Warren W Burggren

Warren W Burggren
University of North Texas | UNT · Department of Biological Sciences

B.Sc., Ph.D.

About

330
Publications
70,507
Reads
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11,462
Citations
Citations since 2017
69 Research Items
3656 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
Additional affiliations
August 1998 - January 2016
University of North Texas
Position
  • Professor (Full)
January 1981 - December 1985
University of Massachusetts Amherst
January 1978 - present
Aarhus University

Publications

Publications (330)
Article
Development of the capacity to mitigate potential disturbances to blood physiology in bird embryos is incompletely understood. We investigated regulation of acid-base and hematology in day 15 chicken embryos exposed to graded intrinsic hypercapnic hypoxia created by varying degrees of water submersion. Metabolic acidosis with additional respiratory...
Article
Full-text available
Fish development can be affected by environmental pollutants such as crude oil (anthropogenic or natural sources), causing alterations especially in cardiac function and morphology. Most such studies have focused on saltwater species, whereas studies in freshwater fishes are scant. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of c...
Article
Planaria are known for their ability to completely regenerate upon fissioning or experimental amputation. Yet, metabolic costs of regeneration have not been directly measured in planaria. Our goal was to establish the relationships between oxygen consumption (V̇O2), regeneration, and reproductive mode for asexual and sexual strains of Schmidtea med...
Chapter
The freshly laid avian egg contains most of the materials needed for embryonic growth and development, but lacks the oxygen and heat needed for successful development. Microscopic pores in the eggshell allow O2 to diffuse into the egg from the environment and water vapor and CO2 produced by the embryo to diffuse out. The adult bird has a key role i...
Article
Aquatic hypoxia is both a naturally-occurring and anthropogenically-generated event. Fish species have evolved different adaptations to cope with hypoxic environments, including gill modifications and air breathing. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the respiration of embryonic and larval fishes during critical win...
Article
Full-text available
Biomedical research focusing on physiological, morphological, behavioral, and other aspects of development has long depended upon the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) as a key animal model that is presumed to be typical of birds and generally applicable to mammals. Yet, the modern chicken in its many forms is the result of artificial selection mo...
Article
Terrestrial, marine, or aquatic oil spills can directly or indirectly contaminate bird eggs. We hypothesized that chicken embryos exposed to crude oil can physiologically compensate to mitigate the potentially toxic effect of lower doses of oil. Embryos exposed to 0, 1, 3, or 5 µL of oil on embryonic day (d) 4 and d10 were initially analyzed for mo...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the current knowledge of the devastating effects of external exposure to crude oil on animal mortality, the study of developmental, transgenerational effects of such exposure has received little attention. We used the king quail as an animal model to determine if chronic dietary exposure to crude oil in a parental population would affect mo...
Article
Full-text available
Alterations in fish developmental trajectories occur in response to genetic and environmental changes, especially during sensitive periods of development (critical windows). Embryos and larvae of Atractosteus tropicus were used as a model to study fish survival, growth, and development as a function of temperature (28 ºC control, 33 ºC, and 36 ºC),...
Article
Full-text available
Background The conditions of diminished ovarian reserve and primary ovarian insufficiency, characterized by poor fertility outcomes, currently comprise a major challenge in reproductive medicine, particularly in vitro fertilization. Currently in the IVF industry, blastocyst developmental success rate per treatment is routinely overlooked when a liv...
Article
Planarians are widely used animal models for studies in regeneration, developmental biology, neurobiology and behavior. However, surprisingly little is known about other aspects of their basic biology, even though such information might help validate these flatworms as a general animal model. We hypothesized that planaria, though dependent upon sim...
Article
Dioxin exposure during bird embryonic development disrupts immunity as well as mechanisms involved in energy metabolism, potentially affecting negatively acute phase responses to pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that embryonic exposure to TCDD (2,3,7,8‐Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin) changes metabolism and blood physiology of domestic chicks, affecting t...
Article
Transgenerational inheritance from both parental lines can occur by genetic and epigenetic inheritance. Maternal effects substantially influence offspring survival and fitness. However, investigation of the paternal contribution to offspring success has been somewhat neglected. Adult zebrafish were separated into female and male groups exposed for...
Article
The epigenome determines heritable patterns of gene expression in the absence of changes in DNA sequence. The result is programming of different cellular-, tissue- and organ-specific phenotypes from a single organismic genome. Epigenetic marks that comprise the epigenome (e.g. methylation) are placed upon or removed from chromatin (histones and DNA...
Article
Full-text available
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil are known to impair visual development in fish. However, the underlying mechanism of PAH-induced toxicity to the visual system of fishes is not understood. Embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) at 4 hours post-fertilization were exposed to weathered crude oil and assessed for visual function...
Article
Full-text available
The prevalent view of developmental phenotypic switching holds that phenotype modifications occurring during critical windows of development are “irreversible” – that is, once produced by environmental perturbation, the consequent juvenile and/or adult phenotypes are indelibly modified. Certainly, many such changes appear to be non-reversible later...
Article
This review explores the long‐standing question: ‘Why do cardiovascular shunts occur?’ An historical perspective is provided on previous research into cardiac shunts in vertebrates that continues to shape current views. Cardiac shunts and when they occur is then described for vertebrates. Nearly 20 different functional reasons have been proposed as...
Article
Air‐breathing and amphibious fishes are essential study organisms to shed insight into the required physiological shifts that supported the full transition from aquatic water‐breathing fishes to terrestrial air‐breathing tetrapods. While the origin of air‐breathing in the evolutionary history of the tetrapods has received considerable focus, much l...
Article
Genomic modifications occur slowly across generations, whereas short-term epigenetic inheritance of adaptive phenotypes may be immediately beneficial to large numbers of individuals, acting as a bridge for survival when adverse environments occur. In the present study, crude oil was used as an example of an environmental stressor. Adult zebrafish (...
Article
The Mayan cichlid (Mayaheros uropthalmus) is a freshwater fish inhabiting warm, potentially hypoxic and/or brackish waters, in Mexico and Central America. Despite its description as highly hypoxia tolerant, M. uropthalmus has been classified physiologically as an 'oxyconformer', which would place it in a very small (and shrinking) category of fishe...
Article
Sceloporus (S. aenus and S. scalaris) are oviparous sibling lizard species inhabiting high mountain zones (>2700 m) in central México. Females of these species lay their eggs in soil mounds left by burrowing gophers (Pappogeomys). Numerous abiotic factors can affect site selection and subsequent development of the lizard embryos, but little is know...
Article
An explosion on the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig in 2010 lead to the largest marine oil spill to occur in US history, resulting in significant impacts to the ecosystems and organisms in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The present review sought to summarize and discuss findings from the 50+ peer-reviewed publications reporting effects of DWH o...
Article
Acid-base regulation at intra- and extracellular levels is of fundamental importance for developing animals, as it is for adults. Although adult animals exhibit well established acid-base regulatory capacities to offset acid-base disturbances, early developmental stages must develop some of the mechanisms to compensate for these disturbances. Thus,...
Article
Exposure to crude oil, its components, and oil dispersants during a major crude oil spill, such as the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, can elicit behavioral changes in animals and humans. However, the underlying mechanisms by which oil spill-related compounds alters behavior remains largely unknown. A major cause of behavioral changes generally is dys...
Article
The genus Oreochromis is among the most popular of the tilapiine cichlid tribe for aquaculture. However, their temperature and hypoxia tolerance, if tested at all, is usually tested at temperatures of 20‐25°C, rather than at the considerably higher temperatures of 30‐35°C typical of tropical aquaculture. We hypothesized that both larvae and adults...
Article
Full-text available
Background Mahi‐mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) is a commercially and ecologically important fish species that is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters. Biological attributes and reproductive capacities of mahi‐mahi make it a tractable model for experimental studies. In this study, life development of cultured mahi‐mahi from the zygote s...
Article
Increasingly variable, extreme, and nonpredictable weather events are predicted to accompany climate change, and such weather events will especially affect temperate, terrestrial environments. Yet, typical protocols in comparative physiology that examine environmental change typically employ simple step-wise changes in the experimental stressor of...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Open access (OA) journals have proliferated in recent years. Many journals are highly reputable, delivering on the promise of open access to research as an alternative to traditional, subscription-based journals. Yet some OA journals border on, or clearly fall within, the realm of so-called “predatory journals.” Most discussion of such...
Article
Larval and juvenile air breathing fish may experience nocturnal and/or seasonal aquatic hypoxia. Yet, whether hypoxia induces respiratory developmental plasticity in larval air breathing fish is uncertain. This study predicted that larvae of two closely related anabantid fish—the facultative air breather the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens)...
Article
Uptake by fishes of crude oil and its polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) components occurs via gills, dietary intake, or diffusion through the skin. Dietary exposure to crude oil and its components is environmentally relevant, and induces physiological and morphological disruptions in fish. However, the impacts of crude oil on fish social and...
Article
The Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, and the blue gourami, Trichopodus trichopterus, are two closely related air-breathing anabantoid fishes. B. splendens is a sedentary facultative air breather frequenting often hypoxic waters, while T. trichopterus is a more active obligatory air-breather inhabiting better oxygenated waters. Despite their...
Article
Full-text available
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill coincided with the spawning season of many pelagic fish species in the Gulf of Mexico. Yet, few studies have investigated physiological responses of larval fish to interactions between anthropogenic crude oil exposure and natural factors (e.g. temperature, oxygen levels). Consequently, mahi mahi (Coryphaena hipp...
Data
Number of total individuals used for each morphological and physiological measurement. (DOCX)
Data
Chemical characterization of 50 PAHs found in HEWAF solutions used during fish embryonic exposure at both rearing temperatures 26°C and 30°C. (DOCX)
Data
Micrograph of larval mahi with a representative control and oil-exposed larvae at both rearing temperature, 26°C and 30°C. (TIF)
Data
Water quality parameters during experiments at initial (8 hpf), final (32 hpf) exposure time and after transfer in clean sea water. Values represent Mean±SEM. (DOCX)
Chapter
The relationship between environment and animal development has been recognized since the time of Aristotle, but the urgency of creating a thorough understanding of this relationship is emerging as environments in which animals develop are changing as a result of pollution, climate change and other anthropogenic activities. This book, an overview o...
Chapter
The phenotype of an animal results from interaction between genetic information and environmental influences. Embryos and larvae of most animals are freely exposed to the environment, so environmental influences may start affecting development as soon as egg deposition. A response to the environment requires information about the environment, which...
Book
Rather than a loosely connected list of facts/topics, this book addresses virtually every field that involves the use of developing animals in environmental science. In doing so, it will help define the scientific collective within these fields to both those readers who are "outside" of a particular field (students and professionals alike) and thos...
Article
The slow, inexorable rise in annual average global temperatures and acidification of the oceans are often advanced as consequences of global change. However, many environmental changes, especially those involving weather (as opposed to climate), are often stochastic, variable and extreme, particularly in temperate terrestrial or freshwater habitats...
Article
Hematology and its regulation in developing birds have been primarily investigated in response to relatively short-term environmental challenges in the embryo. Yet, whether any changes induced in the embryo persist into adulthood as a hematological form of "fetal programming" is unknown. We hypothesized that: 1) chronic as opposed to acute hypoxic...
Article
Oil spills on birds and other organisms have focused primarily on direct effects of oil exposure through ingestion or direct body fouling. Little is known of indirect effects of airborne volatiles from spilled oil, especially on vulnerable developing embryos within the bird egg. Here a technique is described for exposing bird embryos in the egg to...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates. The native North American bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is such a species, and pre-incubation quail eggs may experience temperatur...
Article
Full-text available
Hypoxia during embryonic growth in embryos is frequently a powerful determinant of development, but at least in avian embryos the effects appear to show considerable intra- and inter-specific variation. We hypothesized that some of this variation may arise from different protocols that may or may not result in exposure during the embryo's critical...
Data
Table with supporting data for Fig 4 Toe beak length. (DOCX)
Data
Table with supporting data for Fig 6 hematology. (DOCX)
Data
Table with supporting data for Fig 2 survival. (DOCX)
Data
Table with supporting data for Fig 3 body masses. (DOCX)
Data
Table with supporting data for Fig 5 heart masses. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology in response to chronic hypoxia is poorly understood in larval fishes, especially larval air-breathing fishes, which eventually in their development can at least partially “escape” hypoxia through air breathing. Whether the development air breathing makes these larval fishes less or more devel...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding cardiac function in developing larval fishes is crucial for assessing their physiological condition and overall health. Cardiac output measurements in transparent fish larvae and other vertebrates have long been made by analyzing videos of the beating heart, and modeling this structure using a conventional simple prolate spheroid shap...
Chapter
Insects are being extensively investigated in the context of both intra- and transgenerational epigenetic phenomena and mechanisms. DNA methylation, histone modification and noncoding RNAs are all involved in phenotypic modification in insects. Changes in patterns of these epigenetic markers may arise from stressors, including physicochemical facto...
Article
Full-text available
Cardiovascular performance is altered by temperature in larval fishes, but how acute vs. chronic temperature exposures independently affect cardiac morphology and physiology in the growing larva is poorly understood. Consequently, the influence of water temperature on cardiac plasticity was investigated in developing mahi-mahi. Morphological (e.g....
Article
Full-text available
Population density and associated behavioral adjustments are potentially important in regulating physiological performance in many animals. In r-selected species like the fruit fly (Drosophila), where population density rapidly shifts in unpredictable and unstable environments, density-dependent physiological adjustments may aid survival of individ...
Article
Most experiments examining acid-base regulation of chicken embryos have employed static, single time point measurements rather than dynamic, multiple time point measurements that might reveal additional components of developing acid-base regulation. Thus, we studied blood acid-base balance and hematology of day 15 chicken embryos under 24h exposure...
Chapter
Embryonic, larval, and juvenile fish develop in environments that frequently present severe challenges, not just to maintain homeostasis, but to survive. Key to survival is a functional cardiovascular system, which transports respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes in response to varying tissue needs. This review begins with consideration of how t...
Chapter
Mass transport can be generally defined as movement of material matter. The circulatory system then is a biological example given its role in the movement in transporting gases, nutrients, wastes, and chemical signals. Comparative physiology has a long history of providing new insights and advancing our understanding of circulatory mass transport a...
Article
Following exposure to weathered and non-weathered oil, lethal and sub-lethal impacts on red drum larvae were assessed using survival, morphological, and cardiotoxicity assays. The LC50 for red drum ranged from 14.6 (10.3-20.9) to 21.3 (19.1-23.8) μgl(-1) ΣPAH with no effect of exposure timing during the pre-hatch window or oil weathering. Similarly...
Article
The metanephric kidneys of the chicken embryo, along with the chorioallantoic membrane, process water and ions to maintain osmoregulatory homeostasis. We hypothesized that changes in relative humidity (RH) and thus osmotic conditions during embryogenesis would alter the developmental trajectory of embryonic kidney function. White leghorn chicken eg...
Article
Full-text available
The avian embryo is a time-honored animal model for understanding vertebrate development. A key area of extensive study using bird embryos centers on developmental phenotypic plasticity of the cardio-respiratory system and how its normal development can be affected by abiotic factors such as temperature and oxygen availability. Through the investig...
Article
Full-text available
Three congeneric lizards from the southeastern United States (Plestiodon fasciatus, P. inexpectatus, and P. laticeps) exhibit a unique nested distribution. All three skink species inhabit the US Southeast, but two extend northward to central Ohio (P. fasciatus and P. laticeps) and P. fasciatus extends well into Canada. Distinct interspecific differ...
Data
Mass and mass-specific oxygen consumption rate for all specimens and trials. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
The physiological transition to aerial breathing in larval air-breathing fishes is poorly understood. We investigated gill ventilation frequency (fG), heart rate (fH) and air breathing frequency (fAB) as a function of development, activity, hypoxia and temperature in embryos/larvae from Day (D)2.5 to D30 post hatch of the tropical gar Atractosteus...
Article
Full-text available
Epigenetics increasingly occupies a pivotal position in our understanding of inheritance, natural selection and, perhaps, even evolution. A survey of the PubMed database, however, reveals that the great majority (>93%) of epigenetic papers have an intra-, rather than an inter-generational focus, primarily on mechanisms and disease. Approximately ~1...
Article
The Houston Ship Channel (HSC) in Houston, Texas is an aquatic environment with a long history of contamination, including polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. Populations of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) from the...
Article
Full-text available
The developing chicken blastoderm can be temporarily maintained in dormancy below physiological zero temperature. However, prolonged preincubation egg storage impairs normal morphological and physiological development of embryos in a potential example of fetal programming (in this case, "embryonic programming"). We investigated how preincubation eg...
Chapter
The freshly laid avian egg contains most of the materials needed for embryonic growth and development, but lacks the oxygen and heat needed for successful development. Microscopic pores in the eggshell allow O2 to diffuse into the egg from the environment and water vapor and CO2 produced by the embryo to diffuse out. The adult bird has a key role i...
Article
A 3-D conceptual framework of "critical windows" was used to examine if morphometry of Artemia franciscana is altered by salinity exposure during certain key periods of development. A. franciscana were hatched at 20 ppt (designated control salinity) and were then exposed to 10, 30, 40 or 50 ppt either chronically (day 1-15) or only on days 1-6, 7-9...
Article
In developing avian embryos, the right and left ductus arteriosi (DA) allow for a shunt of systemic venous return away from the lungs to the body and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Unlike in mammals where the transition from placental respiration to lung respiration is instantaneous, in birds the transition from embryonic CAM respiration to lung r...
Article
Time specific acid-base metabolic compensation and responses of hematological respiratory variables were measured in day 15 layer (Hyline) and broiler (Cornish Rock) chicken embryos during acute hypercapnic challenges (3, 6, 10 and 20% CO2). Control acid-base status and hematology differed between two strains. Broiler embryos were relatively respir...
Article
A critical window (sensitive period) represents a period during development when an organism’s phenotype is responsive to intrinsic or extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such windows represent a form of developmental phenotypic plasticity and result from the interaction between genotype and environ- ment. Critical windows have typically been define...
Article
Full-text available
Epigenetic studies of both intragenerational and transgenerational epigenetic phenotypic modifications have proliferated in the last few decades. However, the strong reductionist focus on mechanism that prevails in many epigenetic studies to date has diverted attention away what might be called the 'dynamics' of epigenetics and its role in comparat...