Wenzhe Fa

Wenzhe Fa
Peking University | PKU

Doctor of Philosophy

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79
Publications
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Publications

Publications (79)
Article
China's Chang'E-5 (CE-5) mission has collected 1.731 kg samples from a young mare basalt unit (named P58/EM4) in the northeastern Oceanus Procellarum region of the Moon. Accurate tracing of the provenance of returned samples is essential for understanding their laboratory measurements, which can provide critical information about the Moon and the i...
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China's Chang’E‐5 mission has collected lunar samples from a young mare plain with elevated thorium contents in the northeastern Oceanus Procellarum of the Moon. In this study, we first established a local stratigraphic column of the landing region based on the radial variation of the titanium content in the ejecta of large penetrating craters, and...
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Geophysical observations will provide key information about the inner structure of the planets and satellites and understanding the internal structure is a strong constraint on the bulk composition and thermal evolution of these bodies. Thus, geophysical observations are a key to uncovering the origin and evolution of the Moon. In this article, we...
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Geophysical observations will provide key information about the inner structure of the planets and satellites and understanding the internal structure is a strong constraint on the bulk composition and thermal evolution of these bodies. Thus, geophysical observations are a key to uncovering the origin and evolution of the Moon. In this article, we...
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The Moon has experienced an intense bombardment history since its formation1. Fragments of the impactor can remain on the lunar surface2–4 and can provide evidence of the evolution of the impactor composition and impact population in the Earth–Moon system3–5. However, the retained impactor fragments previously identified in the Apollo samples have...
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Plain Language Summary On the Moon's surface, small impact craters generally exhibit four typical morphologic types: normal, central mound, flat‐bottomed, and concentric. Laboratory impact experiments show that morphology of small craters depends primarily on the thickness of the regolith layer. With the high‐resolution optical images acquired from...
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The surface slope and roughness of the Moon have been investigated extensively over a wide baseline range except millimeter to decimeter scales. In this study, we present for the first time millimeter‐to decimeter‐scale surface slope and roughness of the Moon at China's Chang'e‐4 landing regions (∼20 m across) using the Digital Terrain Model (DTM)...
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Our knowledge of the internal structure of asteroids is currently indirect and relies on inferences from remote sensing observations of surfaces. However, it is fundamental for understanding small bodies' history and for planetary defense missions. Radar observation of asteroids is the most mature technique available to characterize their inner str...
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In December 2020, China's Chang'E-5 (CE-5) spacecraft successfully collected 1.731 kg samples from Oceanus Procellarum on the Moon's nearside, becoming the first lunar sample return mission since Luna 24 in 1976. These samples, collected from one of the youngest mare basalt units within the Procellarum KREEP Terrain, are critical to deciphering sev...
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The bombardment of impactors (leftover planetesimals, asteroids and comets) created numerous impact craters on the Moon. The giant planets in the outer Solar System are believed to have experienced a dynamical instability, in which the migration of giant planets delivers impactors to the inner Solar System bodies1,2. The difference between the popu...
Article
China's Chang'e-4 mission has carried out the first ever lunar farside landing exploration on the floor of the Von Kármán crater, a geologically complex region located in the most ancient and deepest South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin. In order to demonstrate the characteristics of materials in the landing area, we investigated the regional geochemistry...
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Abstract The lunar surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) measurements can aid in understanding the physical properties of the lunar surface. The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (herein, Diviner) sensor provides global lunar surface observation in seven TIR channels. However, its retrieval of LST constantly uses a single...
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Partially and completely buried impact craters are widely distributed over the northern smooth plains of Mercury. Using imagery data acquired from the MESSENGER mission, we compiled a database of 257 partially buried and 765 completely buried craters on Mercury. The elevation profiles of fresh craters were constructed, and by inputting these into a...
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High‐resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) generated from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) provide an opportunity to study surface roughness of the Moon at meter scale. In this study, we mapped and investigated meter‐scale topographic roughness over 462 regions of the Moon using NAC DTMs. Our results sho...
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Due to its significance in astrobiology, assessing the amount and state of liquid water present on Mars today has become one of the drivers of its exploration. Subglacial water was identified by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) aboard the European Space Agency spacecraft Mars Express through the analysis of ec...
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Abstract Bulk density of the lunar regolith is a key factor affecting its geophysical and geotechnical properties. In this study, a new method for estimating the bulk density of the lunar regolith is developed based on the geometric characteristic (i.e., hyperbolic shape) of radar echoes in groundpenetrating radar (GPR) image. As an application, bu...
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Partially buried craters on the Moon are those craters whose distal ejecta are covered by lava flows and where the crater rim crest still protrudes above the mare plain. Based on the difference in rim heights between a partially buried crater and an unburied crater, previous studies estimated the thicknesses of the lunar mare basalts. However, thes...
Article
One of Chinese meteorological satellites, Feng Yun-4M (FY-4M), as one the of new generation of geosynchronous series satellites, is planning to upload multichannel millimeter-wave radiometers, e.g., from 50 to 430 GHz. Due to long-period stability and no atmospheric interference, brightness temperature (TB) of the lunar surface can be seen as a goo...
Article
Searching for water-ice in the lunar media has been a key issue in the moon explorations. Missions of mini-SAR and mini-RF SAR made compact-pol (polarization) measurements on lunar polar permanent shadowed region (PSR). High circular polarization ratio (CPR) data and a two-layer model were applied to studying if water ice in PSR could be retrieved....
Article
In Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) radar images, anomalous craters are those having a high circular polarization ratio (CPR) in their interior but not exterior to their rims. Previous studies found that most CPR-anomalous craters contain permanently shadowed regions and that their population is overabundant in the polar regions. However, there...
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The internal structure of asteroids is still poorly known and has never been analyzed directly by measurements. Our knowledge relies entirely on inferences from remote sensing observations of the surface and theoretical modeling. Direct measurements are crucial to characterize an asteroid's internal structure and heterogeneity from sub-metric to gl...
Article
Our knowledge of the internal structure of asteroids is, so far, indirect – relying entirely on inferences from remote sensing observations of the surface, and theoretical modeling of formation and evolution. What are the bulk properties of the regolith and deep interior? And what are the physical processes that shape asteroid internal structures?...
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We report on a newly discovered morphological feature on the lunar surface, here named Ring-Moat Dome Structure (RMDS). These low domes (a few meters to ~20 m height with slopes <5°) are typically surrounded by narrow annular depressions or moats. We mapped about 2,600 RMDSs in the lunar maria with diameters ranging from tens to hundreds of meters....
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The mystery of the asteroid (4179) Toutatis was revealed by Chang'e-2 spacecraft during a close flyby on December 13, 2012. Optical imaging and navigation of the probe during the flyby were performed entirely under ground-based radio tracking and default sequence built on ground. This paper establishes a set of estimation algorithms of the relative...
Article
We investigated topographic roughness for the northern hemisphere (>45°N) of Mercury using high-resolution topography data acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) onboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Our results show that there are distinct differences in the bidirectional slope and...
Article
Photometric correction and reflectance calculation are two important processes in the scientific analysis and application of Chang'E-1 (CE-1) charge-coupled device (CCD) stereo camera data. In this paper, the methods of photometric correction and reflectance calculation were developed. On the one hand, in considering the specificity of datasets acq...
Article
The Chang'E-3 lunar penetrating radar (LPR) observations at 500 MHz reveal four major stratigraphic zones from the surface to a depth of ∼20 m along the survey line: a layered reworked zone (<1 m), an ejecta layer (∼2-6 m), a paleoregolith layer (∼4-11 m), and the underlying mare basalts. The reworked zone has two to five distinct layers and consis...
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The mysteries of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis have been more comprehensively unveiled by analyzing the optical images taken during the Chang’e-2 flyby in 2012. Compared with previous works, this paper concentrates on the photogrammetric relation between the Chang’e-2 spacecraft and Toutatis and the imaging shadow effect during the flyby. Accur...
Article
High-resolution optical images returned from recent lunar missions provide a new chance for estimation of lunar regolith thickness using morphology and the size-frequency distribution of small impact craters. In this study, regolith thickness over the Sinus Iridum region is estimated using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Cam...
Article
Near surface temperature of the Moon and thermal behaviors of the lunar regolith can provide important information for constraining thermal and magmatic evolution models of the Moon and engineering constrains for in situ lunar exploration system. In this study, China’s Chang’E-2 (CE-2) microwave radiometer (MRM) data at high frequency channels are...
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The elevated CPRs in the interior of anomalous craters are most probably caused by surface rocks, instead of water ice as pointed out in previous studies.
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The new global Th map derived from CE-2 GRS indicates a possible indigenous Th on the lunar highlands besides the Imbrium impact contribution.
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Regolith thickness over the Sinus Iridum region is estimated using morphology and size-frequency distribution of small impact craters from LROC NAC images.
Article
We examined the spatial distribution of RDHCs in multiband radar images of the Moon, and found that RDHCs are most probably caused by low rock abundance.
Article
Wrinkle ridges of various sizes, ages, and origins at the landing site of Chang'e-3 are potential targets for the Lunar Penetration Radars carried by the Yutu rover.
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[1] Close observations by the Chang'E-2 spacecraft reveal that the surface of asteroid (4179) Toutatis is characterized by abundant impact craters with most of them being degraded by surface resetting. The less degraded large crater with a diameter of ~800 m at the south pole is estimated to be produced by an impactor with a diameter of ~50 m from...
Article
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is currently within the scope of China's Chang-E 3 lunar mission, to study the shallow subsurface of the Moon. In this study, key factors that could affect a lunar GPR performance, such as frequency, range resolution, and antenna directivity, are discussed firstly. Geometrical optics and ray tracing techniques are use...
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Regolith thickness over Sinus Iridum region is estimated using morphology and size-frequency distribution of small craters that are counted from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Cameras (NACs) images. Results show that regolith thickness for Sinus Iridum is from 2 m to more than 10 m, with a medium value between 4.1 m and 6.1...
Article
In an attempt to reduce the ambiguity on radar detection of water ice at the permanently shadowed regions near the lunar poles, radar echo strength and circular polarization ratio (CPR) of impact craters are analyzed using the Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini‐RF) radar data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. Eight typical craters, among...
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KREEP materials were thought to be last crystallized at the lunar crust and mantle boundary. Impact cratering and volcanism are mainly responsible for their distributions on the lunar surface. Therefore, observation of global KREEP materials and investigation of distributions in the areas of large basins are of critical importance to understand the...
Article
In this abstract, thickness and subsurface dielectric constant in lunar pyroclastic deposits at Aestuum are estimated with a two-layer model using Kaguya LRS data.
Conference Paper
This study focuses on inverting lunar heat flow based on microwave radiometer of Chang'e-2 spacecraft, which is an important issue in today's lunar exploration.
Article
We analyzed CPR characteristics for anomalous lunar craters, and found that the enhanced CPR in crater interior is most probably caused by surface rocks.
Article
We analyzed factors that affect lunar surface brightness temperature using Chang’e-2 microwave data, and mean diurnal temperature of regolith was inverted.
Conference Paper
A ground penetrating radar (GPR) is currently within the scope of China's Chang-E 3 lunar mission, with the purpose of studying the subsurface structure of the Moon. In this study, the key factors affecting a lunar GPR performance are discussed firstly. Geometrical optics and ray tracing approaches are used to simulate GPR echoes from the lunar sub...
Article
The inversion of regolith thickness over the nearside hemisphere of the Moon from newly acquired Earth-based 70-cm Arecibo radar data is investigated using a quantitative radar scattering model. The radar scattering model takes into account scattering from both the lunar surface and buried rocks in the lunar regolith, and three parameters are criti...
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In this study, we analyzed the potential scientific return from a ground-penetrating radar to the Moon for China's Chang-E 3 lunar mission.
Article
Surface roughness of the Moon provides important information concerning both significant questions about lunar surface processes and engineering constrains for human outposts and rover trafficabillity. Impact-related phenomena change the morphology and roughness of lunar surface, and therefore surface roughness provides clues to the formation and m...
Article
In China’s first lunar exploration project, Chang-E 1, the multi-channel (3.0, 7.8, 19.35, 37 GHz) microwave radiometers were aboard the satellite, with the purpose of measuring microwave brightness temperature from lunar surface and surveying the global distribution of lunar regolith layer thickness, and global evaluation of 3He content. To analyz...
Article
1] A theoretical model for radar scattering from the lunar regolith using the vector radiative transfer theory for random media has been developed in order to aid in the interpretation of Mini‐SAR data from the Chandrayaan‐1 and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter missions. The lunar regolith is represented as a homogeneous fine‐grained layer with rough u...
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In this study, a rigorous radar scattering model based on vector radiative transfer theory and Earth-based 70-cm Arecibo radar data are used to invert for regolith thickness over the lunar nearside hemisphere.
Article
There are small pit chains in the floor of lunar Copernican craters. They are usually so small in scale that there are few lunar spacecrafts to detect their detailed morphology. Combining camera data from Lunar Orbiter, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), Kaguya and Chang’e-1 missions, 5 representative large Copernican craters on various terrains o...
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Helium-3 (3He) implanted by solar wind in the lunar regolith is a valuable resource because of its potential as a fusion fuel. On the basis of the Apollo regolith samples, a linear relationship between 3He abundance and solar wind flux, optical maturity and TiO2 content has been presented. China successfully launched its first lunar exploration sat...
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Full-text available
Previous investigations have shown that lunar surface consists of a fine-grained regolith layer that completely covers the underlying bedrock. The lunar regolith is a byproduct of the continuous impact of large and small meteoroids with the lunar surface, and consists largely of fragmented materials and breccias. In general, the thickness of the re...
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Full-text available
The Earth-based 70-cm Arecibo radar data of the lunar nearside are used to study the surface roughness and abundance and size of the buried rocks at 7 Lunar Orbiter sites and Apollo 12 landing sites. Using these results in combination with global geochemical maps, and known correlations between composition, density, and dielectric properties, these...
Article
In China's first lunar exploration project, Chang-E 1, the multichannel (3.0, 7.8, 19.35, 37 GHz) microwave radiometers were aboard the satellite, with the purpose of measuring microwave brightness temperature from the lunar surface and surveying the global distribution of lunar regolith layer thickness, and global evaluation of <sup>3</sup>He cont...
Conference Paper
In China's first lunar exploration project, Chang-E 1 (CE-1), a multi-channel (3.0, 7.8, 19.35 and 37GHz) microwave radiometer in passive microwave remote sensing, was first aboard the satellite, with the purpose of measuring microwave brightness temperature (Tb) from lunar surface and surveying the global distribution of lunar regolith layer thick...
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Full-text available
Space-borne high frequency (HF) radar sounder is an effective tool for investigation of lunar subsurface structure in lunar exploration. The primary strategy of radar sounder technology for subsurface structure detection is utilization of the nadir echoes time delay and intensity difference from the lunar surface and subsurface. It is important to...
Article
In China’s first lunar exploration project, Chang-E 1 (CE-1), a multi-channel microwave radiometer was aboard the satellite, with the purpose of measuring microwave brightness temperature (Tb) from lunar surface and surveying the global distribution of lunar regolith layer thickness. In this paper, the primary 621 tracks of swath data measured by C...
Article
We developed a model for radar scattering from the lunar reoglith layer using vector radiative transfer theory. From this model, both the radar backscattering coefficient and the circular polarization ratio can be predicted analytically as a function of regolith parameters.
Article
We explore potential subsurface ice enrichment and compositional variations in lunar crater fills in the shadowed and illuminated areas using the Mini-RF SAR data on Chandrayaan and LRO.
Article
In China’s first lunar exploration project, Chang-E 1 (CE-1), a multi-channel microwave radiometer was aboard the satellite, with the purpose of measuring microwave brightness temperature from lunar surface and surveying the global distribution of lunar regolith layer thickness. In this paper, the primary 621 tracks of swath data measured by Chang-...
Article
An approach to inversion of the lunar regolith layer thickness by using multi-channel brightness temperature observation in passive microwave remote sensing is developed. To first make simulation of brightness temperature from the lunar layered media, the lunar regolith layer thickness is proposed being constructed by available lunar DEM (digital e...
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Full-text available
Theoretical modeling and inversion approach of both active and passive microwave remote sensing for lunar surface exploration are presented herewith, as a report of recent reaserch progress Refs. [1-6] in our laboratory. Using a layered media model, multi-channel brightness temperatures of lunar regolith media are numerically simulated and applied...
Article
Based on the statistics of the lunar cratered terrain, e.g., population, dimension and shape of craters, the terrain feature of cratered lunar surface is numerically generated. According to the inhomogeneous distribution of the lunar surface slope, the triangulated irregular network (TIN) is employed to make the digital elevation of lunar surface m...
Article
The formulation and solution of the vector radiative transfer equation in a finite slab of a stochastic precipitation medium of binary rain rates are considered. The electromagnetic wave is supposed to encounter alternating layered segments of the two precipitation media, each with a deterministic rain rate. Both the backscattering coefficient and...
Article
3He (helium-3) in the lunar regolith implanted by the solar wind is one of the most valuable resources because of its potential as a fusion fuel. The abundance of 3He in the lunar regolith is related to solar wind flux, lunar surface maturity and TiO2 content, etc. A model of solar wind flux, which takes account of variations due to shielding of th...
Article
A correspondence of the lunar regolith-layer thickness to the lunar digital elevation mapping is proposed to tentatively construct the global distribution of lunar regolith-layer thickness. Using Clementine ultraviolet visible multispectral data, the global spatial distribution of FeO + TiO2 content on the lunar regolith layer is calculated. Thus t...
Article
To explore the potential utilities of lower frequency (L band) radar pulse for lunar exploration, a theoretical model of stratified lunar regolith media and numerical simulation of polarimetric radar pulse echoes are developed. The lunar regolith layer consists of the low lossy regolith layer with randomly rough top and bottom interfaces, and a lay...