Wendy Peia Oakes

Wendy Peia Oakes
Arizona State University | ASU · Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College

PhD

About

95
Publications
22,942
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,124
Citations

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
Research conducted to date has highlighted barriers to initial adoption of universal behavior screening in schools. However, little is known regarding the experiences of those implementing these procedures and there have been no studies conducted examining the experiences of educators in different stages of implementing various tiered systems of su...
Article
In this qualitative study we sought to understand the experiences of K-12 school personnel serving on Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (Ci3T) leadership teams. We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews and five focus groups across three states and five school districts to determine team members’ perceptions regarding facilitators and barrie...
Article
Full-text available
We provide results from a district-wide survey of 253 certified educators to determine (a) the degree to which they reported implementing components of their school’s comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered (Ci3T) model of prevention in the current year and (b) the areas in which educators might benefit from continued professional learning. The pur...
Article
Full-text available
Integration of multitiered academic, behavioral, and social-emotional efforts, such as the implementation of a Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tiered (Ci3T) model of prevention, is critical for supporting student development across domains of functioning. In particular, universal behavior screening has been shown to predict outcomes across these d...
Article
We report findings from a multistate survey of 720 faculty and staff from 25 elementary schools in five districts across three states and geographic regions participating in an IES Network grant examining integrated tiered systems. In this preregistered study, we replicated and extended previous inquiry examining educators' views of (1) implementat...
Article
In tiered systems, all school faculty and staff ideally recognize student academic, behavioral, and social achievement as a shared responsibility. In an ideal system, faculty and staff collaborate in a data-informed process to define common student expectations to facilitate success. Adults provide clarity for all students by defining expectations...
Article
Treatment integrity is an important component of rigorous educational research. Information about the extent to which an intervention was implemented as planned provides necessary context for interpreting student outcomes. In the context of increasing use of tiered systems in schools, treatment integrity takes on additional practical importance. Ti...
Article
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, PK-12 school buildings across the United States closed and educators quickly pivoted to remote and continuous learning opportunities to protect students and society as a whole from the deadly coronavirus. As educational leaders navigate the complexities for providing instruction during the 2020-2021 academic ye...
Article
In this study, we examined how preschool students with language delays engaged in interactive dialogue during regular circle time and dramatic inquiry activities. Using frequency recording of three preschool students’ linguistic engagement and multimodal analysis of classroom video data, this article explores how these students produced social, ins...
Article
We examined shifts in educators' perceived knowledge, confidence, and usefulness and actual knowledge of concepts in the Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-tiered (Ci3T) model of prevention before and after participation in a practice-based professional learning series to design, implement, and evaluate a Ci3T model for their school. Participants com...
Article
We examined educators’ sense of efficacy and burnout within comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered (Ci3T) models of prevention implemented in four middle and two high schools. At the time of this study, schools had completed 2 years of implementing Ci3T models as part of a larger district initiative. We examined how educators were faring with a sp...
Article
We report findings of two validation studies of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood (SRSS-EC). Although previous exploratory inquiry suggested a two-factor solution, results of Study 1 conducted with 274 preschool-age youth suggested mixed support for a two-factor model, with only one fit index suggesting an adequate fit (increment...
Article
In this article, we examined educators’ efficacy and burnout within Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-tiered (Ci3T) models of prevention, as implemented in 14 elementary schools in a Midwestern state. Participating schools completed a year-long training series to design their Ci3T plans and were in their second year of implementation as part of a di...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined perceptions of teachers who implemented a tiered system of support, the comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered (Ci3T) model of prevention. We reported findings of four focus groups with a total of 18 elementary teachers who implemented Ci3T for 2 years. While the Ci3T model comprised elements addressing academics, behavior, and...
Article
In this methodological illustration, we examined Tier 2 social skills interventions to support school success for students with or at risk for emotional or behavior disorders. We presented findings examining the usability and feasibility of the Social Skills Improvement System—Intervention Guide and Positive Action Counselor’s Kit, which emphasize...
Article
This paper features three demonstrations of practice using dramatic and visual arts approaches (DIPSI, Academic Club, and Hope Project) with preschool through secondary school age students with exceptionalities. The first section provides a unifying theoretical background for the use of these practices. The next section presents each of the three p...
Article
Schools are adopting tiered systems to prevent and respond to students’ academic, behavioral, and social needs. Foundational to tiered systems is the capacity of educators to implement high-quality classroom management and instructional practices. In this study, school leaders provided professional development to staff as they prepared to adopt a t...
Article
Learning is not a one-size-fits-all approach. Yet differentiation can feel overwhelming and insurmountable in terms of how to address each child’s need separately. With the strategies found in this issue of Science and Children, educators will be able to seamlessly integrate differentiated instruction into their teaching.
Article
Full-text available
Students with and at-risk for academic and behavioral challenges often have low levels of academic engagement. Providing instructional choice is one way to increase engagement in the classroom. In this study, we replicated and extended previous inquiry by investigating the effects of across-activity choices offered by third-grade teachers during re...
Article
Active supervision is a proactive, low-intensity strategy to minimize challenging behaviors and increase desired behaviors. To examine the evidence base of this strategy, we applied the Council for Exceptional Children’s (CEC) Standards for Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education to the body of research exploring the impact of active supervis...
Article
Full-text available
Despite consensus regarding critical design elements for professional development (PD), numerous PD studies have not shown anticipated effects for teachers or students. Mixed methods studies investigating when and why PD is successful are needed. The qualitative study reported here was part of a larger, mixed methods study of PD for self-regulated...
Article
We conducted this systematic review to map the literature and classify the evidence-based status of teacher-directed strategies to increase students’ opportunities to respond (OTR) during whole-group instruction across the K-12 continuum. Specifically, we conducted this review to determine whether OTR could be classified as an evidence-based practi...
Article
Full-text available
Schoolwide expectations are a critical component of tiered systems of support, particularly when established with input from faculty and staff and then taught to all students. The expectation matrices depicting these expectations for all key settings serve as important instructional tools when teaching schoolwide expectations. In this study, we exa...
Article
We conducted this systematic review to classify the evidence-base status for high-probability request sequence (HPRS) as a strategy to improve students’ behavioral outcomes in general and special education settings across the K-12 continuum. Specifically, the purpose of this review was to determine whether HPRS could be classified as an evidence-ba...
Article
In this replication study, we examined the effect of educators’ participation in a practice-based professional learning series for designing, implementing, and evaluating Functional Assessment-based Interventions (FABI; Umbreit, Liaupsin, Ferro, & Lane, 2007) on their actual knowledge and perceived knowledge, confidence, and usefulness of concepts...
Article
Full-text available
Active supervision is a practical strategy for increasing student engagement and decreasing student disruptive behavior. In this article, we describe a step-by-step process for using active supervision, with teaching tips to assist with successful implementation. Throughout the article we offer lessons from the field featuring the perspectives of p...
Article
Full-text available
Despite consensus regarding critical design elements for professional development (PD), numerous PD studies have not shown anticipated effects for teachers or students. Mixed methods studies investigating when and why PD is successful are needed. The qualitative study reported here was part of a larger, mixed methods study of PD for Self-Regulated...
Article
High-probability request sequence (HPRS) is a low-intensity strategy designed to increase student compliance by creating behavioral momentum. Momentum is established by providing three to five requests that a noncompliant student is most likely to do followed quickly by a less preferred request. Herein, we describe a step-by-step process for using...
Article
We report findings of a psychometric study comparing scores from two screening tools: Student Risk Screening Scale–Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE, an adapted version of the Student Risk Screening Scale) and Behavior Assessment System for Children–Second Edition, Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BASC-2 BESS). Participants were 62...
Article
In this article, we examined predictive validity of Student Risk Screening Scale—Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) scores for use with elementary-age students (N = 4,465) from 14 elementary schools. Results indicated elementary school students with high levels of risk according to fall SRSS-IE scores—especially those with externalizing beha...
Article
Instructional feedback is a practical strategy for monitoring student learning in response to instruction and providing prompts to students to confirm, refine, or clarify their misunderstandings. In this article, we describe a step-by-step process for using instructional feedback, with teaching tips to assist successful implementation with all stud...
Article
Full-text available
Behavior-specific praise (BSP) is a low-intensity strategy that can be used to reinforce appropriate responding in the classroom. BSP occurs when a teacher observes particular student behavior and compliments the student for the appropriate response with the intent that students will continue to engage in the appropriate behavior. In this article,...
Article
We developed this special issue, Effective Low-Intensity Strategies to Enhance School Success: What Every Educator Needs to Know, for Beyond Behavior as a resource for educators and parents. Each article provides easy-to-access resources for readers to learn about effective, efficient, low-intensity strategies to support student engagement and limi...
Article
Instructional choice is a practical strategy for increasing student engagement and decreasing challenging behavior. In this article, we describe a step-by-step process for incorporating instructional choice into classroom activities, with teaching tips to assist with successful implementation. Throughout the article, we offer lessons from the field...
Article
Instructional choice is a low-intensity strategy that can improve academic engagement. In this study, we investigated the effects of within-activity choices offered during math by third-grade teachers to participating students with behavioral and academic needs. We utilized a professional development model to train teachers to implement instruction...
Article
Self-monitoring is a low-intensity strategy teachers can use to support instruction in classrooms across the grade span in various instructional settings and content areas. This study extended the knowledge base by examining the effectiveness of self-monitoring through a systematic replication with three students with specific learning disabilities...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we examined predictive validity of Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) scores for use at the middle (N = 2,313 from four middle schools) and high (N = 2,727 from two high schools) school level. Results indicated middle and high school students with high levels of risk according to fall SRSS-IE...
Article
In this article, we have introduced a key challenge confronting the fields of education and mental health: the need for early detection of EBDs among students and a framework for early response to their needs. Next, we offered a potential solution: prioritizing strong, integrated partnerships between education and mental health systems. Following t...
Article
There is a priority for schools to address students' social and emotional needs as is done for academic learning. Tiered models of prevention provide a framework for teaching social skills and behavioral expectations, as well as academics, with positive, proactive, evidence-based practices. Central to responding to students' needs is accurate measu...
Article
Increasing students’ opportunities to respond (OTR) is a low-intensity strategy effective in increasing engagement. Building on the work of Haydon and colleagues, we compared two types of OTR, choral and mixed (70% choral, 30% individual), to examine the utility of these strategies in increasing active student responding and accuracy during mathema...
Article
It can be challenging for educators to select intervention tactics based on the function of the student’s behavior. In this article, authors offer practical information on behavioral function and environmental-focused intervention ideas for educators developing behavior intervention plans. Ideas are organized according to the hypothesized function...
Article
We report findings of a convergent validity study examining the internalizing subscale (SRSS-I6) of the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) with the internalizing subscale of the Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991). Participants included 227 sixth- through 12th-grade students from nine schools across tw...
Book
https://itunes.apple.com/us/book/building-installing-comprehensive-integrated-three/id1171269209?mt=13 The focus of this practical guide is to support the design, implementation, and evaluation of comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered (Ci3T) models of prevention for the purpose of supporting student success academically, behaviorally, and sociall...
Article
We report results of an exploratory validation study of the Student Risk Screening Scale–Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) applied with the first sample of middle and high school students from nine middle and three high schools from three states. The Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS) was modified to broaden the scope of this user-friendly...
Article
Full-text available
This article offers a rationale for using a low-intensity support, increasing opportunities to respond, to promote students’ academic engagement and decrease disruptive behaviors. A step-by-step guide to implementing this strategy in the classroom setting is presented.
Article
This descriptive study reports data from one elementary school whose leadership team explored and installed systematic behavior screening as part of their tiered model of prevention. The authors compared student performance on two school-selected screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) and the...
Article
Bullying is a serious issue affecting the psychological, social, and physical well-being of students. Although a substantial amount of bullying research has been conducted with general education students, there is a paucity of experimental prevention or intervention studies specifically focused on students with disabilities. The aim of this article...
Article
In this article, we provided descriptive and methodological illustrations of how to conduct systematic behavior screenings at the middle and high school levels to detect students with intensive intervention needs using one systematic screening tool: the Student Risk Screening Scale. We discussed the importance of systematic screening and presented...
Article
We report findings of a validity study comparing two screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) and the Social Skills Improvement System-Performance Screening Guide (SSiS-PSG; Elliott & Gresham, 2007). Participants were 1,680 kindergarten through sixth-grade elementary students from three schools in...
Article
Full-text available
This review of the literature was conducted to explore the evidence base for functional assessment-based interventions (FABIs) for one systematic approach developed by Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, and Lane (2007). Specifically, this review examined the evidence base for this systematic approach to F ABI for young students by applying quality indicator...
Article
We report findings of a convergent validity study examining the internalizing subscale (SRSS-15) of the newly adapted Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE12) with the internalizing subscale of the Teacher Report Form (TRF; Achenbach, 1991) conducted in 13 schools across three states with 195 kindergarten through...
Article
This paper provides outcomes of a study examining the effectiveness of a year-long professional development training series designed to support in-service educators in learning a systematic approach to functional assessment-based interventions developed by Umbreit and colleagues (2007) that has met with demonstrated success when implemented with un...
Article
We report findings of a validation study exploring the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1994) for use with English learners (ELs) attending a large suburban elementary school. First, we explored the reliability of the SRSS by examining internal consistency, with results indicating adequate internal consistency (.83). Second, we examine...
Article
Full-text available
Screening of students at risk for antisocial behaviors in school is an essential step in the implementation of evidence-based supports for academic, behavioral, and social domains at the first sign of concern. This study examined the measurement properties of a free-access systematic behavior screening tool: the Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummo...
Article
Full-text available
In comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models, it is essential to have a systematic method for identifying students who need supports at Tier 2 or Tier 3. This article provides explicit information on how to use multiple sources of data to determine which students might benefit from these supports. First, the authors provide an overview of how t...
Article
Comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models are context specific and developed by school-site teams according to the core values held by the school community. In this article, the authors provide a step-by-step, team-based process for designing comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models of prevention that integrate academic, behavioral, and...
Article
In this introductory article, the authors provide an overview of and rationale for comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models of prevention—one approach to integrated tiered systems of support. The authors (a) describe core features of comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered models; and (b) discuss associated benefits, emphasizing those for stu...
Article
In this article, the authors clarify the role of the leadership team, providing a rationale for one integrated team to examine academic, social, and behavioral programming, with careful attention to including all key stakeholders. Next, the authors discuss the procedures for teaching all key stakeholders the comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered...
Article
Full-text available
School-site and district-level leadership teams rely on the existing knowledge base to select, implement, and evaluate evidence-based practices meeting students’ multiple needs within the context of multitiered systems of support. The authors focus on the stages of implementation science as applied to Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports; the importance of s...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors provide an overview of behavior screening tools available, including free and commercially available options. Next, the authors offer step-by-step procedures for (a) selecting, (b) scheduling, (c) preparing, (d) administering, and (e) scoring and interpreting behaviors screening tools. The authors conclude with recommen...
Article
Full-text available
We report findings of a validation study comparing two screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale–Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE, an adapted version of the Student Risk Screening Scale) and the Social Skills Improvement System–Performance Screening Guide (SSiS-PSG). Participants included 458 kindergarten through fifth-grade element...
Article
We report findings of two exploratory validation studies of a revised instrument: the Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood version (SRSS-EC). The SRSS-EC was modified to reflect characteristics of externalizing and internalizing behaviors manifested by preschool-age children. In Study 1, we explored the reliability of SRSS-IE (Student R...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the transition from elementary to middle school for 74 fifth-grade students. Specifically, we examined how behavioral risk evident in the elementary years, as measured by the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS), impacts students transitioning from elementary to middle school. First, we examined how student risk status shifts as students...
Article
Full-text available
Project Persevere examined teacher efficacy and burnout within Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-tiered (CI3T) models of prevention, as implemented in two middle schools in a southern state. Participating schools completed a year-long training series to design their CI3T plans and were in their first year of implementation as part of regular school...
Article
We reported findings of an exploratory validation study of a revised universal screening instrument: the Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) for use with middle school students. Tested initially for use with elementary-age students, the SRSS-IE was adapted to include seven additional items reflecting characteristi...
Chapter
Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1975, behavioral assessments in school contexts have evolved in theory and practice. Within multitiered prevention models, behavioral assessments are used for early detection of students for whom primary prevention (for all students) is insufficient. Universal screening pract...