Weichiang Pang

Weichiang Pang
Clemson University | CU · Glenn Department of Civil Engineering

PhD

About

115
Publications
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1,106
Citations

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Building contents proved challenging in performance-based earthquake engineering frameworks because of the data scarcity. Despite the content seismic losses in the past two decades, the overall effectiveness of restrainers to contents has not been thoroughly investigated. This paper aims to provide a detailed analysis for assessing content damage,...
Article
Full-text available
Wind-induced loss modeling plays a key role in insurance risk management. Hence, a flexible vulnerability framework is to be developed for residential and commercial buildings. This model predicts the losses induced by hurricane wind pressure, wind-borne debris and wind-driven rain. Twenty-five different key variables of the buildings and environme...
Article
The coastal region of China is exposed to severe typhoon threats and suffers significant casualties as well as economic losses due to seven to eight landed storms every year. This study developed a geographically weighted regression (GWR) circular subregion algorithm that considers the spatial variation characteristics of typhoon storms to map extr...
Article
Continuously growing number and span length of long-span bridges in coastal region of China require a robust aeroelastic design to against the tropical-cyclone (TC) -induced flutter instability. Instead of using the deterministic approach, this study presents a Monte-Carlo-technique-based framework to analyze the flutter reliability of a long-span...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the in-plane shear behavior of a full-scale 20 ft. x 20 ft. (6.1 m x 6.1 m) cantilever Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) diaphragm experimentally. The diaphragm consisted of eight 5 ft. x 10 ft. (1.5 m x 3 m) three ply CLT-panels connected to each other along the long edge by plywood surface splines with nails and connected along...
Article
As offshore wind development is in its infancy along the U.S. Atlantic Coast challenges arise due to the effects of strong storms such as hurricanes. Breaking waves on offshore structures induced by hurricanes, are of particular concern to offshore structures due to high magnitude impulse loads caused by wave slamming. Prediction of breaking wave h...
Article
Advanced performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE), as documented by FEMA P-58 provisions, can well serve as the bedrock for a building-specific risk assessment framework. The methodology embraces three main sequential steps: collapse assessment, irreparability assessment, and component-wise loss estimation. The consequence of collapse or irr...
Article
The supportive structures of power grids are vital but susceptible to weather-related events, such as extreme wind and icing rain with concurrent wind. The objective of this paper is to assess the reliability of the power grids subjected to high wind and ice accretion. The material and geometry uncertainty and the strength deterioration of poles du...
Article
Parametric and stochastic typhoon model enable a rapid estimation of wind hazards in typhoon-prone regions. It always needs a large amount of historical track information to develop the track, intensity as well as wind field parameters. This study describes a technique for estimating two commonly used typhoon wind field parameters, i.e. R max;s and...
Article
Given a vast inventory of culverts with different physical and environmental characteristics, the task of condition assessment can become difficult or impossible. Using a database of approximately 8,000 culverts in South Carolina with varying sizes, types, and configurations, a model was produced to predict the condition of these culverts. This mod...
Conference Paper
The radius to maximum wind speed (Rmax) and the Holland radial pressure profile parameter (B) are estimated by using the JMA best track dataset and a semi-analytical typhoon wind model. The correlations between several parameters are examined. Two recursion recursive formulas for statistically modeling the Rmax and B are developed. Based on the est...
Article
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is an engineered wood product with high rigidity, dimensional stability, and desirable environmental properties. Because of these characteristics, it presents the potential to resist the impact loads associated with windborne debris in both tornadoes and hurricanes. Full-scale experimental debris impact testing was perf...
Conference Paper
Damage to contents and nonstructural components is often the main driver of property losses against smaller earthquakes as evidenced by empirical evidence from past events. In the 2014 South Napa earthquake in California, for example, 56% of the affected buildings reported content damage. The primary modes of content damage include sliding, rocking...
Article
The fragility curves of roof failures for wood-frame low-rise building were developed in this study with the focus on the roof sheathing panels and roof-to-wall connections. Two different nail spacings for roof sheathing panels and three types of roof-to-wall connections were considered. This study focused on the first failure of roof sheathing pan...
Conference Paper
FEMA P-58 is comprehensive performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) loss estimation framework which incorporates a three-module Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) procedure to assess the seismic performance of buildings. Although the framework is component-based—it accumulates damage from all building components to estimate the building-level loss...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the development of a stochastic tornado simulation model for the United States (US). The continental of the US is subjected to more than 1,000 tornadoes each year, causing significant financial losses and social disruption. Compared to hurricanes, the damage region of a tornado is relatively small and the probability of occurren...
Poster
Full-text available
The National Design Specification(NDS) for wood construction 2015 includes new provisions for gravity load design of Cross laminated Structures (Chapter 10). However, the Special Design Provision for Wind and Seismic(SDWPS) 2015 does not provide any technical information required for designing composite CLT floor and roof diaphragms for wind and se...
Conference Paper
Gust factor, which is defined as the ratio of peak wind speed averaged over a short time period to the mean wind speed over a relatively long reference period, is one of the most important indices for representing the degree of wind turbulence or gustiness. Typhoon wind usually exhibits non-stationary and non-Gaussian characteristics due to thermod...
Conference Paper
The probability that a building is sanctioned to demolition following an earthquake depends on several geotechnical, structural, strategic and financial decision variables. This paper explores the literature on post-earthquake reparability assessment of buildings focusing on structural characteristics and evaluates their approaches for four midrise...
Conference Paper
The seismic vulnerability functions for portfolio-level loss estimation are typically developed for general classes of buildings which may not be suitable to assess building-specific risks. Performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) provides the means to conduct building-specific seismic risk assessments. However, such assessments often rely o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new methodology for selecting hazard-consistent hurricane scenarios (with similar return periods) for estimating the regional losses due to combined hurricane wind and flood. An in-house stochastic hurricane simulation program was used to simulate 50,000 years of full-track synthetic hurricanes. A wind field model along with a...
Article
Full-text available
Wind pressures acting on a cubic building with openings exposed to stationary tornadolike vortices were studied experimentally. The effects of opening ratio, single central opening azimuth, and radial distance between the building model and tornadolike vortex on external and internal wind pressure distributions were the focus of this study. Particu...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the failure risk of the building envelope due to wind-borne debris impacts in high wind conditions. It provides a brief history of wind-borne debris simulation studies, the minimum modules required for computational modeling of wind-borne debris, and the current state-of-the-art wind-borne debris trajectory models utilized in...
Conference Paper
Assessment of multiple hazards in the hurricane-induced offshore environment is a complex problem, involving the correlation in space and in time of many variables, such as wind speed, significant wave height, surge height and others. There is a scarcity of measurements of these conditions during hurricanes and, as a result, numerical models are us...
Article
Full-text available
Hurricane is one the most devastating meteorological events that impacts the United States and Atlantic basins on a yearly basis. There are anecdotal evidences that show the hurricane hazards in terms of annual frequency and intensity are changing due to a changing climate patterns. This study examines the impact of climate change on U.S. Atlantic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Importance of considering wind direction on event based risk assessment has been pointed out by several researchers. Sensitivity of various components of the building, to direction of extreme winds is investigated in this study using Probable Maximum Loss ratio as a measure. Probable maximum loss for a simulated event is the maximum loss that can o...
Article
Full-text available
The three-dimensional wind velocity and dynamic pressure for stationary tornado-like vortices that developed over ground of different roughness categories were investigated to clarify the effects of ground roughness. Measurements were performed for various roughness categories and two swirl ratios. Variations of the vertical and horizontal distribu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The scarcity of detailed claims data for building contents (Coverage C) from historical earthquake events poses a significant challenge for property insurance catastrophe models to reliably estimate the losses associated to building contents. To develop content vulnerability functions empirically, one would need to have access to data from a multit...
Conference Paper
The concept of performance-based earthquake engineering has gained significant attentions in both the research and engineering communities. The development of a performance-based seismic loss assessment framework, known as the FEMA P-58 method, allows one to estimate the potential financial losses of a building using performance-based engineering m...
Article
This paper introduces a framework for the assessment of damage of offshore wind turbines (OWTs) supported by jackets under extreme environmental loadings. Performance levels/damage states, ranging from operational/undamaged to near collapse/severely damaged, are defined based on static pushover analyses. An example performance assessment is present...
Article
Wind load characteristics of a structure exposed to a swirling tornado are different from those in a boundary-layer-type straight-line wind. This paper presents wind pressures around a cooling tower caused by a translating tornado-like vortex with two different swirl ratios at three different translational velocities. The translational motion is sc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Thirteen Southern pine cross-laminated timber panels were tested in the intermediate scale horizontal furnace at the Forest Products Laboratory to determine the effects different adhesives and ply configuration had on fire performance. Four different adhesives were tested: melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF), polyuretha...
Article
Full-text available
The evaluation of natural catastrophe risk to structures often includes consideration of uncertainty in predictions of some measure of the intensity of the hazard caused by the catastrophe. For example, in the well-established method of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, uncertainty in the intensity measure for the ground motion is considered t...
Article
Risk of hurricane damage is an important factor in the development of the offshore wind energy industry in the United States. Hurricane loads on an offshore wind turbine (OWT), namely wind and wave loads, not only exert large structural demands, but also have temporally changing characteristics, especially with respect to their directions. Waves ar...
Article
This paper reports the investigation outcomes of the recent Super Typhoon Haiyan (also known as Hurricane Yolanda) in the Philippines using a basic structure damage rating technique. The rating technique ranked damaged conditions based on a 0 to 3 rating. A total of 156 structures were analyzed using the rating technique. Unlike previously publishe...
Article
Hybrid simulations of a full-scale soft-story woodframe building specimen with various retrofits were carried out as part of the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research project - NEES-Soft: seismic risk reduction for soft-story woodframe buildings. The test structure in the hybrid simulation was a three-story woodframe building that...
Article
Recent earthquakes have demonstrated the vulnerability of soft-story wood buildings. A performance-based retrofit option focusing on stiffening/strengthening only the soft ground story, as regulated by FEMA guidelines, was proposed in an attempt to achieve collapse prevention of the ground story while at the same time ensuring damage control of the...
Conference Paper
The development of renewable energy sources is a critical global need. The Atlantic coast and Gulf of Mexico of the U.S., with large wind resources and proximity to major population centers, are natural places for such development; however, these regions are also at considerable risk from severe hurricanes or tropical cyclones. Current internationa...
Article
This paper presents the preliminary design of a rocking Cross-laminated Timber (CLT) wall using a displacement-based design procedure. The CLT wall was designed to meet three performance expectations: immediate occupancy (IO), life safety (LS), and collapse prevention (CP). Each performance expectation is defined in terms of an inter-story drift li...
Article
Soft-story woodframe buildings have been identified as a disaster preparedness problem throughout California and are present in many other states of the United States. These buildings can be readily identified by their large openings at the ground floor, often for parking, which results in a soft and weak first story that is prone to collapse in mo...
Article
Soft-story woodframe buildings are prevalent in much of California and for decades have been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem for both the owners/tenants and community as a whole. Retrofit programs for these at-risk buildings have been proposed with the first such program in a major city mandated in San Francisco in 2013. In this paper...
Article
This study adopted a damage quantification framework to estimate bridge and pavement damage caused by overweight trucks. The framework was applied to estimate unit overweight truck damage costs for the highway system maintained by the South Carolina Department of Transportation. The analysis revealed that pavement and bridge damage increased signif...
Article
The FEMA P-807 Guidelines were developed for retrofitting soft-story wood-frame buildings based on existing data, and the method had not been verified through full-scale experimental testing. This article presents two different retrofit designs based directly on the FEMA P-807 Guidelines that were examined at several different seismic intensity lev...
Article
Full-text available
Combined effects of hurricane wind and surge can pose significant threats to coastal cities. Although current design codes consider the joint occurrence of wind and surge, information on site-specific joint distributions of hurricane wind and surge along the US Coast is still sparse and limited. In this study, joint hazard maps for combined hurrica...
Article
Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) of a stacked wood shear wall retrofitted with a rate-dependent seismic energy dissipation device (viscous damper) was conducted at the newly constructed Structural Engineering Laboratory at the University of Alabama. This paper describes the implementation process of the RTHS focusing on the controller scheme deve...
Conference Paper
There are thousands of soft-story wood-frame buildings in California which have been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem with concerted mitigation efforts underway in many cities throughout the state. The vast majority of those efforts are based on numerical modelling, often with half-century old data in which assumptions have to be made...
Article
Full-text available
Flexible wood roof diaphragms are very common in the United States, both for residential buildings and large-scale commercial buildings. Due to its simplicity, the traditional diaphragm design method is commonly used in diaphragm design, in particular for the design of diaphragms with relatively small dimensions. The traditional diaphragm design me...
Article
Forum papers are thought-provoking opinion pieces or essays founded in fact, sometimes containing speculation, on a civil engineering topic of general interest and relevance to the readership of the journal. The views expressed in this Forum article do not necessarily reflect the views of ASCE or the Editorial Board of the journal.
Article
Full-text available
The use of flexible roof diaphragms is very common in the United States, both for residential buildings and large-scale commercial buildings. Due to its simplicity, the traditional diaphragm design method is commonly used in diaphragm design, in particular for the design of diaphragms with relatively small dimensions. The traditional diaphragm desi...
Conference Paper
Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) of a stacked wood shear wall frame retrofitted with a viscous damper was conducted at the newly constructed Structural Engineering Laboratory at the University of Alabama as part of a five-university collaborative NEESR project, namely Seismic Risk Reduction for Soft Story Woodframe Buildings (NEES-Soft) project....
Article
Full-text available
Many older highway bridges in the United States (US) are inadequate for seismic loads and could be severely damaged or collapsed in a relatively small earthquake. According to the most recent American Society of Civil Engineers' infrastructure report card, one-third of the bridges in the US are rated as structurally deficient and many of these stru...
Article
The writers aim to develop a new optimization framework that integrates resilience in biofuel infrastructure systems planning, which provides a proactive solution in mitigating the impacts of natural hazards on infrastructure systems. A novel, multiobjective stochastic mixed-integer programming model is developed to establish a biofuel infrastructu...
Conference Paper
The existence of thousands of soft-story woodframe buildings in California has been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem resulting in mitigation efforts throughout the state. The considerable presence of these large multi-family buildings in San Francisco prompted the city to mandate their retrofitting over the next seven years. The NEES-S...
Conference Paper
The NEES-Soft NSF-sponsored project, as one of its objectives, evaluated the performance of various retrofit schemes for "soft-story" light wood-frame buildings subjected to seismic loading. The distributed knee-braced (DKB) system was one of the retrofits evaluated. This system consists of an assembly of light wood-frame knee-braced frames placed...
Conference Paper
The goal of this research is to add to the knowledge base of bamboo-reinforced concrete (BRC) by focusing on a unique stirrup design and testing the lap-splicing of flexural reinforcement. Preliminary tests of the mechanical properties of bamboo were performed, and the results have been used in the design and construction of bamboo cages to reinfor...
Conference Paper
A precedent has been set by historical and recent hurricane hazard events that illustrates the importance of building more resilient coastal communities. Community resilience is dependent on the socioeconomic response after a hazard event; however, it is also heavily dependent on the vulnerability of the community to disaster. Therefore, it is bene...
Conference Paper
The FEMA-developed Hazus-MH program was implemented in this study to estimate regional combined hurricane wind and wind-induced coastal flood losses using an ensemble of selected hazard-consistent hurricane scenarios. The hurricane scenarios were selected using site-specific mean return interval (MRI) contour plots considering the joint occurrence...
Article
When subjected to high intensity ground motions, soft-story buildings are susceptible to significant structural damage and possible collapse. These soft-story buildings lack the capacity to resist earthquake load at their first story and many are in need of retrofit. A computational model for a SMA-steel (shape memory alloy - steel) device incorpor...
Article
The understanding of, and ability to predict, the seismic behavior of woodframe structures has improved immensely in the last 10 years. Two notable projects occurred in succession, the Consortium of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) CUREE-Caltech Woodframe Project, and the N...
Conference Paper
Hurricane damage assessment models that include wind-borne debris and focus on smaller, more detailed regions (i.e. residential subdivisions) typically isolate the region of interest from outside influence. However, the investigation of a smaller region of interest may be more susceptible to influence from exogenous wind-borne debris generated from...
Article
This paper presents a modular framework utilized to assess the building envelope failures of light-frame wood construction subjected to hurricane wind hazards. A component-based approach is taken to develop an integrated building envelope model that is based on previous research of individual component capacities. Key modules of the proposed framew...
Conference Paper
Hybrid simulations of a wood shear wall frame were conducted at the newly constructed Structural Engineering Laboratory at the University of Alabama. Preliminary cyclic testing and single degree of freedom pseudodynamic simulations were conducted to characterize the testing system and develop hybrid simulation control methods. Then full scale hybri...
Article
This paper describes the development of a procedure to quantify errors in hurricane storm surge simulations using a decoupled wind-surge model. The state-of-the-art storm surge simulation program, advanced circulation (ADCIRC), and the Georgiou's wind-field model were used to simulate the storm surge heights associated with 169 historical hurricane...
Conference Paper
This paper proposes a modular framework utilized to assess the risk of building envelope failures due to hurricane wind hazards. A component-based approach is taken to develop an integrated building envelope model that is based on previous research of individual component and system capacities. Key modules of the proposed framework include a wind-b...
Conference Paper
Major coastal cities, which have large populations and economies, easily suffer from the losses due to hurricane wind and storm surge hazards. Although current design codes consider the joint occurrence of high wind and surge, information on site specific joint distributions of hurricane wind and storm surge along the U.S. Eastern Coast and Gulf of...
Conference Paper
High wind events such as hurricanes are one of the leading causes of electricity transmission line failures. There are two main failure mechanisms associated with de-energized transmission systems during hurricanes: 1) failure of the super-structures or the support towers; and 2) breakage of the transmission lines due to extreme wind loads. This pa...
Conference Paper
The effects of global climate change on hurricane activities have been the subject of constant debate in recent years. An analysis of the hurricane database (HURDAT) maintained by the National Hurricane Center reveals a change in the annual hurricane (or storm) genesis frequency in the Atlantic basin in recent years. Some studies have projected inc...