Wanda Markotter

Wanda Markotter
University of Pretoria | UP · Deparment of Medical Virology

PhD

About

208
Publications
26,585
Reads
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2,550
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2016 - December 2016
University of Pretoria
Position
  • South African Research Chair in Infectious Diseases of Animals (Zoonoses)
January 2006 - April 2016
University of Pretoria
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (208)
Article
Full-text available
Accurate host identification is paramount to understand disease epidemiology and to apply appropriate control measures. This is especially important for multi-host pathogens such as the rabies virus, a major and almost invariably fatal zoonosis that has mobilized unanimous engagement at an international level towards the final goal of zero human de...
Article
Full-text available
Bat-borne viruses in the Henipavirus genus have been associated with zoonotic diseases of high morbidity and mortality in Asia and Australia. In Africa, the Egyptian rousette bat species ( Rousettus aegyptiacus ) is an important viral host in which Henipavirus -related viral sequences have previously been identified. We expanded these findings by a...
Article
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Background Modification and destruction of natural habitats are bringing previously unencountered animal populations into contact with humans, with bats considered important zoonotic transmission vectors. Caves and cave-dwelling bats are under-represented in conservation plans. In South Africa, at least two cavernicolous species are of interest as...
Article
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This study aimed to determine the vector competence of bat-associated nycteribiid flies (Eucamsipoda africana) for Marburg virus (MARV) in the Egyptian Rousette Bat (ERB), Rousettus aegyptiacus. In flies fed on subcutaneously infected ERBs and tested from 3 to 43 days post infection (dpi), MARV was detected only in those that took blood during the...
Article
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Pathogen discovery contributes to our knowledge of bat-borne viruses and is linked to the heightened interest globally in bats as recognised reservoirs of zoonotic agents. The transmission of lyssaviruses from bats-to-humans, domestic animals, or other wildlife species is uncommon, but interest in these pathogens remains due to their ability to cau...
Article
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The reservoir host of Mokola virus (MOKV), a rabies-related lyssavirus species endemic to Africa, remains unknown. Only sporadic cases of MOKV have been reported since its first discovery in the late 1960s, which subsequently gave rise to various reservoir host hypotheses. One particular hypothesis focusing on non-volant small mammals (e.g. shrews,...
Article
Pipistrelloid bats are among the most poorly known bats in Africa, a status no doubt exacerbated by their small size, drab brown fur and general similarity in external morphology. The systematic relationships of these bats have been a matter of debate for decades, and despite some recent molecular studies, much confusion remains. Adding to the conf...
Chapter
Full-text available
In the last few decades, a special interest in viruses hosted by bats arose after links with zoonoses of public health importance emerged. A dramatic increase in documented viral diversity in bats has occurred with an increasing difficulty in interpretation of results and risk assessments. In addition, the risk of spillover directly from bats or th...
Article
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We detected 3 lyssaviruses in insectivorous bats sampled in South Africa during 2003-2018. We used phylogenetic analysis to identify Duvenhage lyssavirus and a potentially new lyssavirus, provisionally named Matlo bat lyssavirus, that is related to West Caucasian bat virus. These new detections highlight that much about lyssaviruses remains unknown...
Article
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We detected Marburg virus RNA in rectal swab samples from Egyptian rousette bats in South Africa in 2017. This finding signifies that fecal contamination of natural bat habitats is a potential source of infection for humans. Identified genetic sequences are closely related to Ravn virus, implying wider distribution of Marburg virus in Africa
Article
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Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is one of the journal series to address the “fusion” between morphological data and molecular phylogenetic data and to describe new fungal taxa and interesting observations. This paper is the 6th contribution in the FUSE series—presenting one new genus, twelve new species, twelve new country records, and thre...
Article
Bat-borne viruses are implicated in several zoonotic events in the past few decades, some with significant public health consequences. Hundreds more viruses are described without any information on zoonotic potential. We discuss important characteristics of bats that not only make them unique amongst most mammals but also contribute to their potent...
Chapter
Large viral diversities have been detected from bats using nucleic acid detection methods; however, cell culture isolation of this diversity has been less successful. Virus isolation attempts are limited by challenges that primarily include suitability of available cell lines, quality of infectious viral particles and high levels of biocontainment....
Chapter
The infection of bats with rabies has been described for decades. Rabies is caused by members of the lyssavirus genus and currently 16 different lyssaviruses have been defined. Bat rabies in the New World is predominantly associated with vampire bats across Central and South America although with the elimination of terrestrial rabies in North Ameri...
Article
Pipistrelloid bats are among the most poorly known bats in Africa, a status no doubt exacerbated by their small size, drab brown fur and general similarity in external morphology. The systematic relationships of these bats have been a matter of debate for decades, and despite some recent molecular studies, much confusion remains. Adding to the conf...
Article
Understanding geographic patterns of interaction between hosts and parasites can provide useful insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. However, poor taxon sampling often hinders meaningful phylogenetic descriptions of groups of parasites. Trypanosome parasites that constitute the Trypanosoma cruzi clade are worldwide distr...
Article
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Rabies is a neglected disease mostly affecting the developing world. Accurate and reliable diagnostic and surveillance data forms the foundation for the formulation and monitoring of control strategies. Although various sensitive and specific tests are available for detection of rabies virus, implementation of these tests in low-resource settings a...
Article
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A high diversity of corona-and paramyxoviruses have been detected in different bat species at study sites worldwide, including Africa, however no biosurveillance studies from Rwanda have been reported. In this study, samples from bats collected from caves in Ruhengeri, Rwanda, were tested for the presence of corona-and paramyxoviral RNA using rever...
Article
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Background: Spotted fever rickettsiosis, also known as tick bite fever (TBF), is a common infectious disease in South Africa (SA). Although the diagnosis of TBF is often based on clinical grounds only, laboratory testing is important to confirm the diagnosis and can contribute to case management in the light of a myriad of differential diagnoses,...
Article
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Mist nets, harp traps and roost searches resulted in the eight bat species being recorded in Telperion Nature Reserve, which is in a transition between the Savanna and Grassland biomes. The majority of these were species in the family Vespertilionidae. Anabat release calls were recorded from three species. Sexual dimorphism in external body size, a...
Article
Zika (ZIKV) and Spondweni viruses (SPOV) are closely related mosquito borne flaviviruses in the Spondweni serogroup. The co-circulation and similar disease presentation following ZIKV and SPOV infection necessitates the development of a diagnostic tool for their simultaneous detection and distinction. We developed a one-step multiplex real-time RT-...
Article
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Given the recurrent bat‐associated disease outbreaks in humans and recent advances in metagenomics sequencing, the microbiota of bats is increasingly being studied. However, obtaining biological samples directly from wild individuals may represent a challenge, and thus, indirect passive sampling (without capturing bats) is sometimes used as an alte...
Article
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Canine-mediated human rabies is endemic to the entire African continent, where the disease burden is often highest in rural communities of resource-limited countries. In this study, we analysed an animal rabies outbreak, which had persisted since 2010 in the predominantly metropolitan capital city of Zimbabwe, Harare. As rabies is considered to dis...
Data
A panel of rabies virus partial DNA sequences from Zimbabwe and neighbouring countries included in the phylogenetic analysis performed in this study. (PDF)
Data
Epidemiological surveillance data collected between 2010 and 2017 in and around the Harare city limits during an outbreak of canine-mediated rabies. (PDF)
Data
Distribution of rabies-positive samples within the suburbs and peri-urban areas of the Harare Metropolitan province during the outbreak, 2010–2017. (PDF)
Article
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The Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) has previously been implicated as the natural host of a zoonotic rubulavirus; however, its association with rubulaviruses has been studied to a limited extent. Urine, spleen, and other organs collected from the R. aegyptiacus population within South Africa were tested with a hemi-nested RT-PCR assay...
Article
Lactation is one of the most energetically demanding periods in the life cycle of a small mammal. Classified as income breeders, hibernating small colonial insectivorous bats are hypothesised to compensate for the energetic demand of lactation by increasing daily food intake, which increases body mass. The Natal Long-fingered Bat Miniopterus natale...
Article
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In 2018, the family Arenaviridae was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 5 novel species. At the same time, the recently established order Bunyavirales was expanded by 3 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses...
Article
Bats (order Chiroptera) are the principal reservoir host for 14 of the 16 officially recognised lyssavirus species. Rabies virus is the only lyssavirus that is well established in terrestrial carnivores (worldwide), as well as bats (but only in the Americas). The other bat lyssaviruses occur only outside the Americas. They have a distinct geographi...
Article
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Recently a number of novel adenoviruses have been isolated from diverse bat species and from diverse geographical locations. We describe the isolation of a novel adenovirus (Family Adenoviridae, genus Mastadenovirus) from a pool of liver and spleen tissue of an apparently healthy wild-caught Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) in South Afric...
Article
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We detected high seroprevalence to Marburg virus (MARV) in fruit bats in South Africa (SA), the occurrence of MARV seroconversions, and the presence of RNA in tissues with a sequence closely related to the 1975 Ozolin strain. All these findings indicate endemic MARV circulation in bats in SA.
Data
Supplementary Material from “Synchronized shift of oral, fecal and urinary microbiotas in bats and natural infection dynamics during seasonal reproduction”
Article
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Seasonal reproduction is a period of extreme physiological and behavioural changes, yet we know little about how it may affect host microbial communities (i.e. microbiota) and pathogen transmission. Here, we investigated shifts of the bacterial microbiota in saliva, urine and faeces during the seasonal reproduction of bats in South Africa, and test...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Understanding the processes driving parasite assemblages is particularly important in the context of zoonotic infectious diseases. Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic bacterial infection caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. Despite a wide range of animal hosts, information is still lacking on the factors shaping Leptosp...
Article
Full-text available
Species within the Neoromicia bat genus are abundant and widely distributed in Africa. It is common for these insectivorous bats to roost in anthropogenic structures in urban regions. Additionally, Neoromicia capensis have previously been identified as potential hosts for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-related coronaviruses. This study aim...
Data
Virome sequence data information from the Parvoviridae and Papillomaviridae families (with references and figures). (DOCX)
Data
Neoromicia samples pooled for molecular detection of selected viruses. (PDF)
Data
Pairwise similarities inferred from distance estimations of a 605bp conserved segment of the coronavirus RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene. The table shows pairwise sequence similarities inferred from evolutionary divergence estimates of 605 positions of compared coronaviruses. The number of base differences per site from between sequences were con...
Data
CLC Genomics workbench bioinformatics workflow parameters. (PDF)
Data
Alpha- and Betacoronavirus genera hemi-nested RT-PCR primers. (PDF)
Data
Pairwise similarities inferred from distance estimations of an L gene region between selected Bunyavirales. The table shows pairwise sequence similarities inferred from evolutionary divergence estimates of 249 positions of compared Bunyavirales. The number of base differences per site from between sequences were converted to percentage of similarit...
Data
Pairwise similarities inferred from distance estimations of full length genomes of the Circoviridae family. Sequence similarities of viruses in the Circoviridae family inferred from estimated evolutionary divergence calculated from pairwise distances. Full genomes were aligned and trimmed to 1075 overlapping positions. All ambiguous positions were...
Data
Genome annotation of BtCoVNeo5038 with similarities to compared lineage C betacoronaviruses. The percentage similarities were inferred from pairwise distance estimates of the base pair and amino acid differences per site for each gene and of the overall genome. The estimates were calculated in MEGA7 [41] using pairwise deletion to treat gaps. All p...
Data
Neoromicia samples collected to investigate the South African Neoromicia virome. (PDF)
Data
Pairwise similarities inferred from distance estimations between betacoronavirus full genomes. The table shows pairwise similarities inferred from evolutionary divergence estimates of betacoronavirus full genomes. The number of base differences per site between sequences were converted to percentage similarities. Within lineage similarities are ind...
Data
Coronavirus strains and Genbank accession numbers of sequences used in the full genome phylogeny. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Egyptian rousette bats (ERBs) are reservoir hosts for the Marburg virus (MARV). The immune dynamics and responses to MARV infection in ERBs are poorly understood, and limited information exists on the role of antibodies in protection of ERBs against MARV infection. Here, we determine the duration of maternal immunity to MARV in juvenile ERBs, and e...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the processes driving parasite assemblages is particularly important in the context of zoonotic infectious diseases. Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic bacterial infection caused by pathogenic species of the genus Leptospira. Despite a wide range of animal hosts, information is still lacking on the factors shaping Leptospira diver...
Article
Full-text available
Lagos bat virus (LBV) is a phylogroup II lyssavirus exclusively found in Africa. Previous studies indicated that this virus is lethal to mice after intracranial and intramuscular inoculation. The antigenic composition of LBV differs substantially from that of rabies virus (RABV) and current rabies vaccines do not provide cross protection against ph...
Article
Full-text available
Rabies is widespread throughout Africa and Asia, despite the fact that the control and elimination of this disease has been proven to be feasible. Lesotho, a small landlocked country surrounded by South Africa, has been known to be endemic for rabies since the 1980s but the epidemiology of the disease remains poorly understood due to limited sample...
Presentation
Paramyxovirus surveillance in South Africa targeting Rousettus aegyptiacus detected a number of rubula and henipavirus-related viruses.