Wendy M Reinke

Wendy M Reinke
University of Missouri | Mizzou · Department of Educational, School and Counseling Psychology (ESCP)

PhD

About

158
Publications
135,912
Reads
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5,670
Citations
Citations since 2017
70 Research Items
3882 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Additional affiliations
August 2007 - September 2016
University of Missouri
Position
  • Associate Professor, School Psychology; Co-director, Missouri Prevention Center
Education
August 2006 - August 2007
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Field of study
  • Prevention Science
August 2004 - August 2005
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Field of study
  • Pediatric Behavioral Psychology
May 2003 - May 2005
University of Oregon
Field of study
  • School Psychology

Publications

Publications (158)
Article
The present study investigated the relationship between teacher stress and job satisfaction, and examined the role of coping as a moderator. Based on the transactional and Coping‐Competence‐Context models of stress we expected that coping would serve as a protective factor in the relationship between teacher stress and their job satisfaction. Stres...
Article
Full-text available
As the frontline of our education system, teachers endure greater job-related stress than other professionals, even under the best of circumstances. While they were already exposed to certain stressors affecting their emotional health, the pandemic outbreak introduced new challenges putting teachers at risk of experiencing higher rates of emotional...
Article
The usefulness of mean aggregates in the analysis of intervention effectiveness is a matter of considerable debate in the psychological, educational, and social sciences. In addition to studying "average treatment effects," the evaluation of "distributional treatment effects," (i.e., effects that go beyond means), has been suggested to obtain a bro...
Article
Despite decades of concern about disparities in educational outcomes for low SES students and students of color, there has been limited rigorous study of programmatic approaches for reducing these disparities in elementary or middle schools. We conducted integrative data analysis (IDA) of the combined data from eight Institute of Education Sciences...
Article
Full-text available
For young children with early social-emotional difficulties, early intervention is imperative. A number of interventions are available for young children to promote social-emotional competencies. Yet, little is known regarding the impact of early childhood interventions among rural children. Rural communities have several barriers which impede acce...
Article
Background and Objectives: As a well-known phenomenon with significant social, biological, and psychological impacts, burnout syndrome has been viewed and treated from different therapeutic perspectives. However, few studies have evaluated interventions to prevent and alleviate teacher burnout. Design: This study comprised a randomized controlled t...
Article
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This is the first study of US adults to examine change in the prevalence of psychological burden (i.e., self-reported poor mental health days in the past 30 days, and ACEs recollections) before compared to after COVID-19 started. We analyzed the prevalence of self-reported poor mental health days, and ACEs recollections from 17 states using the Beh...
Article
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Social, emotional, and behavioral interventions are often complicated to implement in school settings. Empirical and practical evidence suggests that educators need support to implement interventions with treatment integrity or as intended. Treatment integrity is comprised of multiple dimensions that capture quantity of the intervention delivered,...
Article
As an example of how historical events may influence the findings and interpretations of a randomized trial, we use a school-based evaluation of a classroom management program that was conducted in a nearby district before and after the shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri (N = 102 teachers and 1,450 students). The findings suggest that...
Article
As many as 1 in 5 youth in the United States experience social, emotional, and behavioral problems. However, many students with mental health concerns are unidentified and do not receive adequate care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure, measurement invariance, and the concurrent and predictive validity of the Early Iden...
Article
Gender minority youth experience bullying victimization at concerningly high rates. The current study sought to unmask potentially unique bullying victimization experiences and perceived prevalence of bullying for Transgender, fluid gender, and gender questioning students. Results revealed that all three gender minority groups were significantly mo...
Article
To address the need for brief teacher stress interventions, the study aimed to evaluate a bibliotherapy-based stress management training for teachers using a randomized control design (N = 52). The intervention reduced stress (d = −0.43) and mental health symptoms (d's = −0.50 - 0.60) and improved a spectrum of specific coping skills (d's = 0.62–1....
Article
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created unprecedented challenges for the U.S. education system and for teachers. The present study examined correlates and predictors of teacher well-being in the immediate aftermath of school closures related to the pandemic. Data were collected as part of a larger group randomized trial. Six hundre...
Article
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Due to the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the use of protective measures (e.g., mask wearing and social distancing) has become an important public health concern. Despite being an effective and low-cost measure, mask wearing in the U.S. is a contentious issue. We investigated data coming from a natural experiment ( n = 1,993) co...
Article
In standard statistical data analysis, the effects of intervention or prevention efforts are evaluated in terms of variable relations. Results from application of regression-type methods suggest whether, overall, intervention is successful. In this article, we propose using configural frequency analysis (CFA) either in tandem with regression-type m...
Article
Although variable-oriented analyses are dominant in developmental psychopathology, researchers have championed a person-oriented approach that focuses on the individual as a totality. This view has methodological implications and various person-oriented methods have been developed to test person-oriented hypotheses. Configural frequency analysis (C...
Article
Many youth experience mental health problems. Schools are an ideal setting to identify, prevent, and intervene in these problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of student social, emotional, and behavioral risk over time among a community sample of 3rd through 12th grade students and the association of these risk patterns wit...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to confirm the factor structure, examine the invariance, and investigate the predictive validity using disciplinary data for 5262 high school students who completed the Early Identification System-Student Response (EIS-SR). The development and theory of the EIS-SR is discussed along with prior work. Building off of prio...
Article
Interventions for youth are often studied in school settings, yet there are barriers that hinder schools from actively participating in the research studies. To ensure interventions are studied in the context they are intended for, adopted in a timely manner, and regularly used in practice as designed, researchers can conduct studies in a manner th...
Article
The use of suspension practices is extremely widespread but few studies have examined the behavioral and psychological outcomes associated with their application. Using a predominantly Black sample of 788 middle school students from the Midwestern United States, the current study evaluates the relations between in-school suspensions (ISS) and out-o...
Article
As leaders in the school, principals play an important role in fostering family engagement. Unfortunately, little is known about specific aspects of leadership that promote family engagement. Collegial leadership, an aspect of principal leadership that promotes organizational health via trusting relationships and a sense of community, may be partic...
Article
Mental health (MH) stigma affects help seeking behaviors of youth, particularly youth of color. This article reports the impact of Look Around (LA), a social media campaign designed to reduce MH stigma and increase help seeking in 6th- to 12th-grade youth in one Midwestern county. The campaign utilized movie theater advertising, social media, web-b...
Article
The vast majority of youth experiencing symptoms of a mental health (MH) disorder never access services. Barriers to access include unawareness of symptoms or where to get help, stigma, or lack of transportation or finances. Many school, family, and community collaboration models have begun to enhance access to MH supports. The present study report...
Article
This article is an introduction to the special issue on universal social emotional interventions and students with or at risk for disabilities. A series of studies across development demonstrate that students with or at risk for disabilities benefit from universal intervention while they are in general education classrooms. A conceptual framework i...
Article
In this concluding article for the Special Issue, we attempt to summarize lessons learned from these various implementation and evaluation projects. We focus on the following four points: (a) correcting misperceptions of mental health; (b) identifying, training, and coaching system change implementers; (c) distinguishing strategies for launching ve...
Article
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The purpose of this Special Issue is to describe innovative school-related initiatives to reduce the population prevalence of youth mental health concerns. In this introduction to the Special Issue, we identify strategies that have not worked as well as those that have promise in improving youth mental health outcomes. We then provide a brief overv...
Article
The goal of this project was to evaluate the effects of an innovative intervention model created specifically for youth in alternative school settings. The Motivational Interviewing with At-Risk Students (MARS) Mentoring Program is a unique intervention rooted in self-determination and behavior modification theories and delivered through a motivati...
Article
Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period for the identification, prevention, and early intervention of mental health concerns. The Early Identification System-Student Report (EIS-SR) was developed as a user-friendly, accessible, and cost-efficient method for identifying youth at risk for mental health concerns. The present study...
Article
The article describes a prevention science approach to impacting population health. We use activities of the Missouri Prevention Science Institute that address youth mental health concerns with a public health approach to illustrate the approach. In particular, we focus on several lessons that may be relevant for advancing the success of prevention...
Article
Direction dependence analysis (DDA) is a recently developed method that addresses the need for more sophisticated tools to evaluate causal mechanisms of developmental processes and interventions. The present study applied DDA to evaluate the hypothesized mediators of a classroom behavior management training program on student academic competence. T...
Article
Many children with disabilities receive the majority of their instruction in the general education classroom where many universal programs are implemented. It is therefore important to examine the impact of evidence-based universal interventions on children with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Incredible Years T...
Article
Teacher emotional factors influence the classroom environment. The purpose of the study was to examine the association of teacher emotional exhaustion and teacher efficacy with student office discipline referrals (ODRs), in-school suspensions (ISSs), and out-of-school suspensions (OSSs) using multilevel logistic regression models. The sample includ...
Article
Universal interventions implemented in schools have the potential to impact large numbers of students on a multitude of behavioral and academic outcomes. In the context of a large group randomized controlled trial, the current study examined whether teacher-perceived student need for behavior support plans at baseline moderated the effects of a mid...
Article
Effective classroom management is of critical importance to the success of universal, Tier I supports and services. Unfortunately, teacher-reported deficits in classroom management training are well documented. In response, use of professional development activities such as consultation, coaching, and on-going performance feedback emphasizing skill...
Article
Prevention scientists recognize that implementing effective prevention practices and programs responsive to the needs of individuals but based solely upon the findings from variable-centered methods presents several limitations due to numerous risk factors, pathways, and unobserved influences. One such understudied influence that is masked by varia...
Article
This study examined the stress and coping patterns of middle school teachers. A final teacher sample of 102 and student sample of 1450 agreed to participate in the study. We conducted a latent profile analysis of the teachers' self-reported levels of stress and coping at the beginning of the school year and used the resulting profiles to predict te...
Article
Teacher stress and burnout are associated with many adverse outcomes for teachers, students, and the educational system. This paper describes the Coping-Competence-Context (3C) Theory of Teacher Stress. The theory is based on empirical research on teacher stress and coping highlighted within this special issue and attempts to more explicitly highli...
Article
The articles in the current special issue advance the literature on Tier 2 in the crucial area of discussing adaptations to existing Tier 2 interventions to enhance positive student outcomes. Adaptation is common practice in school settings. Thus, setting up recommendations, or embedding guiding principles for how to successfully adapt Tier 2 inter...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment effects of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM), a universal classroom management intervention, on the outcomes of children with aggressive behavior in elementary school. Classroom management has been demonstrated as a factor in either escalating children's aggressive beha...
Article
School readiness is an important area for researchers and professionals who work with young children and their families (Myers & Pianta, 2008; Sabol & Pianta, 2012; Stormont, Reinke, & Herman, 2011). School readiness can be defined as the behaviors, skills, and competencies associated with success in school (Snow, 2006; United Nations Children’s Fu...
Article
This study examined the concurrent and predictive validity of single-item scales for assessing teacher stress and coping. Correlations between the stress and coping items and present and end-of-year teacher-reported burnout and self-efficacy generally aligned with hypotheses, with stronger associations between coping and burnout and self-efficacy i...
Article
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief and feasible universal screener for kindergarten readiness for predicting follow-up outcomes in first grade. Participants included kindergarten and first-grade teachers and students from 6 urban elementary schools. Students included slightly more males than females (54%; 46%),...
Article
Although family–school engagement is important across child and adolescent development, most research, programs, and policies have focused primarily on elementary students and contexts. The current study extends beyond elementary settings by exploring the unique and shared contributions of developmental context on family–school engagement (i.e., ac...
Article
Family school engagement practices (e.g., family school partnerships and parental involvement) are empirically supported across academic and social-behavioral domains. Despite family school engagement and parent involvement being deemed important across elementary and secondary schooling, much of the research has focused on early childhood and elem...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying youth with mental health concerns and connecting them to effective intervention is important because poor mental health is related to lower educational achievements, substance abuse, violence, compromised health, and reduced life satisfaction. This study examined the ability of teachers (n = 153) to accurately identify mental health con...
Article
Full-text available
The challenges presented by the growing prevalence, burden, and unmet service needs of youth mental health problems are formidable. During the past decade, scholars and other stakeholders of the Missouri Prevention Center (MPC) have been using a prevention and implementation science approach to develop, implement, evaluate, and disseminate recommen...
Article
Although there is a growing evidence base about effective classroom management practices, teacher implementation of these practices varies due to a number of factors. A school's organizational health is one aspect of the broader social environment that has been hypothesized to influence implementation of interventions. Yet, empirical evidence is li...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the role of teacher-rated likeability as a mediator of the relation between low academic competence and depressive symptoms in elementary-aged children. Analyses focused on a sample of children at risk for child maltreatment living in Hawaii (n = 380). Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized negative r...
Article
Increasingly, “children of incarcerated parents” is becoming the label to describe a growing number of children with a history of parental incarceration. However, while these children and families frequently experience a variety of challenges, the web of interacting influences they face is complex. This variation makes it difficult to understand th...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the latent profiles of child, parent, and teacher ratings of child depressive symptoms in a developmental sample of children from Hawaii at two time points (2nd and 3rd grade). The study attempted to identify patterns of agreement and discrepancy among raters and correlates of these patterns to test a new theory for under...
Article
This group randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY TCM) on student social behavioral and academic outcomes among a large diverse sample of students within an urban context. Participants included 105 teachers and 1817 students in kindergarten to third grade. Three-leve...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes a school-based mental health model for identifying, intervening, and referring students who are at risk for, or are exhibiting, mental health problems. This paper describes the County Schools Mental Health Coalition as a model for improving mental health outcomes for youth. The County Schools Mental Health Coalition, referred t...
Article
An identified barrier to the widespread adoption of universal socioemotional and behavioral screening in schools may be that existing instruments may be too burdensome or costly to administer. As a result, the County Schools Mental Health Coalition came together to develop a common assessment system, the Early Identification System (EIS). The purpo...
Article
Students with early indicators of behavior risk have predictable, negative outcomes, and those with co-existing academic problems have significantly more negative outcomes. Identifying academic subclasses of students with behavior risk can inform integrated interventions and school-based problem-solving teams. In addition, identifying academic stre...
Article
Many studies have demonstrated that when teachers are trained to increase their use of praise, student misbehavior improves; however, few studies have examined teachers’ natural use of praise and no study has examined the relation between teachers’ natural use of praise and classroom behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine general...
Article
Teacher praise is an effective classroom management tool. Training teachers to increase their use of praise can improve student disruptive and off-task behavior. The purpose of this article is to examine different characteristics of praise and the training methods used in the literature. Training methods with positive treatment acceptability and de...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how teacher stress, burnout, coping, and self-efficacy are interrelated can inform preventive and intervention efforts to support teachers. In this study, we explored these constructs to determine their relation to student outcomes, including disruptive behaviors and academic achievement. Participants in this study were 121 teachers a...
Article
This study examined the benefit of utilizing one-item academic and one-item behavior readiness teacher-rated screeners at the beginning of the school year to predict end-of-school year outcomes for middle school students. The Middle School Academic and Behavior Readiness (M-ABR) screeners were developed to provide an efficient and effective way to...
Article
The County Schools Mental Health Coalition, a collaborative among six independent school districts, was established to promote a coordinate and multidisciplinary initiative to implement a scientifically based model of assessment and prevention. This conceptual article discusses the model and describes the process and unique partnership approach to...
Article
Many studies have demonstrated that when teachers are trained to increase their use of praise, student misbehavior improves; however, few studies have examined teachers’ natural use of praise and no study has examined the relation between teachers’ natural use of praise and classroom behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine general...
Article
Children who exhibit early behavioral and academic difficulties are at increased risk of later negative outcomes (U.S. Department of Human and Health Services 2009). Within the school setting, conceptualization of family risk, culture, and demographic factors is needed to effectively identify at-risk families to improve child educational outcomes....
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) training on teacher perceptions of parental involvement. A cluster randomized design was used to assign 42 classroom teachers to either an IY TCM training (n = 19) or a control condition (n = 23). Teachers rated parental involve...
Chapter
Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD’s) are highly prevalent childhood psychological disorders associated with pervasive impairment. They can affect the individual’s social adjustment and educational achievement, disrupt family harmony, place strain on resource-limited learning environments, impact juvenile justice systems and challenge wider societ...
Article
Literature suggests that improving teacher use of culturally responsive classroom management strategies may reduce the disproportionate number of racial and ethnic minority students who receive exclusionary discipline actions and are identified as needing special education, particularly for emotional and behavioral disorders. Coaching teachers is o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Literature suggests that improving teacher use of culturally responsive classroom management strategies may reduce the disproportionate number of racial and ethnic minority students who receive exclusionary discipline actions and are identified as needing special education, particularly for emotional and behavioral disorders. Coaching teachers is o...
Article
Background: There is a need for greater guidance regarding design parameters and empirical benchmarks for social and behavioral outcomes to inform assumptions in the design and interpretation of cluster randomized trials (CRTs). Objectives: We calculated the empirical reference values on critical research design parameters associated with statis...
Article
The brief Student–Teacher Classroom Interaction Observation (ST-CIO) is a direct observation assessment that evaluates interactions between teachers and students. The measure was developed for use in classrooms during academic instruction to determine the frequency of teacher use of reprimands and praise toward a student, as well as the frequency o...
Article
Despite having a large number of readily available measures with strong psychometric properties, schools face barriers in implementing many of these tools. One logical candidate to explain limited practical utility of existing measures is their cost, both financial and time. Thus, the purpose of this special issue is to highlight several recently d...
Article
Full-text available
For children with the most serious and persistent academic and behavior problems, parent involvement in education, particularly teacher perceptions of involvement, is essential to avert their expected long-term negative outcomes. Despite the widespread interest in and perceived importance of parent involvement in education, however, few experimenta...
Article
The purpose of the study was to examine the relations among a single item school readiness screener, social/emotional ratings, and academic performance. A prior study found that single item kindergarten readiness ratings completed in the fall predicted end-of-year academic and behavior outcomes even after controlling for baseline scores. Here, we a...
Article
The present study investigated the role of early stimulation in the home and child language delays in the emergence of depressive symptoms. Data were from a longitudinal study of at-risk children in Hawaii (n = 587). Low learning stimulation in the home at age 3 and language delays in first grade both significantly increased risk for child depressi...
Article
Measures that can be used to identify malleable, dynamic indicators of teacher practices that lead to or are associated with student outcomes are needed to inform classroom interventions and consultation practices with teachers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and validate the Brief Student–Teacher Classroom Interaction Observation in ele...
Article
Full-text available
This column presents a strategy for teachers to use with students with challenging behaviors motivated by a desire to escape a setting. Although many detailed strategies are available for students with behavior problems, few provide a structured approach for working with the students motivated by escape or avoidance. To effectively intervene with d...
Article
Full-text available
Schools are increasingly using multi-tiered prevention models to address the academic and behavior needs of students. The foundation of these models is the implementation of universal, or Tier 1, practices designed to support the academic and behavioral needs of the vast majority of students. To support teachers in the use of effective Tier 1 class...
Article
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This special topic section features research regarding practices that will support mental health service delivery within a school-based multitiered framework. The articles include data and discussions regarding the evaluation of universal, targeted, or intensive intervention addressing mental health concerns and assessment tools intended for use in...
Article
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Identifying classes of children on the basis of academic and behavior risk may have important implications for the allocation of intervention resources within Response to Intervention (RTI) and Multi-Tiered System of Support (MTSS) models. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted with a sample of 517 third grade students. Fall screening scores in...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to explore the effectiveness of a brief, feasible, and cost-effective universal screener for kindergarten readiness. The study examined whether teacher ratings of kindergarteners' academic, behavioral, and overall readiness at the beginning of the year were predictive of academic, emotional, and behavioral outcomes at t...