Werner Albrich

Werner Albrich
Kantonsspital St. Gallen · Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology

MD, MSCR

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199
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Publications

Publications (199)
Article
Full-text available
Protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and associated clinical sequelae requires well-coordinated metabolic and immune responses that limit viral spread and promote recovery of damaged systems. However, the role of the gut microbiota in regulating these responses has not been thoroughly investigate...
Article
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Background SARS-CoV-2 directly contributes to the burden of respiratory disease in children, but indirect effects of protective measures also need to be considered to assess the overall impact of the pandemic on children's health. Methods We retrospectively compared pre-pandemic and pandemic data of main admission diagnoses, sorted by ICD-10 diagn...
Article
Rationale: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome with fatal outcomes. Evidence suggests that dysregulated immune responses, including autoimmunity, are key pathogenic factors. Objectives: To assess whether IgA autoantibodies target lung-specific proteins and contribute to disease severity. Methods:...
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Background Patients with cancer are at high risk for severe COVID-19 infection. Knowledge regarding efficacy of the mRNA vaccines in actively treated cancer patients is limited as they had been excluded from the pivotal studies of these vaccines. We evaluated humoral and cellular immune response in cancer patients after double vaccination and a boo...
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Purpose: To compare temporal evolution of imaging features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza in computed tomography and evaluate their predictive value for distinction. Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter study 179 CT examinations of 52 COVID-19 and 44 influenza critically ill patients were included. Lung involvement,...
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Purpose COPD has large impact on patient morbidity and mortality worldwide. Acute exacerbations (AECOPD) are mostly triggered by respiratory infections including influenza. While corticosteroids are strongly recommended in AECOPD, they are potentially harmful during influenza. We aimed to evaluate if steroid treatment for AECOPD due to influenza ma...
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Purpose COVID-19 patients on anti-CD20 treatment can suffer a delayed viral clearance and worse clinical outcome. We aim to present our experience with remdesivir treatment in anti-CD20-treated patients with prolonged symptoms, a patient population for which no data from randomized controlled trials are available. Methods From the beginning of the...
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Background: COVID-19 superinfection by Aspergillus (COVID-19-associated aspergillosis, CAPA) is increasingly observed due to increased awareness and use of corticosteroids. The aim of this study is to compare clinical and imaging features between COVID-19 patients with and without associated pulmonary aspergillosis. Material and methods: In this...
Article
Background PCR-based testing has transformed the management of suspected respiratory viral infections. We aimed to determine whether multiplex bacterial PCR of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid aids antibiotic stewardship in patients with pneumonia. Methods This investigator-initiated, multicentre, randomised controlled trial was conducted at two terti...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Die zunehmende Antibiotikaresistenz verleiht der Suche nach nicht-antibiotischen Alternativen zur Behandlung und Vorbeugung vor allem von Atemwegsinfektionen und Harnwegsinfektionen entscheidende Bedeutung. Potenzielle nicht-antibiotische Ansätze umfassen Phytopharmaka (Echinacea purpurea, Pelargonium sidoides, Cranberry-Extrakt),...
Preprint
Background : In 2018 the number of newly detected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cases in children attending primary (age 6-12 years) and secondary school (age 13-16 years) nearly doubled compared to previous years. Methods : This observation initiated an epidemiological outbreak investigation including a cross-sectional study t...
Preprint
Background In 2018 the number of newly detected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cases in children attending primary (age 6–12 years) and secondary school (age 13–16 years) nearly doubled compared to previous years. Methods This observation initiated an epidemiological outbreak investigation including a cross-sectional study to de...
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There are few data on mortality after discharge with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Therefore, we evaluated risk factors for 30-day post-discharge mortality after CAP. We included all patients of the prospective multi-national CAPNETZ study between 2002 and 2018 with (1) hospitalized CAP, (2) survival until discharge, and (3) complete follow-u...
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Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a neglected, debilitating multi-systemic disease without diagnostic marker or therapy. Despite evidence for neurological, immunological, infectious, muscular and endocrine pathophysiological abnormalities, the etiology and a clear pathophysiology remains unclear. The gut microbiome...
Preprint
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Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) colonises respiratory epithelia but can also invade lung cells causing pneumonia. We developed an ex vivo model with human airway epithelial (HAE) cells harvested from lung biopsies to study Spn colonisation and translocation. Flow-cytometry, confocal imaging and electron microscopy studies identified the epithelial l...
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In cancer patients, the clinical response to checkpoint-based immunotherapy is associated with the composition and functional quality of the host microbiome. While the relevance of the gut microbiome for checkpoint immunotherapy outcome has been addressed intensively, data on the role of the local tumor microbiome are missing. Here, we set out to m...
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Objectives Conestat alfa, a recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, is a multi-target inhibitor of inflammatory cascades including the complement, the kinin-kallikrein and the contact activation system. The study objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of conestat alfa in improving disease severity and short-term outcome in COVID-19 pa...
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Background Intensive care units (ICU) constitute a high-risk setting for antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Aim We aimed to describe secular AMR trends including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE), extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESCR-EC) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (E...
Preprint
Protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and associated clinical sequelae requires well-coordinated metabolic and immune responses that limit viral spread and promote recovery of damaged systems. In order to understand potential mechanisms and interactions that influence coronavirus disease 2019 (COV...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Thorough knowledge of the nature and frequency of co-infections is essential to optimize treatment strategies and risk assessment in cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to evaluate the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening approach for community-acquired bacterial pathogens (CABPs) at hospital admi...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The implementation of novel techniques represents an additional opportunity for the rapid analysis acting as a complement to the traditional disease surveillance systems. OBJECTIVE The objective of this work is to describe a web-based participatory surveillance strategy among healthcare workers (HCW) in two Swiss hospitals during the fi...
Article
Background: The implementation of novel techniques represents an additional opportunity for the rapid analysis acting as a complement to the traditional disease surveillance systems. Objective: The objective of this work is to describe a web-based participatory surveillance strategy among healthcare workers (HCW) in two Swiss hospitals during th...
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Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause severe disease in adults, but far less is known than for influenza. The aim of our study was to compare the disease course of RSV infections with influenza infections among hospitalized adults. Methods: We retrieved clinical data from an ongoing surveillance of adults hospitalized with RSV...
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Objectives We aimed to assess the burden of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales in Swiss long-term care facilities (LTCFs) to describe the molecular epidemiology, describe the intrainstitutional and regional clusters of resistant pathogens, and identify independent institution- and resident-level factors associated with...
Article
Objectives Patients included in randomized controlled trials (RCT) are poorly representative of the general population. We compared outcomes of patients excluded from the PIRATE trial, a point-of-care RCT evaluating antibiotic durations for Gram-negative bacteremia, to those of enrolled patients. Methods A prospective observational cohort study, “...
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Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have lowered the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) worldwide. However, the influence of regional vaccine uptake differences on the changing epidemiology of IPD remains unclear. We aimed to examine the overall impact of both seven- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV7 and PCV13) on IPD in Switzerland. Three-...
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Objectives Protecting healthcare workers (HCW) from Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) is critical to preserve the functioning of healthcare systems. We therefore assessed seroprevalence and identified risk factors for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositivity in this population. Methods Between June 22nd and Augus...
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Background: In the future, co-circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses A/B is likely. From a clinical point of view, differentiation of the two disease entities is crucial for patient management. We therefore aim to detect clinical differences between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and...
Article
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Background: Since its discovery, the respiratory microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple pulmonary diseases. Even though corticosteroid treatments are widely prescribed for pulmonary diseases, their effects on the respiratory microbiome are still poorly understood. This systematic review summarizes the current understanding o...
Article
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In cystic fibrosis, dynamic and complex communities of microbial pathogens and commensals can colonize the lung. Cultured isolates from lung sputum reveal high inter- and intraindividual variability in pathogen strains, sequence variants, and phenotypes; disease progression likely depends on the precise combination of infecting lineages. Routine cl...
Article
Full-text available
A previously healthy 30-year-old woman developed severe ARDS at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection was suspected, but testing was negative. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood. This case illustrates that M. pneumoniae infection can progress to septicemia and ARDS with severe...
Preprint
Complications affecting the lung are hallmarks of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While there is evidence for autoimmunity in severe COVID-19, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we established a prospective observational cohort to study lung specific autoantibodies (auto-Abs). Incubation of plasma from severe COVID-19 patients w...
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Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is commonly associated with oro-facial and genital manifestations. It rarely causes encephalitis and even less commonly, in heavily immunosuppressed patients, visceral disease or bronchopneumonitis. We present a case of cytologically-proven, PCR-positive HSV-1 tracheobronchitis and pneumonitis in a patient with...
Article
Full-text available
A previously healthy 30-year-old woman developed severe ARDS at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection was suspected, but testing was negative. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood. This case illustrates that M. pneumoniae infection can progress to septicemia and ARDS with severe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Worldwide, scientific congresses are cancelled because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, scientific exchange is more important than ever, especially for infectious diseases and infection prevention specialists. Within a prospective cohort of congress attendees, we evaluated the safety concept of the 2020 congress of the Swiss Societies of I...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background For the winter season 2020/2021, co-circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses A/B is expected. From a clinical point of view, differentiation of these two acute respiratory illnesses is crucial for optimal patient management. We therefore aimed to detect clinical differences between...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: COPD has large impact on patient morbidity and mortality worldwide. Acute exacerbations (AECOPD) are mostly triggered by respiratory infections including influenza. While corticosteroids are strongly recommended in AECOPD, they are potentially harmful during influenza. We aimed to evaluate if steroid treatment for AECOPD due to influenz...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. The conclusions of this paper have been corroborated by additional data.
Article
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In this prospective cohort of 1'012 Swiss hospital employees, three different assays were used to screen serum for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Seropositivity was 1%; the positive predictive value of the lateral-flow immunoassay was 64% (IgG) and 13% (IgM). History of fever and myalgia most effectively differentiated seropositive and seronegative partici...
Article
Background: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently entails complications that bear similarities to autoimmune diseases. To date, there is little data on possible IgA-mediated autoimmune responses. Here, we aim to determine whether COVID-19 is associated with a vigorous total IgA response and if IgA antibodies are associated with com...
Article
Full-text available
Influenza was recently reported as a risk factor for invasive aspergillosis (IA). We aimed to describe prognostic factors for influenza-associated IA (IAA) and poor outcome and mortality in critically ill patients in Switzerland. All adults with confirmed influenza admitted to the ICU at two Swiss tertiary care centres during the 2017/2018 influenz...
Article
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Background: Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-1, and the recently identified SARS-CoV-2 have cemented their zoonotic potential and their capacity to cause serious mor...
Preprint
Background: While the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is becoming increasingly clear, there is little data on IgA response, the first line of bronchial immune defense. Objective: To determine, whether COVID-19 is associated with a vigorous total IgA response and whether IgA autoantibodies are associated with complications of sev...
Article
Importance Antibiotic overuse drives antibiotic resistance. Gram-negative bacteremia is a common infection that results in substantial antibiotic use. Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of C-reactive protein (CRP)–guided, 7-day, and 14-day antibiotic durations 30, 60, and 90 days after treatment initiation. Design, Setting, and Parti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Since its discovery, the respiratory microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple pulmonary diseases. Even though corticosteroid treatments are widely prescribed for pulmonary diseases, their effects on the respiratory microbiome are still poorly understood. This systematic review summarises the current understanding o...
Article
Full-text available
Acute and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common auto-infectious diseases transmitted from the intestinal tract. They affect the urinary tract either through recurrence or through persistence. The incidence of UTIs increases with age and comorbidities. In this guideline from the Swiss Society of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (SSGO), diag...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background In cystic fibrosis, dynamic and complex communities of microbial pathogens and commensals colonize the lung. Cultured isolates from lung sputum reveal high inter- and intraindividual variability in pathogen strains, sequence variants, and phenotypes; disease progression likely depends on the precise combination of infecting strains. Rout...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but recent outbreaks of Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, and the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 have cemented their zoonotic potential and their capacity to cause serious...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but recent outbreaks of Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, and the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 have cemented their zoonotic potential and their capacity to cause serious morbidity a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but outbreaks of Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, and the recently identified SARS-CoV-2 have cemented their zoonotic potential and their capacity to cause serious mor...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Pneumococcal pneumonia is a disease of the extremes of age. However, as other traditional risk factors for pneumococcal pneumonia also increase with older age, it is unclear if older age itself should be an indication for pneumococcal vaccination. Therefore, we assessed the effect of age on risk for hospitalization for pneumonia and for...
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Aims: The diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is based on imaging, while serology is a complementary test of particular use when imaging is inconclusive. Serology has several limitations. Among them, false-positive results are often obtained in subjects with alveolar echinococcosis (AE), rendering difficult the differential diagnosis. We set-u...
Article
This study compares the findings of different detection methods for microorganisms in patients with ureteral stents undergoing secondary ureterorenoscopy including the use of a novel validated examination pipeline for biofilms on ureteral stents. Of the included 94 patients, 21.3% showed bacteriuria in preoperative urine cultures. Intraoperative ur...
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Objectives: Streptococcal species are the second most common cause of native joint septic arthritis (SA). However, there are few systematic data about streptococcal SA. Methods: The medical records of adults with SA caused by streptococci, pneumococci, and enterococci at our tertiary care centre between 2003 and 2015 were reviewed. Results: 71...
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The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) varies significantly among different patient populations. We aimed to summarise AMR prevalence data from screening studies in different patient settings in Switzerland and to identify surveillance gaps. We performed a systematic review, searching Pubmed, MEDLINE, Embase (01/2000-05/2017) and conferen...