Wendy Brown

Wendy Brown
University of New England (Australia) | UNE · Department of Animal Science

PhD (canine nutrition)

About

79
Publications
25,582
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Introduction
Associate Professor in the Department of Animal Science, University of New England (Australia), specialising in Canine Science. Research expertise includes canine nutrition, behaviour and health management (including canine dental health), but also includes feeding behaviour, welfare and management of other species (horses, alpacas). Speciality expertise in population management of free-roaming dogs.
Additional affiliations
July 1997 - present
University of New England (Australia)
Position
  • Senior Lecturer in Animal Science (Canine)

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
The persistent endocrinological effects of perinatal stress due to gestational immaturity in horses are unknown, although effects have been reported in other livestock species. This pilot study tested the hypothesis that persistent adrenocortical dysregulation is present in horses that were gestationally immature at birth by assessing the salivary...
Article
The lateral profile of the 6th and 7th cervical spinous processes (CSPs) were examined in four extantspecies of Equus (n=33); E. caballus (n=26), E. przewalskii (n=3), E. quagga boehmi (n=1), E. asinus (n=3)and compared to pre-domesticated Equus specimens (n=66) representing three known species: E. occidentalis(n=56), E. mosbachensis (n=2), E. curv...
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Full-text available
Companion animal management in Australian remote Aboriginal communities (rAcs) is a complex problem with multiple stakeholders involved, with differing needs, knowledge, power and resources. The Comm4Unity (Cycle of Multiple Methods for Unity—For Community) approach was designed to address such problems. This study represents the second step of the...
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Companion animal management in Australian remote Aboriginal communities (rAcs) is a complex problem, with multiple stakeholders involved with differing needs, knowledge, power and resources. We present our CoMM4Unity approach, a participatory systemic action research process designed to address such problems. In the first step, frame analysis is us...
Article
Morphological variation in the attachment sites of the ligamentum lamina nuchae and ligamenta interspinalia to the 2nd to 7th cervical vertebrae is described in four species of Equus, and enthesis patterns in relation to these attachment sites are explored. This comparative study provides new insights with respect to this variation in the zebrine a...
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A common strategy to reduce predator attack on livestock is the deployment of guardian alpacas. However, little research has been conducted on the behaviour of this species while housed with other livestock. This study monitored two male alpacas cohabitating with 180 lambing ewes in order to quantify field behaviour in two phases. Phase one assesse...
Article
The long-term effects of gestational immaturity in the premature (defined as < 320 d gestation) and dysmature (normal term but showing some signs of prematurity) foal have not been thoroughly investigated. Studies have reported that a high percentage of gestationally immature foals with related orthopedic issues such as incomplete ossification may...
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Equine Caudal Cervical Morphologic Variation (ECCMV) is a congenital malformation of the caudal cervical spine distinct from the more commonly recognized Cervical Vertebral Stenotic Myelopathy (CVSM). The most common presentation of ECCMV is recognized on the sixth cervical vertebra (C6). In “normal” presentations, the transverse processes on the l...
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Pet domestic cat (Felis catus) populations are increasing all around the world, resulting in an increase in contact with humans and wildlife, potentially spreading zoonotic diseases and predating on wildlife. With the recently identified rise in cat populations in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, culturally appropriate cat population man...
Article
Ultrasound is a well-established modality in equine investigative and diagnostic procedures. Although to date, it has not been utilised in examining the attachments of the equine nuchal ligament lamellae (NLL) onto the cervical vertebrae; for which a non-invasive technique is currently lacking. This study presents a standardised methodology for inv...
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Detector dogs could be trained to find invasive insect pests at borders before they establish in new areas. However, without access to the live insects themselves, odour training aids are needed to condition dogs to their scent. This proof-of-concept study assessed two potential training aids for insect detection: a scent extract and dead specimens...
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The Yonaguni pony is a rare breed of pony that has remained isolated on the westernmost island of Japan and may well retain normal morphological traits currently lost in most domestic horses (Equus caballus), such as the attachment of the nuchal ligament lamellae (NLL) from C2–C7. Recent research has found that NLL attachments are no longer present...
Article
For over 200 years, equine anatomic literature has chiefly portrayed the attachment points of the nuchal ligament lamellae (NLL) from the second to the seventh cervical vertebrae (C2-C7). However, recent studies have shown that the modern domestic horse, Equus caballus, primarily exhibits the attachments points from C2-C5. Here we present the rare...
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Generalizing to target odor variations while retaining specificity against non-targets is crucial to the success of detector dogs under working conditions. As such, the importance of generalization should be considered in the formulation of effective training strategies. Research investigating olfactory generalization from pure singular compounds t...
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The 55-million-year history of equine phylogeny has been well-documented from the skeletal record; however, this is less true for the soft tissue structures that are now vestigial in modern horse. A recent study reported that two ligamentous structures resembling functional interosseous muscle II and IV were evident in Dutch Konik horses. The curre...
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Introduction: Dog boots are being utilized to improve performance and welfare of dogs exposed to a range of adverse conditions; however, there is a lack of empirical evidence establishing the impact of these on gait characteristics. The aim of this research was to quantify alterations to ground force kinetics associated with the introduction of ca...
Preprint
The 55-million-year history of equine phylogeny has been well documented from the skeletal record, however not the soft tissue structures that are now vestigial in modern horse. A recent study reported 2 ligamentous structures resembling functional 3rd and 4th interosseous muscles were evident in Dutch Konik horses. The current study investigates t...
Article
Chronic musculoskeletal pathologies are common in horses, however, identifying related effects can be challenging. This study tested the hypothesis that movement sensors and analgesics could be used in combination to confirm the presence of restrictive pathologies by assessing lying time. Four horses presenting a range of angular limb deformities (...
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As the global population of free-ranging domestic dogs grows, there is increasing concern about impacts on human health and wildlife conservation. Effective management of dog populations requires reliable information on their diet, feeding behavior, and social ecology. Free-ranging dogs are reliant on humans, but anthropogenic food subsidies, parti...
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This study examined dog and cat demographics, roaming behaviours, and interspecific interactions in a remote Aboriginal island community using multiple methods. Our results revealed temporal differences between the roaming behaviours of dogs, cats, and wildlife. Dogs showed crepuscular behaviour, being active around dawn (5:30 a.m. to 9:30 a.m.) an...
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Conflicting data predominantly describes the equine nuchal ligament lamellae (NLL) attachments as C2–C6 or C2–C7; however, preliminary evidence suggests C2–C5. This study aimed to identify morphological variations in the attachments of the NLL in four species of the family equidae and determine if the variations were species or breed linked. Cadave...
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The Dutch Konik is valued from a genetic conservation perspective and also for its role in preservation of natural landscapes. The primary management objective for the captive breeding of this primitive horse is to maintain its genetic purity, whilst also maintaining the nature reserves on which they graze. Breeding selection has traditionally been...
Article
Clear definitions of ‘normal’ equine gestation length (GL) are elusive, with GL being subject to a considerable number of internal and external variables that have confounded interpretation and estimation of GL for over 50 years. Consequently, the mean GL of 340 days first established by Rossdale in 1967 for Thoroughbred horses in northern Europe c...
Preprint
The Dutch Konik is valued from a genetic conservation perspective and also for its role in preservation of natural landscapes. The primary management objective for the captive breeding of this primitive horse is to maintain its genetic purity, whilst also maintaining the nature reserves on which they graze. Breeding selection has traditionally been...
Article
Full-text available
The roles of the 37 species in the family Canidae (the dog family), are of great current interest. The Gray Wolf is the largest canid and their roles in food webs are much researched, as are those of Domestic Dogs, Coyotes and Red Foxes. Much less is known about the other canid species and their ecological roles.Here we describe general food web th...
Article
While it has been established that nutrients and flavours (odour, taste) play an important role in diet selection by horses, previous studies have not always clarified what type of flavouring (e.g. non-nutritive or nutritive) was used. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the influence of distinct food characteristics (odour, tas...
Article
Currently, Australia is free from terrestrial rabies but an incursion from nearby Indonesia, where the virus is endemic, is a feasible threat. Here, we aimed to determine whether the response to a simulated rabies incursion would vary between three extant Australian dog populations; free-roaming domestic dogs from a remote indigenous community in n...
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Introduction Dog breeds are a consequence of artificial selection for specific attributes. These closed genetic populations have metabolic and physiological characteristics that may be revealed by metabolomic analysis. Objectives To identify and characterise the drivers of metabolic differences in the fasted plasma metabolome and then determine met...
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Free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris) are common worldwide, often maintaining diseases of domestic pets and wildlife. Management of these dogs is difficult and often involves capture, treatment, neutering and release. Information on the effects of sex and reproductive state on intraspecific contacts and disease transmission is currently lacking, but...
Article
Alarm and distress vocalizations are important anti-predator strategies for many species. An alarm call is a particular vocal response to potential or actual danger, whereas a distress call is an involuntary emotional response to a similar situation and/or stimuli. Alarm and distress calls are often associated with prey species. Australian wild dog...
Article
Dog management in remote Aboriginal communities is challenging. Geographical isolation results in limited access to veterinary care, language and cultural barriers that may lead to misunderstanding, and poor relations result from the implemention of non-consensual dog control programs. In response to these needs and challenges, Animal Management in...
Article
Biophilia, our inherent love of living things, is a major driver of the modern conservation ethic worldwide. Australians are particularly fond of wildlife and consequently, our fauna are key to our national image. As a nation, we are known for our relatively carefree attitude towards some of the world’s most dangerous animals, including venomous sn...
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Long chain n-3 fatty acids are beneficial to mammals because of their anti-inflammatory role. However, whether flaxseed oil, which is rich in short chain n-3 fatty acids, has such a role, it has not been extensively examined. This study investigated the supplementation of flaxseed oil on the regulation of genes involved in inflammatory responses su...
Conference Paper
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Anecdotally, Australian horses are typically managed on small acreage pastures (paddocks) all year round and may be confined to stables or yards for certain periods. Even where horses have considerable access to pasture, they remain largely dependant upon humans for pasture management and the timing, selection and delivery of supplementary feeds. H...
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n the present experiment, duckweed is evaluated as a novel protein source for dogs by incorporating Landoltia punctata into dog diets at 10%, 20% and 30%. The inclusion of duckweed resulted in significant (P < 0.001) linear decreases in DM, gross energy and crude protein digestibility. The addition of the exogenous enzyme phytase significantly (P =...
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The use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to...
Conference Paper
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Domesticated horses are routinely maintained in conditions with restricted access to forages, which contrasts with free-roaming horses that spend up to 17 h/day grazing and browsing. Horses evolved primarily as grazing herbivores typically consuming an estimated graze-to-browse ratio of 9:1. However, in some situations horses have been observed to...
Conference Paper
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Preference testing is an important tool for evaluating novel feeds for their acceptance and relative palatability in horses. In this study we examined 2 novel forages with the aim of determining the preferred forage and to examine the variability in preferences exhibited between individual horses as measured by the methodology used in this study. T...
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PUFA are important for human and animal health. To our knowledge, previous studies investigating the metabolism of PUFA in dogs have not examined breed differences. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential to elongate PUFA in two pure breeds of dogs. Plasma fatty acid composition (%) was measured in dogs during 3 weeks supplementa...
Article
This study examined if Merino sheep trained to respond to a combined visual and auditory stimulus could influence the movement of naïve Merino sheep flocks when the stimulus was activated. Trained Merino ewes were mixed with naive ewes and wethers in three groups of different sizes. Group ratios were (trained:naïve) Small Mob (SM) 1:5 ratio (n=18),...
Article
The evolutionary success of the domestic dog is probably due to its diverse dietary habits and its exceptional ability to cohabitate with the world’s growing population of humans. Unlike the ancestral wolf, the domestic dog is more adept at scavenging than hunting, and is comfortable in the presence of humans. Consequently, Canis familiaris has fou...
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The present study examined how shelter availability, altitude and temperature influence paddock utilisation by pregnant and lambing Merino ewes. Global positioning systems (GPS) attached to collars allowed continuous tracking of ewes’ positions within two paddocks, and environmental conditions were also monitored throughout this time using temperat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
B-vitamins are sometimes used in a clinical setting to stimulate appetite in sick animals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether B-vitamin supplementation could influence behavioural and olfactory responses to food in healthy dogs. To test this theory, twelve dogs of mixed breeds received a daily oral supplementation of vitamins B1, B6,...
Article
Grass eating behaviour in the domestic dog may be related to gastrointestinal distress. To explore this theory, the current study observed grass eating behaviours in dogs fed a standard diet with and without supplementation of a fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS). The FOS diet temporarily induced loose, watery stools to simulate a mild gastrointestinal d...
Article
The feasibility of training sheep to approach a stimulus was investigated in three experimental groups and a control group of. ne wool Merino sheep (n = 11 in each group). The experimental groups (n = 11) were trained to approach either a visual (V), auditory (A), or visual + auditory (V+A) stimulus over eight training sessions and were subsequentl...
Article
The present study examined how shelter availability, altitude and temperature influence paddock utilisation by pregnant and lambing Merino ewes. Global positioning systems (GPS) attached to collars allowed continuous tracking of ewes' positions within two paddocks, and environmental conditions were also monitored throughout this time using temperat...
Article
Full-text available
Many dog owners wish to feed their dogs a vegetarian diet for the same ethical reason that they themselves are vegetarian. To meet this demand, there are an increasing number of vegetarian diets and recipes available for dogs. However, proof for their claims of nutritional adequacy is often lacking. There is little doubt that a dog’s nutritional re...
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A dog's nutrient requirements can theoretically be met from a properly balanced meat-free diet; however, proof for this is lacking. Exercise places additional demands on the body, and dogs fed a meat-free diet may be at increased risk of developing sports anaemia. We hypothesised that exercising dogs would remain in good health and not develop anae...
Article
Full-text available
Very little is known about grass eating behaviour in the domestic dog, Canis familiaris. This study is the first to investigate grass eating in dogs in a controlled experiment, and attempts to provide an initial understanding of this behaviour by describing the pattern of grass eating during the day and the relationship between grass eating and the...
Conference Paper
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Conference Paper
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Digestibility markers are commonly used in animal nutrition studies, especially where the total collection of faecal material is not practical. Whilst it is customary to employ this methodology in production animal studies, digestibility trials in dogs and cats traditionally rely on the total collection of faeces. Consequently, there are relatively...
Article
Full-text available
Periodontal disease is a common problem in dogs. Previous studies have shown that dental deposits in dogs can be reduced by feeding a daily dental chew. This study compares the effectiveness of two chews of different toughness. Both chews significantly reduced plaque (p=0.003) and calculus (p=0.008). The tougher chew required significantly more tim...
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of a newly developed dental hygiene chew for dogs, with and without a natural antimicrobial additive, compared with a reference diet. Efficacy was determined by measuring the severity of gingivitis and the accumulation of dental plaque and calculus in dogs after 4-weeks of being fed the different dietary regim...
Article
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The effects of increasing levels of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in extruded dog diets were studied in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of treatments using six dogs per diet. The factors examined were diets of different composition giving varying levels of dietary soluble NSP (11, 16 and 20 g/kg), and the presence or absence of an enzyme con...
Article
A 3 × 2 factorial experiment was designed to examine the effects of dietary fructooligosaccharides (FOS) level, and the presence or absence of an enzyme (inulinase), on aspects of faecal quality and apparent coefficients of nutrient digestibility in dogs. Three extruded dry diets based on wheat, pearl barley and wheat by-products were formulated to...
Article
The replacement value of sorghum and maize for rice in extruded dog foods was studied. The diets contained 552 g sorghum/kg diet, 535 g maize/kg diet and 521 g rice/kg diet. The addition of a feed enzyme product containing a cocktail of carbohydrases to the sorghum- and maize-based diets was also tested, with the enzyme being sprayed on to the dry...
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Full-text available
Dalmatian dogs have a predisposition to urate urolithiasis due to a metabolic defect inherent in this breed. It has been suggested that feeding low–protein diets can reduce the risk of producing urate calculi in these dogs, but caution must be exercised to ensure that adequate nutrient requirements are met. This paper discusses the results of a rec...
Article
Full-text available
The replacement value of sorghum and maize for rice in extruded dog foods was studied. The diets contained 552 g sorghum/kg diet, 535 g maize/kg diet and 521 g rice/kg diet. The addition of a feed enzyme product containing a cocktail of carbohydrases to the sorghum-and maize-based diets was also tested, with the enzyme being sprayed on to the dry d...
Article
Full-text available
Rice is commonly used in premium Australian dog foods because of its highly digestible and hypoallergenic nature (1). Sorghum and corn are grains available in Australia that are considerably less expensive than rice. Sorghum and corn are known to contain starch that is less digestible in the intestinal tract because of a strong starch–protein matri...