Wendy Hood

Wendy Hood
Auburn University | AU · Department of Biological Sciences

PhD

About

84
Publications
15,917
Reads
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1,301
Citations
Introduction
Wendy Hood currently works at the Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University. Their most recent publication is 'An ecologists' guide to mitochondrial DNA mutations and senescence'.
Additional affiliations
October 2016 - present
Auburn University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2012 - September 2016
Auburn University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
July 2007 - December 2011
Auburn University
Position
  • Assistant Research Professor

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative damage is predicted to be a mediator of trade-offs between current reproduction and future reproduction or survival, but most studies fail to support such predictions. We suggest that two factors underlie the equivocal nature of these findings: (1) investigators typically assume a negative linear relationship between current reproduction...
Article
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Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing p...
Article
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Energy allocation theory predicts that a lactating female should alter the energetic demands of its organ systems in a manner that maximizes nutrient allocation to reproduction while reducing nutrient use for tasks that are not vital to immediate survival. We posit that organ-specific plasticity in the function of mitochondria plays a key role in m...
Article
Allocating a greater amount of limited resources, such as energy, to current reproduction can reduce the amount of energy available for somatic maintenance and can ultimately impair future breeding success or maternal survival (i.e. cost of reproduction hypothesis). Although there is some support for the cost of reproduction hypothesis in birds, fe...
Article
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In mammals, nutrient allocation during lactation is a critical component of maternal care as milk intake promotes juvenile growth and survival, and hence maternal and offspring fitness. Milk composition varies widely across mammals and is hypothesized to have arisen via selection pressures associated with environment, diet and life history. These h...
Article
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Mitochondrial function is fundamental to organismal performance, health, and fitness - especially during energetically challenging events, such as migration. With this investigation, we evaluated mitochondrial sensitivity to ecologically relevant stressors. We focused on an iconic migrant, the North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), an...
Article
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Mammals differ more than 100-fold in maximum lifespan. Here, we conducted comparative transcriptomics on 26 species with diverse lifespans. We identified thousands of genes with expression levels negatively or positively correlated with a species’ maximum lifespan (Neg- or Pos-MLS genes). Neg-MLS genes are primarily involved in energy metabolism an...
Article
While the specific mechanisms of colour production in biological systems are diverse, the mechanics of colour production are straightforward and universal. Colour is produced through the selective absorption of light by pigments, the scattering of light by nanostructures or a combination of both. When Tigriopus californicus copepods were fed a caro...
Article
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The insulin and insulin-like signalling (IIS) network plays an important role in mediating several life-history traits, including growth, reproduction and senescence. Although insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) 1 and 2 are both key hormones in the vertebrate IIS network, research on IGF2 in juveniles and adults has been largely neglected because ea...
Article
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Lactation is physiologically demanding, requiring increased nutrient and energy use. Mammary and extramammary tissues undergo metabolic changes for lactation. Although it has long been recognized that mitochondria play a critical role in lactation, the mitochondrial adaptations for milk synthesis in supporting tissues, such as liver and skeletal mu...
Article
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We evaluated mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy by investigating the acute and long-term changes in the liver and skeletal muscle of rats in multiple reproductive stages. A total of 48 rats were used. Rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 16 per group): nonreproductive females; females that became pregnant, gave birth, but had their pu...
Article
Mitochondrial energetics is a central theme in animal biochemistry and physiology, with researchers using mitochondrial respiration as a metric to investigate metabolic capability. To obtain the measures of mitochondrial respiration, fresh biological samples must be used, and the entire laboratory procedure must be completed within approximately 2...
Article
As milk production in dairy cattle continues to increase, so do the energetic and nutrient demands on the dairy cow. Difficulties making the necessary metabolic adjustments for lactation can impair lactation performance and increase the risk of metabolic disorders. The physiological adaptations to lactation involve the mammary gland and extramammar...
Article
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The efficient production of energy via oxidative phosphorylation is essential to the growth, survival, and reproduction of eukaryotes. The behavior (position of, and communication between, mitochondria) and morphology of mitochondria play key roles in efficient energy production and are influenced by oxidative stressors such as ultraviolet (UV) rad...
Article
Biologists have long appreciated the critical role energy turnover plays in understanding variation in performance and fitness among individuals. Whole-organism metabolic studies have provided key insights into fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes. However, constraints operating at subcellular levels—such as those operating within the...
Article
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As a major physiological mechanism involved in cellular renewal and repair, immune function is vital to the body's capacity to support tissue maintenance and organismal survival. Because immune defenses can be energetically expensive, the activities of metabolically active organs, such as the liver, are predicted to increase during infection by mos...
Article
Considerable progress has been made in understanding the physiological basis for variation in the life‐history patterns of animals, particularly with regard to the roles of oxidative stress and hormonal regulation. However, an underappreciated and understudied area that could play a role in mediating inter‐ and intraspecific variation of life histo...
Article
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Synopsis One of the key foci of ecoimmunology is understanding the physiological interactions between reproduction and immune defense. To assess an immune challenge, investigators typically measure an immune response at a predetermined time point that was selected to represent a peak response. These time points often are based on the immunological...
Article
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The life-history patterns that animals display are a product of their ability to maximize reproductive performance while concurrently balancing numerous metabolic demands. For example, the energetic costs of reproduction may reduce an animal’s ability to support self-maintenance and longevity. In this work, we evaluated the impact of parity on mito...
Article
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We have a limited understanding of the proximate mechanisms that are responsible for the development of variation in animal performance and life-history strategies. Provided that components of an organism’s successful life history – for example, mate competition, gestation, lactation, etc. – are energetically demanding, increased energy production...
Article
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Carotenoid coloration is widely recognized as a signal of individual condition in various animals, but despite decades of study, the mechanisms that link carotenoid coloration to condition remain unresolved. Most birds with red feathers convert yellow dietary carotenoids to red carotenoids in an oxidation process requiring the gene encoding the put...
Article
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Historically, investigators have assumed microorganisms identified in mother’s milk to be contaminants, but recent data suggest that milk microbiota may contribute to beneficial maternal effects. Microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of newborn mammals are derived, at least in part, from the maternal microbial population. Milk-de...
Article
Eukaryotes are the outcome of an ancient symbiosis and as such, eukaryotic cells fundamentally possess two genomes. As a consequence, gene products encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes must interact in an intimate and precise fashion to enable aerobic respiration in eukaryotes. This genomic architecture of eukaryotes is proposed to nec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Carotenoid coloration is widely recognized as a signal of individual condition in various animals, but despite decades of study, the mechanisms that link carotenoid coloration to condition remain unresolved. Most birds with red feathers convert yellow dietary carotenoids to red carotenoids in an oxidation process requiring the gene encoding the put...
Article
Full-text available
An important component of life history theory is understanding how natural variation arises in populations. Both endogenous and exogenous factors contribute to organism survival and reproduction, and therefore, it is important to understand how such factors are both beneficial and detrimental to population dynamics. One ecologically relevant factor...
Article
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Longevity plays a key role in the fitness of organisms, so understanding the processes that underlie variance in senescence has long been a focus of ecologists and evolutionary biologists. For decades, the performance and ultimate decline of mitochondria have been implicated in the demise of somatic tissue, but exactly why mitochondrial function de...
Article
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An animal's pace of life is mediated by the physiological demands and stressors it experiences (e.g. reproduction) and one likely mechanism that underlies these effects is oxidative stress. Reproduction has been shown to increase or reduce oxidative stress under different conditions and to modify mitochondrial performance. We hypothesized that the...
Article
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Exponential increase in respiration rate with increasing temperature in poikilotherms is well documented, however, the rate of change varies greatly across copepod taxa. Studies often report magnitude of change, but the rate of change in respiration across multiple temperatures is equivocal. We used 32 studies spanning 78 yrs of research and 50 cop...
Article
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During gestation and lactation, female mammals often mobilize endogenous nutrient reserves to meet the resource demands of offspring production. These mobilized stores include calcium, phosphorous and other minerals that are resorbed from maternal bone to facilitate rapid mineralization of offspring bones. The extent to which bone mineral is resorb...
Article
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Evolutionary biologists have been interested in the negative interactions among life history traits for nearly a century, but the mechanisms that would create this negative interaction remain poorly understood. One variable that has emerged as a likely link between reproductive effort and longevity is oxidative stress. Specifically, it has been pro...
Article
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Animals display tremendous variation in their rates of growth, reproductive output, and longevity. While the physiological and molecular mechanisms that underlie this variation remain poorly understood, the performance of the mitochondrion has emerged as a key player. Mitochondria not only impact the performance of eukaryotes via their capacity to...
Article
Women who do not lactate display increased incidence of obesity, type II diabetes, and cancer. Stuebe and Rich-Edwards proposed that these effects occur because physiological changes that ensue during pregnancy are not reversed without lactation. To empirically test this hypothesis, we compared markers of metabolism, mitochondrial function, and oxi...
Article
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Understanding of physiological responses of organisms is typically based on data collected during an isolated event. Although many fundamental insights have been gained from these studies, evaluating the response to a single event ignores the fact that each individual has experienced a unique set of events throughout its life that may have altered...
Article
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Dietary carotenoids have been proposed to boost immune system and antioxidant functions in vertebrate animals, but studies aimed at testing these physiological functions of carotenoids have often failed to find support. Here we subject yellow canaries (Serinus canaria), which possess high levels of carotenoids in their tissue, and white recessive c...
Article
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Background Human epidemiological data show that breastfeeding reduces the mother’s probability of developing several disease conditions, including obesity and type II diabetes compared to mothers that give birth but do not breastfeed. The goal of this investigation was to characterize how lactation changes a rat’s body composition, metabolism, mito...
Article
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Human epidemiological data show that breastfeeding reduces the prevalence of numerous diseases compared to mothers that give birth but do not participate in lactation. The goal of this study was to determine if differences in metabolism, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress underlie the protective phenotype found in lactating women. Ten-wee...
Article
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Mitochondria are hypothesized to display a biphasic response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure. In this study, we evaluated the time course changes in mitochondrial performance and oxidative stress in house mice following X-irradiation. Forty-eight mice were equally divided among six groups, including a non-irradiated control and 5 experime...
Article
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To support the high energetic demands of reproduction, female mammals display plasticity in many physiological processes, such as the lipid transport system. Lipids support the energy demands of females during reproduction, and energy and structural demands of the developing offspring via the placenta in utero or milk during the suckling period. We...
Article
During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mine...
Data
Table S1. All potential transcription factor binding sites (matrix similarity >72%) on the putative Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) ERα promoter region according to MatInspector (Genomatix; Cartharius et al. 2005).
Article
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There is mounting evidence that, across taxa, females breeding in competitive environments tend to allocate more testosterone to their offspring prenatally and these offspring typically have more aggressive and faster-growing phenotypes. To date, no study has determined the mechanisms mediating this maternal effect's influence on offspring phenotyp...
Article
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Through maternal effects, information about environmental conditions experienced in the maternal generation can be transmitted to subsequent generations. Although maternal effects have been described and quantified in many mammalian species, the underlying causal links are often under-studied. The close association between mother and neonate during...
Article
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Bone is a dynamic tissue from which minerals are deposited or withdrawn according to the body's demand. During late pregnancy and lactation, female mammals mobilize mineral from bone to support the ossification of offspring skeleton(s). Conversely, in response to mechanical loading, minerals are deposited in bone enabling it to develop a stronger a...
Article
Full-text available
Carotenoid coloration has been repeatedly shown to serve as a sexually selected signal of individual quality. Across different species, individuals showing brighter carotenoid-based signals have been found to have superior foraging abilities, to recover faster from diseases and, in general, to enjoy a better body condition. Experiments with birds h...
Article
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The reproductive female, or queen, in a eusocial colony must allocate sufficient nutrients to reproduction to maintain a high rate of reproductive output. In mammals, the energetic costs of lactation greatly exceed those of pregnancy, and thus, lactation should be exceptionally costly for a eusocial queen, such as the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus...
Article
Heat-shock proteins (HSP) are molecular chaperones that play key roles in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis under variable environmental conditions. Although HSP are frequently used in studies of wild vertebrates as indicators of stress, no one to date has assessed responses of HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 in the same species to different environm...
Article
Investment in offspring production often requires the mobilization of endogenous resources, a strategy that may negatively impact maternal condition. In mammals, skeletal ossification in growing offspring requires a large investment of calcium by mothers, and bone loss has been described in several species as a means of supporting this demand. Alth...
Article
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The rapid spread of the bacterial disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), throughout the introduced range of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches...
Article
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Milk is essential to a mammalian mother's reproductive strategy and is necessary for offspring growth and development. In hibernators with a short duration between weaning and winter immergence, milk synthesis is likely constrained by time and trade-offs between maternal and offspring condition, thus influencing milk composition. We characterized t...
Article
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The production of offspring typically requires investment of resources derived from both the environment and maternal somatic reserves. As such, the availability of either of these types of resources has the potential to limit the degree to which resources are allocated to reproduction. Theory and empirical studies have argued that mothers modify r...
Data
Reproductive output and pup morphological data for mothers consuming either a low-calcium or standard diet. (DOCX)
Article
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In species with repeated bouts of reproduction, a female's ability to retain sufficient tissue for self-maintenance is essential to her survival and capacity for future reproduction. Loss of bone mineral content results in bone fragility and the possibility of reduced survival, so females should guard against the overuse of their bone mineral durin...
Article
Although a considerable amount of information has accumulated about oligosaccharides in the milk and colostrum of representatives of various mammalian orders, nothing is so far known concerning these sugars in the milk of any bat species (order Chiroptera). In this study, we determined that the following oligosaccharides occur in milk of the island...
Article
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Patterns of offspring development reflect the availability of energy and nutrients, limitations on an individual's capacity to use available resources, and tradeoffs between the use of nutrients to support current metabolic demands and tissue growth. To determine if the long period of offspring dependency in bats is associated with the need for an...
Article
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To support the ossification of fetal and neonatal bones, reproductive females must transfer calcium to their offspring. The extent to which calcium is mobilized from maternal bone is related inversely to the amount of calcium ingested. Insectivorous bats consume a low-calcium diet, and thus, a reproductive female may experience a conflict over allo...
Article
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It has been well established that carotenoid and melanin pigmentation are often condition-dependent traits in vertebrates. Expression of carotenoid coloration in birds has been shown to reflect pigment intake, food access and parasite load; however, the relative importance of and the potential interactions among these factors have not been previous...