI) and duration of orthodontic treatment. A retrospective review of 732 patient records with permanent dentition was performed. Pretreatment radiographs and casts were used to determine the DI score. Other data...
Article
Full-text available
Although much imaging research has focused on the localization and the management of impacted canines, optimal biomechanics for successful recovery are not clear. The purpose of this research was to compare the 3 mechanics--Kilroy spring, elastic chain, and steel ligature wire--used for the management of impacted canines by quantifying the 6 compon...
Article
The American Board of Orthodontics' discrepancy index (DI) was designed to objectively quantify the complexity of a malocclusion before orthodontic treatment. In this study, we assessed the influence of age and sex on the DI distribution of a large mixed sample of patients. An additional objective was to ascertain the effectiveness of the DI for pr...
Article
The development of incipient caries, or white spot lesions (WSLs), is a significant clinical problem in orthodontics. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine the incidence and severity of WSLs by examining pretreatment and posttreatment digital photographs. A total of 332 consecutive finished patients from a university graduate o...
Article
Full-text available
To test the null hypothesis that surface treatment has no influence on the micro-shear bond strength between orthodontic composite resin cement and ceramics (feldspathic porcelain). Circular specimens of feldspathic porcelain were fabricated and randomly divided into six groups: (1) no treatment; (2) treatment with a mixture of acidic primer and si...
Conference Paper
Objective: Maxillary canine are regarded as key teeth in maintaining normal function and optimal esthetics. Considering their strategic importance the expenditure of time, effort and cost to bring them in alignment and optimal position has always been considered worthwhile. The purpose of this research is to delineate the effect of bracket angulati...
Article
Full-text available
To compare reliability for landmark identification on patient images from three-dimensional (3D) cone beam CT (CBCT) and digital two-dimensional (2D) lateral cephalograms. Ten lateral cephalometric digital radiographs and their corresponding CBCT images were randomly selected. 27 observers digitally identified 27 landmarks in both modes. The x- and...
Article
Full-text available
The P2X7 receptor plays a crucial role in bone biology and inflammation. Its main function is to promote necrotic tissue metabolism by ensuring a normal acute-phase inflammatory response. We used a mouse model to describe and compare orthodontic mechanotransduction in wild-type and P2X7 knock-out mice. By using finite element analysis, mouse orthod...
Article
Full-text available
To determine the relationship of the ABO Discrepancy Index (DI) to outcomes for routine malocclusions, and to ascertain whether significant trends in DI scores could be noted among annual samples of patients taken from 1998 to 2004. A total of 716 consecutive patients with permanent dentition from a large urban graduate orthodontics program were sa...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the use of miniscrews as an anchorage device has become a routine approach in the orthodontic field. However, there is no report that has analyzed the healing process of the miniscrew, such as the thickness of the cortical bone, in the past. In the present study, to histologically assess the healing process of the osseous tissue surroundi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The P2X7 receptor plays a crucial role in bone biology and inflammation. Its main function is to promote necrotic tissue metabolism by ensuring a normal acute-phase inflammatory response. We used a mouse model to describe and compare orthodontic mechanotransduction in wild-type and P2X7 knock-out mice. Methods By using finite element...
Article
Full-text available
Craniofacial growth is a scientific crossroad for the fundamental mechanisms of musculoskeletal physiology. Better understanding of growth and development will provide new insights into repair, regeneration and adaptation to applied loads. Traditional craniofacial growth concepts are insufficient to explain the dynamics of airway/vocal tract develo...
Article
Full-text available
To compare traditional superimposition on sella turcica and the anterior cranial base (SACB) to superimposition referenced at the occipital condyle (I-point) for demonstrating craniofacial growth and development. Tracings for ages 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 were chosen from the Bolton Standards of Dentofacial Developmental Growth to compare superimpositi...
Conference Paper
Objectives: Although much imaging research has focused on the localization and the management of the impacted canines, optimal biomechanics for successful recovery are not clear. The purpose of this research is to quantify the six-components of force systems commonly used for the management of impacted canines. Methods: A dentiform model was modi...
Article
Tooth movement simulation is important for planning the optimal force system and appliance design to correct a specific malocclusion. Experimental verification of a 3-dimensional force system is described for a unique molar root movement strategy that can be adapted to many clinical scenarios. The force system was measured for molar root movement s...
Article
It has been suggested that the absence of the P2X7 receptor affects long bone morphology, and that one of the cytokines dependent on its activation may also affect tooth morphology. P2X7R KO (knockout) were compared with C57B/6 WT mice (background strain) to identify differences in a maxillary molar and surrounding bone. Nineteen WT and 12 KO mouse...
Article
Full-text available
External apical root resorption (EARR) is an unwanted sequelae of orthodontic treatment. Genetic factors account for approximately 64% of the EARR variation in humans. Inbred mice offer a model to control the environmental factors and genetic heterogeneity that complicate human genetic studies. Genetically distinct inbred mice and their offspring (...
Article
This retrospective study tests the hypothesis that superimposition referenced at the occipital condyles (defined as I-point, I-curve) and oriented to the anterior cranial base (ACB) will display a growth pattern that is more consistent with independent evaluations, such as the Melsen necropsy specimens and the Bjork implant studies, when compared w...
Article
Full-text available
To determine if an increase in tooth contacts is the principal effect of tooth positioner wear. Patient charts from a consecutive series were reviewed until a sample of 100 cases that used a tooth positioner was obtained. One hundred control cases were randomly selected from patients treated at the same period. Malocclusion severity and finished oc...