Werner Brilon

Werner Brilon
Ruhr-Universität Bochum | RUB · Fakultät für Bauingenieurwesen

Prof. Dr.

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72
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (72)
Article
Under specific circumstances signal timing at a traffic signal allows the switching of two green times within one cycle. Practitioners expect a reduction in delays and queue length as a result of this control strategy. However, no analytical methodology is available to quantify this effect. To resolve this deficit, analytical considerations have be...
Article
Estimation of the capacity of mini-roundabouts is under discussion. Existing methods treat mini-roundabouts as analogous to larger roundabouts, assuming independence between operation of the entries. They fail to acknowledge the specific way that traffic operates at these narrow intersections. This study proposed a new model, which aimed to accommo...
Article
The estimation of capacities and traffic performance at two-way-stop-controlled (TWSC) intersections has been the subject of investigations conducted by many researchers. The results of these investigations are incorporated in highway capacity manuals like the U.S. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) or the German Handbuch für die Bemessung von Strassen...
Article
Full-text available
At unsignalized intersections, both on the major street and on the minor street, there may be short turning lanes alongside the through lanes following downstream from one single lane. This combined system is termed a shared-short lane (SSL). Up to now it has only been possible to calculate the capacity of these lanes at the stop line and the capac...
Preprint
Full-text available
At unsignalized intersections, both on the major street and on the minor street, there might be 3 short turning lanes besides the through lanes following downstream from one single lane. We 4 call this combined system a shared-short lane (SSL). Up to now only the capacity of these lanes 5 at the stop line and the capacity of the diverging point, wh...
Article
Full-text available
The conventional method of analysis for capacity of roundabouts is based on gap-acceptance methods or on empirical regression or a combination of both. The influence of pedestrians is modeled by reduction factors with a questionable empirical background. Thus, the current methods are based on an incoherent mix of approaches. Moreover, they do not a...
Conference Paper
The conventional way of capacity analysis is based on the critical gap method or on empirical regression or a combination of both. Influence of pedestrians is modeled by reduction factors with a rather questionable empirical background. Thus, the current methods are based on an incoherent mix of sophistications. Moreover, they do not account for th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The conventional way of capacity analysis is based on the critical gap method or on empirical regression or a combination of both. Influence of pedestrians is modeled by reduction factors with a rather questionable empirical background. Thus, the current methods are based on an incoherent mix of sophistications. Moreover, they do not account for th...
Article
For the estimation of critical gaps for unsignalized intersection analysis, the so-called maximum likelihood method currently is treated as the best approach. This paper demonstrates that the maximum likelihood method is a special case of the more general mathematical survival theory for the estimation of interval-censored parameters. The assumptio...
Article
For unsignalized intersections, the average delay suffered by drivers on minor approaches is treated as the parameter to characterize the quality of service. The current method, as it is used by guidelines around the world, has some shortcomings. It neglects the initial queue at the beginning of the interval for observation, and it cannot account f...
Article
Full-text available
Ramp-metering, which controls the onramp flow into the freeway, is successful in increasing freeway throughput and reducing overall travel-time. The maximum flow allowed from the onramp during ramp-metering is typically estimated so that the sum of flows from the onramp and mainline do not exceed a predetermined threshold (either the capacity of th...
Article
Germany has a long tradition of traffic-actuated and -coordinated signal control. In recent years a specific approach to traffic actuation called a model-based system, or adaptive control, has found its way into practice. In the city of Muenster, Germany, the coordinated signal control system on the 6-km-long arterial Albersloher Weg, with 24 signa...
Article
Full-text available
The term breakdown of flow at a freeway bottleneck location has been used to describe the transition from relatively free-flowing traffic to congestion, often called stop-and-go traffic, but more generally experienced as slow-and-go. The focus of the research presented in this paper was to develop probabilistic models to predict breakdown of flow b...
Article
This booklet is divided in 4 parts : Traffic Safety in Japan and Germany - Success, Deficiencies, Future Potentials. Research on the Territorial Approach to Safety. Reliability of Motorway Operation. Transportation Safety and Operator Sleepiness: Where Biology Needs Technology.
Article
Germany has a long tradition of traffic-actuated and -coordinated signal control. In recent years a specific approach to traffic actuation called a model-based system, or adaptive control, has found its way into practice. In the city of Muenster, Germany, the coordinated signal control system on the 6-km-long arterial Albersloher Weg, with 24 signa...
Article
Full-text available
The new HCM 2010 proposes in chapter 11 two-stage curves to represent the speed-flow diagram for non-congested flow on freeways where constant speeds are postulated over a rather wide range of volumes. This division of the traffic flow in two parts plus the congested conditions is a rather pragmatic approach. Further the three steps pretend three s...
Article
Full-text available
Ramp metering is a frequently applied method to improve traffic flow performance in congested freeway systems. There is a great variety of control algorithms to decide on red times of ramp metering signals. Based on current research results about the probability of flow-breakdown on freeway segments, a new approach for ramp metering strategies was...
Article
In this paper, evidence from the literature on the inaccuracy of forecasts from transport planning models is presented and its impact on capital infrastructure planning decision-making is demonstrated. Empirical evidence suggests that forecasts used for major planning decisions have been found to be rather inaccurate (when comparing forecast volume...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ramp management is one of several functions performed to optimize traffic operations along a freeway. The objective of this research was to develop enhancements for ramp metering strategies so that they can postpone the breakdown and reduce congestion at freeway facilities with recurring congestion. This research first developed a process for obta...
Article
Full-text available
At two-way stop-controlled intersections without exclusive turning lanes on major streets, all three movements (right turn, through, and left turn) must share a lane. The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) provides a special formula to deal with this lane configuration. However, this formula cannot consider short lanes such as left-turn pockets on major...
Article
In the American as well as the German Highway Capacity Manual, the quality of service that is determined by different measures of effectiveness can be described by six levels of service. While there are five levels (A to E) to distinguish undersaturated flow conditions, only one level of service (LOS) describes congestion. A differentiation of over...
Article
Full-text available
At a two-way stop-controlled intersection without a turning lane on the major street, all three movements (right, through, and left) share a lane. To cover the effect of mutual impediments between these movements on the minor street capacity, the major street-shared lane equation, 17-16, is provided by the current Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000)...
Chapter
Full-text available
The stochastic nature of highway capacity has gained increasing attention in recent times. For the empirical estimation of capacity distribution functions based on measured traffic data, two methodologies have received considerable application: The direct estimation of breakdown probabilities for groups of traffic volumes on the one hand and the es...
Article
Full-text available
The estimation of average delay for vehicles at an intersection by analytic methods is based on queuing theory. Because of the variability of traffic demand over time, the estimation of delays for time-dependent flow and capacity-also with a temporary overload-is of primary interest. For the solution different approximate approaches are currently u...
Article
Full-text available
A stochastic concept for highway capacity analysis is presented. The capacity of a highway facility is regarded as a random variable instead of a constant value. Thus, the stochastic approach provides new measures of traffic flow performance based on aspects of traffic reliability. A method for the estimation of capacity distribution functions from...
Article
Full-text available
A series of investigations was performed in Germany to understand traffic operations on two-lane highways and to make the experiences accessible for traffic performance analysis in practice. As an initial step, traffic flow on several sections of rural two-lane highways was observed. The observations led to a set of empirical speed-flow relationshi...
Article
A series of investigations was performed in Germany to understand traffic operations on two-lane highways and to make the experiences accessible for traffic performance analysis in practice. As an initial step, traffic flow on several sections of rural two-lane highways was observed. The observations led to a set of empirical speed–flow relationshi...
Article
Full-text available
Summary Today, Germany has 15-years of experience with different kinds of modern roundabouts. In addition to that, large conventional roundabouts have been used for 70 years. Modern roundabouts include • compact single-lane roundabouts with diameters between 26 and 40 m • mini-roundabouts with a traversable island and diameters between 13 and 25 m...
Article
Full-text available
Two-way stop control is a form of intersection operation in widespread use. Calculations of the level of service are usually based on gap acceptance theory. In the American Highway Capacity Manual, the influence of pedestrians is considered an impedance factor, whereas in the German guideline the influence of pedestrians and bicyclists has not been...
Article
Two-way stop control is a form of intersection operation in widespread use. Calculations of the level of service are usually based on gap acceptance theory. In the American Highway Capacity Manual, the influence of pedestrians is considered an impedance factor, whereas in the German guideline the influence of pedestrians and bicyclists has not been...
Article
Full-text available
Traffic flow characteristics on freeway upgrades in Germany were analyzed, and a combination of measurements, analyses of continuous counting results, and microscopic simulations was performed. From these results a macroscopic traffic flow model for freeway upgrades based on a two-stage linear speed-density relation was developed. All relevant exte...
Article
Full-text available
Chapter 17 of the HCM 2000 provides a method for analyzing a two-stage priority process at unsignalized intersections, which provide a wide median in the major street. In the HCM itself, the method is, however, described rather briefly. This could give rise to misunderstandings, and practitioners might avoid using the procedure altogether. This bei...
Conference Paper
The paper discusses a new method that has recently been developed in addition to the classical methods for two way stop controlled (TWSC) intersections. The method is based on the procedure of additive conflict flows (ACF). This technique makes it possible to take into account the complicated regulations of pedestrian priority as they apply in Euro...
Article
Full-text available
The paper introduces a new type of random utility model. Here the random term is formulated as a multiplicative factor to express the random effects of the utility together with deterministic utility aspects. Some arguments are given why this multiplicative approach is preferable over the additive solution which is more common in transportation pla...
Article
Full-text available
A new simplified theoretical approach for the determination of capacities at unsignalized intersections has been developed on the basis of the method of additive conflict streams. This method is much easier to handle than the method of gap acceptance. It avoids many of the theoretical complications inherent in the method of gap acceptance, which, u...
Article
Many different methods for the estimation of critical gaps at unsignalized intersections have been published in the international literature. This paper gives an overview of some of the more important methods. These methods are described by their characteristic properties. For comparison purposes a set of quality criteria has been formulated by whi...
Article
Most of the capacity calculation procedures for two-way stop-controlled (TWSC) intersections are based on gap acceptance models. Critical gap is one of the major parameters for gap acceptance models. The accuracy of capacity estimation is mainly determined by the accuracy of the critical gap. This paper focuses on the implementation of the maximum...
Article
The computational procedures used to analyze two-way stop-controlled intersections were extended in the National Cooperative Highway Research Project 3-46 to account for a number of effects commonly observed at actual unsignalized intersections. This paper presents theoretical extensions that can account for commonly observed phenomena, such as two...
Article
The subject of this paper is the capacity of minor-street traffic movements across major divided four-lane roadways (and other roads with two separate carriageways) at unsignalized intersections. The center of the intersection, corresponding to the width of the median, often provides room for drivers who have crossed the first half of the major roa...
Article
Full-text available
A Cellular Automaton is a extremely simplified program for the simulation of complex transportation systems, where the performance velocity is more important than the detailed model accuracy. In a Cellular Automaton, space and time are divided into discrete cells and steps. A cell exchanges only transported units with the neighboring cells directly...
Chapter
A Cellular Automaton is a extremely simplified program for the simulation of complex transportation systems, where the performance velocity is more important than the detailed model accuracy. The first application of the Cellular Automaton for simulation of traffic flows on streets and highways was introduced by Nagel and Schreckenberg [7]. The bas...
Book
The book deals with modern aspects of traffic theory and its applications to real world problems. In 17 separate articles various new developments are reported. The topics range from microscopic computer simulation of traffic flow simulations to air pollution in urban street networks. The articles, with many illustrations are dedicated to intereste...
Article
In this Fourth of Four Features on Harmonization, the Authors Discuss the State of the Art in Roundabout Design and Operation in Germany and the Issues Related to Both Capacity and Safety for Motorists, Pedestrians and Bicyclists.
Article
Full-text available
In the past, research results on the field of unsignalized intersections from Germany were of some importance for practical application in the past also in other countries. Since the first two international workshops in 1988 and 1991 some progress has been made on some aspects of theory for TWSC intersections. This paper tries to provide short desc...
Article
Full-text available
On German autobahns the average speed is strongly dependent on traffic volume. In addition to traffic volume, there is a comprehensive set of parameters that also cause a time dependency of speeds on autobahns. Speed-flow relationships play a key role in the determination of the type of highway for a given design flow and a given desired traffic fl...
Article
Full-text available
The subject of this paper is the capacity of minor-street traffic movements across major divided four-lane roadways (also other roads with two separate carriageways) at unsignalized intersections. The center of the intersection, corresponding to the width of the median, often provides room for drivers who have crossed the first half of a major road...
Article
On German autobahns the average speed is strongly dependent on traffic volume. In addition to traffic volume, there is a comprehensive set of parameters that also cause a time dependency of speeds on autobahns. Speed-flow relationships play a key role in the determination of the type of highway for a given design flow and a given desired traffic fl...
Article
There is a practical need for estimating average delays at intersections, especially during peak periods, even if a temporary overload must be managed by the intersection. Suitable computation formulas must always be based on approximations. The formulas available are based on the degree of saturation x, where x>1 describes the oversaturated situat...
Article
The use of speed-flow data from German Autobahns provides a greater range of free-flow speeds than that available from North American freeways. On the basis of these additional data, three conclusions address current questions about the speed-flow relationship. First, the speed at capacity is not independent of free-flow speed but is higher on faci...
Article
Traffic engineering in Germany has a long tradition. The standards for practical application, however, are distributed among a variety of guidelines. These, in many cases, are not up to date. Therefore, in practice, more recent research results are applied by traffic authorities and consultants. To improve this practical application on a more sophi...
Article
Priority for public transit includes a large variety of measures, including improvements to infrastructure and vehicles. For vehicles, the low floor concept is of particular importance. The central points of priority measures, however, are improvements of traffic control by traffic signals. Here, an improved sensitivity regarding public transit veh...
Article
Since exhaust gases from road traffic are mainly released in the immediate vicinity of urban areas, constructive measures are required to prevent unfavourable immissions. Up to now, the micro-scale dispersion of exhausts could not be sufficiently predicted by purely theoretical methods. At the Ruhr-University Bochum, wind tunnel experiments have be...
Article
Full-text available
Several approximate formulae have been developed in the past for the calculation of average delays at signalised intersections under time-dependent traffic conditions. However, there is a remarkable discrepancy between the results. As a new approach, the idea of Markov chains has been employed to calculate delays on a numerically exact basis. Compu...
Chapter
This paper gives a survey of the development of calculation methods for unsignalized intersections in Germany. First of all, some comments and critical notes on the German guideline published in 1972 and the procedures adopted in the HCM 1985 are given. Moreover, the present state of the art, which comprises the calculation of capacities and queues...
Article
Zusammenfassung Die Leistungsfähigkeit des Startbahnsystems eines Flugplatzes ergibt sich aus der zulässigen Wartezeit für die startbereiten Flugzeuge. Um diese Wartezeiten zu ermitteln, kann der Verkehrsablauf auf einem Flugfeld mit einer einzelnen Start- und Landebahn durch ein Warteschlangenmodell nachgebildet werden. Weil in einem solchen Verke...
Article
A mathematical model is presented of the traffic pattern on two-lane highways having no structural obstacles to impede overtaking. The model is based on a queueing analogy of the process of overtaking. Calculations resulted in an indication of the real travel time distribution on a road of this type. This can be used to derive various parameters fr...
Article
Die theoretischen Grundlagen für die Ermittlung der Konfidenzgrenzen von empirisch ermittelten Unfallzahlen werden dargelegt. Die bisher aus der Literatur bekannten konventionellen statistischen Ansätze sind nur für grosse empirisch ermittelte Zahlen von Unfällen gültig. Hier wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der auf den Verfahren der Bayes'schen Statis...
Article
This paper deals with the capacity of minor traffic movements across major divided four-lane roadways (also other roads with two separate carriageways) at unsignalized intersections. The center of the intersection, corresponding to the width of the median, often provides spaces in which the drivers who crossed the first half of the major road may s...
Article
Full-text available
Traditional traffic engineering methodology is usually concentrated on one specific hourly traffic demand, q, which is then compared with the capacity, c, for the highway facility under consideration to estimate the expected traffic flow performance. To estimate demand, one or two hour-long periods are analyzed to represent the whole variety of pot...

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