Wenjing Sun

Wenjing Sun
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Neuroscience

Doctor of Philosophy

About

31
Publications
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Publications

Publications (31)
Article
Stroke causes devastating sensory-motor deficits and long-term disability due to disruption of descending motor pathways. Restoration of these functions enables independent living and therefore represents a high priority for those afflicted by stroke. Here, we report that daily administration of gabapentin, a clinically approved drug already used t...
Article
Full-text available
Fast synaptic communication uses diffusible transmitters whose spread is limited by uptake mechanisms. However, on the submicron-scale, the distance between two synapses, the extent of glutamate spread has so far remained difficult to measure. Here, we show that quantal glutamate release from individual hippocampal synapses activates extracellular...
Article
Full-text available
Myelination is essential for signal processing within neural networks. Emerging data suggest that neuronal activity positively instructs myelin development and myelin adaptation during adulthood. However, the underlying mechanisms controlling activity-dependent myelination have not been fully elucidated. Myelination is a multi-step process that inv...
Preprint
Full-text available
The wiring scheme is key to the function of the brain. Neurons are structurally wired by synapses and most synapses in the CNS are considered sufficiently isolated to avoid cross-talk to AMPA receptors of neighboring synapses. On the contrary, we show here with optical reporter proteins that the neurotransmitter glutamate regularly spreads far into...
Article
Full-text available
Axon regeneration failure causes neurological deficits and long-term disability after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we found that the α2δ2 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels negatively regulates axon growth and regeneration of corticospinal neurons, the cells that originate the corticospinal tract. Increased α2δ2 expression in corticospina...
Chapter
Trauma to the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) causes diffuse axonal injury that results in devastating long-term disabilities due to limited sprouting and axon regeneration failure. No therapeutic strategy that restores neurological function is currently available for individuals who have suffered damage to their spinal cords. The past...
Article
NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-populati...
Article
Full-text available
Synaptic signaling to NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (NG2 cells) could be key to rendering myelination of axons dependent on neuronal activity, but it has remained unclear whether NG2 glial cells integrate and respond to synaptic input. Here we show that NG2 cells perform linear integration of glutamatergic synaptic inputs and respo...
Article
Full-text available
NG2 expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells stand out from other types of glial cells by receiving classical synaptic contacts from many neurons. This unconventional form of signaling between neurons and glial cells enables NG2 cells to receive information about the activity of presynaptic neurons with high temporal and spatial precision and has...
Article
Mechanical injury causes myelin disruption and subsequent axonal conduction failure in the mammalian spinal cord. However, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. In mammalian myelinated axons, proper paranodal myelin structure is crucial for the generation and propagation of action potentials. The exposure of potassium channels at the jux...
Article
Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous pollutant that is also produced endogenously through lipid peroxidation. This compound is hundreds of times more reactive than other aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal, is produced at much higher concentrations, and persists in solution for much longer than better known free radicals. It has be...
Data
CARS energy diagram and imaging setup. (A) Energy diagram of CARS. In a CARS process, two laser fields at the pump (ωp) and Stokes (ωs) frequencies interact with a medium to generate a new field at the anti-Stokes frequency ωas = (ωp−ωs)+ωp. The CARS signal can be significantly enhanced when the beating frequency, (ωp−ωs), is in resonance with a mo...
Data
CAP amplitudes after 200 Hz stimulation and 4-AP treatment. At the presence of calcium, CAP amplitude decreased to 91.9±5.1 post stimulation, and increased to 97.0±5.0 following 4-AP treatment (p<0.01). While without the presence of calcium, CAP amplitude maintained at 100.6±6.4 post stimulation and 99.4±3.2 after 4-AP treatment (p>0.05). (TIF)
Data
The junction protein Caspr relocated further away from the paranodal area and diffused along the axon. We characterized the location of Caspr by measuring the gap distance between Caspr at each side of the node normalized by the axon diameter. The nodal gap ratio was increased to 1.49±0.17 in 200 Hz stimulated spinal cords as compared with 0.53±0.0...
Data
Real-time CARS imaging of paranodal myelin retraction in response to 200 Hz stimulation for 20 min. (AVI)
Data
The refractory period measurement. Spinal cord tissue was stimulated by dual stimuli with various interval times, ranging from 0.5 to 15 ms. The absolute refractory periods (interval time that second peak starts to appear) for pre-stimulation, post-stimulation and 4-AP treatment were 0.83±0.10, 0.85±0.06, and 0.88±0.05, respectively, with no signif...
Data
CAP amplitudes after 200 Hz stimulation and 4-AP treatment after a two-hour recovery period. CAP amplitude decreased to 92.8±24.1 following 4-AP treatment without significant difference compared with initial and post stimulation conditions (p>0.05). (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
High-frequency electrical stimulation is becoming a promising therapy for neurological disorders, however the response of the central nervous system to stimulation remains poorly understood. The current work investigates the response of myelin to electrical stimulation by laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging of myelin...
Article
Full-text available
Most axons in the vertebral central nervous system are myelinated by oligodendrocytes. Myelin protects and insulates neuronal processes, enabling the fast, saltatory conduction unique to myelinated axons. Myelin disruption resulting from trauma and biochemical reaction is a common pathological event in spinal cord injury and chronic neurodegenerati...
Article
J. Neurochem. (2011) 117, 554–564. Myelin damage can lead to the loss of axonal conduction and paralysis in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Here, we show that acrolein, a lipid peroxidation product, can cause significant myelin damage in isolated guinea pig spinal cord segments. Acrolein-mediated myelin damage is particularly conspicuous...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severely debilitating neurodegenerative diseases marked by progressive demyelination and axonal degeneration in the CNS. Although inflammation is the major pathology of MS, the mechanism by which it occurs is not completely clear. The primary symptoms of MS are movement difficulties caused by conduction block resulting...
Article
Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde byproduct of lipid peroxidation, is thought to perpetuate oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of acrolein in an animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. We...
Article
Full-text available
Crush to the mammalian spinal cord leads to primary mechanical damage followed by a series of secondary biomolecular events. The chronic outcomes of spinal cord injuries have been well detailed in multiple previous studies. However, the initial mechanism by which constant displacement injury induces conduction block is still unclear. We therefore i...
Article
The present study is focused on investigating the mechanism of myelin damage in spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. In addition, potential treatments are explored to either restore conduction through demyelinated axons or provide neuroprotection.^ Mechanical injury causes myelin disruption and subsequent axonal conduction failure in mammalia...
Article
Full-text available
We have demonstrated that 4-aminopyridine-3-methanol (4-AP-3-MeOH), a 4-aminopyridine derivative, significantly restores axonal conduction in stretched spinal cord white-matter strips and shows no preference in restoring large and small axons. This compound is 10 times more potent when compared with 4-AP and other derivatives in restoring axonal co...
Article
Anastomosis is a common technique for the union of severed nerve trunks. This is commonly performed with sutures, a process that can be both time consuming and injurious to tissue. One promising alternative to suturing is the use of adhesives to join the severed segments. Cyanoacrylate-based glues have been used clinically as a surgical adhesive fo...
Data
Analysis of ratios of nodal length to nodal diameter in spinal cord treated with glutamate in vivo. (0.03 MB PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Paranodal myelin damage is observed in white matter injury. However the culprit for such damage remains unknown. By coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin sheath in fresh tissues with sub-micron resolution, we observed significant paranodal myelin splitting and retraction following glutamate application both ex vivo and in vivo. Mu...
Conference Paper
The predominant therapy for peripheral nerve transection is anastomosis by suture. However, sutures have been known to lead to tissue inflammation, granulomas, and poor functional outcomes. While adhesives offer a promising alternative, fibrin-the predominant bio-glue-can transmit disease. Here we examine a photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogel for...
Article
Axonal demyelination is a critical pathological phenomenon associated with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous studies demonstrated that 4-Aminopyridine, a fast potassium channel blocker, enhances impulse conduction on damaged and/or demyelinated axons, allowing for functional recovery in spinal cord injuries and MS, but with s...

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