Walter Paulus

Walter Paulus
Universitätsmedizin Göttingen · Department of Clinical Neurophysiology

About

743
Publications
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76,682
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Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
January 2008 - December 2011
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
January 2008 - present
Hôpital Henri Mondor – Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor

Publications

Publications (743)
Chapter
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) represents a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome, which is increasingly prevalent and associated with poor outcome. In contrast to heart failure with reduced EF (HFrEF), modern heart failure pharmacotherapy does not improve outcome in HFpEF, which is related to incomplete understanding...
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This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of echocardiographic markers of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in comparison with the gold standard of cardiac catheterization. Diagnosing HFpEF is challenging, as symptoms are non-specific and often absent at rest. A cl...
Article
In accordance with the comorbidity-inflammation paradigm, comorbidities and especially metabolic comorbidities are presumed to drive development and severity of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction through a cascade of events ranging from systemic inflammation to myocardial fibrosis. Recently, novel experimental and clinical evidence emer...
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Aims: Echocardiographic predictors of outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have not been systematically or independently validated. We aimed at identifying echocardiographic predictors of cardiovascular events in a large cohort of patients with HFpEF and to validate these in an independent large cohort. Methods and r...
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Background: Many patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are women. Exploring mechanisms underlying the sex differences may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF. Studies focusing on sex differences in circulating proteins in HFpEF patients are scarce. Methods: A total of 415 proteins were analyze...
Article
There is a lack of consensus on how we define heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), with wide variation in diagnostic criteria across society guidelines. This lack of uniformity in disease definition stems in part from an incomplete understanding of disease pathobiology, phenotypic heterogeneity, and natural history. We review cur...
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This article is based on a consensus conference, promoted and supported by the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology (IFCN), which took place in Siena (Italy) in October 2018. The meeting intended to update the ten-year-old safety guidelines for the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in research and clinical setti...
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Aims: High myocardial stiffness in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is attributed to comorbidity-induced structural and functional remodelling through inflammation and oxidative stress affecting coronary microvascular endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes, which augments interstitial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte stiffness. In mu...
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Aim Diagnosing Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF) in the non‐acute setting remains challenging. Natriuretic peptides have limited value for this purpose, and a multitude of studies investigating novel diagnostic circulating biomarkers have not resulted in their implementation. This review aims to provide an overview of studies i...
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To better understand heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), we need to better characterize the transition from asymptomatic pre-HFpEF to symptomatic HFpEF. The current emphasis on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction must be redirected to microvascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that leads to cardiomyocyte remodelin...
Article
Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous syndrome for which clear evidence of effective therapies is lacking. Understanding which factors determine this heterogeneity may be helped by better phenotyping. An unsupervised statistical approach applied to a large set of biomarkers may identify distinct HFpEF...
Chapter
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (EF; HFpEF) currently accounts for greater than 50% of all HF cases, and its prevalence relative to HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) continues to rise. Outcomes in patients with HFpEF and HFrEF are equally poor. In contrast to HFrEF, modern HF pharmacotherapy did not improve outcome in HFpEF, which is r...
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Coronary microvessel endothelial dysfunction and nitric oxide (NO) depletion contribute to elevated passive tension of cardiomyocytes, diastolic dysfunction and predispose the heart to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We examined if diastolic dysfunction at the level of the cardiomyocytes precedes coronary endothelial dysfunction in...
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Making a firm diagnosis of chronic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains a challenge. We recommend a new stepwise diagnostic process, the ‘HFA–PEFF diagnostic algorithm’. Step 1 (P=Pre‐test assessment) is typically performed in the ambulatory setting and includes assessment for heart failure symptoms and signs, typical clin...
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The positive findings of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Cardiovascular Outcome Trial of Empagliflozin) on heart failure (HF) outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus suggest a direct effect of empagliflozin on the heart. These patients frequently have HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), in which a metab...
Article
Background: The interplay between the stiffened heart and vessels has long been viewed as a core mechanism in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, but the incremental vascular molecular remodeling mechanisms from systemic arterial hypertension to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction remain poorly investigated. Our aim was to c...
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) control forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor activity by influencing their nuclear translocation. However, knowledge of the ROS cellular source(s) involved herein remains scarce. Recently, we have shown p47phox-dependent activation of ROS-producing NADPH oxidase (NOX) at the nuclear pore in H9c2 rat cardiomyoblas...
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Background Systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and deficient vascularization of either uterus or myocardium are mechanistic hallmarks of early-onset preeclampsia and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF is especially prevalent in elderly women and preceded in middle age by preclinical left ventricular (LV) diasto...
Article
The coexistence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and heart failure (HF), either with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is frequent (30–40% of patients) and associated with a higher risk of HF hospitalization, all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The most important causes of HF in T2DM are coronary artery disease, art...
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Aims: The heart is constantly challenged with acute bouts of stretching or overload. Systolic adaptations to these challenges are known but adaptations in diastolic stiffness remain unknown. We evaluated adaptations in myocardial stiffness due to acute stretching and characterized the underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results: Left ventricles (LV)...
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Nicotine modulates neuroplasticity and improves cognitive functions in animals and humans. In the brain of smoking individuals, calcium-dependent plasticity induced by non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and paired associative stimulation (PAS) is impaired by nicotine withdrawal, but partial...
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There is substantial causal and consequential interaction between the ever-growing heart failure and renal failure patients. Half of the patients with heart failure (HF) have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF), which is difficult to diagnose and rising in prevalence relative to HF with reduced EF (HFpEF). To date, only weight redu...
Article
There is an unmet need for effective treatment strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Until recently, attention in patients with HFpEF was almost exclusively focused on the left side. However, it is now increasingly recognized that right heart dysfunction is common and c...
Article
Aim: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with myocardial remodelling including severe pro-fibrotic changes contributing to an increase in left ventricular stiffness and diastolic dysfunction. Serum C-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PIP) strongly correlates with the turnover of extracellular cardiac matri...
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Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears to be safe. No serious adverse events (SAEs) have been...
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Evidence accumulates for associations between hypertensive pregnancy disorders and increased cardiovascular risk later. The main goal of this study was to explore shared biomarkers representing common pathogenic pathways between heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and pre-eclampsia where these biomarkers might be potentially elig...
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Nicotine modulates cognition and neuroplasticity in smokers and non-smokers. A possible mechanism for its effect on learning and memory performance is its impact on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). As neuroplasticity is closely connected to learning processes, we aimed to explore the effect of nicotine in healthy, young...
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Background: There is a growing interest in large-scale connectivity as one of the crucial factors in working memory. Correlative evidence has revealed the anatomical and electrophysiological players in the working memory network, but understanding of the effective role of their connectivity remains elusive. Objective: In this double-blind, placebo...
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Background: Cardiomyocytes with a less distensible titin and interstitial collagen contribute to the high diastolic stiffness of failing myocardium. Their relative contributions and mechanisms underlying loss of titin distensibility were assessed in failing human hearts. Methods and results: Left ventricular tissue was procured in patients with...
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Background: Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, in particular early-onset preeclampsia, are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. These women have a more than 2-fold increased risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases. Most studies have focused on identification of risk factors shortly after pregnancy....
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According to the placebo-reward hypothesis, placebo is a reward-anticipation process that increases midbrain dopamine (DA) levels. Reward-based learning processes, such as reinforcement learning, involves a large part of the DA-ergic network that is also activated by the placebo intervention. Given the neurochemical overlap between placebo and rewa...
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Background: Suprathreshold transcranial single pulse electrical stimulation (tES) is painful and not applicable in a repetitive mode to induce plastic after-effects. Objective: In order to circumvent this pain problem, we applied here a 5 kHz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) theta burst protocol with a field intensity of up to 10...
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Objective: To investigate the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on working memory performance, while measuring task-related brain activation and task-related brain connectivity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: 17 patients with MS and...
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Key points: Chronic administration of the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) reboxetine (RBX) increased and prolonged the long-term potentiation-like plasticity induced by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for over 24 h. Chronic administration of RBX converted cathodal tDCS-induced long-term depression-like plasti...
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Key points: Applications of transcranial direct current stimulation to modulate human neuroplasticity have increased in research and clinical settings. However, the need for longer-lasting effects, combined with marked inter-individual variability, necessitates a deeper understanding of the relationship between stimulation parameters and physiolog...
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A group of European experts was commissioned by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology to gather knowledge about the state of the art of the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from studies published up until September 2016, regarding pain, Parkinson’s disease, other movement d...
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The most frequently used low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are transcranial direct current (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise stimulation (tRNS). During tES, currents are applied with intensities ranging between 0.4 and 2 mA through the human scalp. It has been suggested that tACS interacts with co...
Article
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (EF; HFpEF) accounts for 50% of HF cases, and its prevalence relative to HF with reduced EF continues to rise. In contrast to HF with reduced EF, large trials testing neurohumoral inhibition in HFpEF failed to reach a positive outcome. This failure was recently attributed to distinct systemic and...
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Background: Vision loss after optic neuropathy is considered irreversible. Here, repetitive transorbital alternating current stimulation (rtACS) was applied in partially blind patients with the goal of activating their residual vision. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial in an ambulat...
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Previous, albeit correlative, findings have shown that the neural mechanisms underlying working memory critically require cross-structural and cross-frequency coupling mechanisms between theta and gamma neural oscillations. However, the direct causality between cross-frequency coupling and working memory performance remains to be demonstrated. Here...
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Aims: Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI). Whether MI induces atrial inflammation is unknown however. Here, we analysed atrial inflammation in patients with MI and in rats with experimentally induced MI. The effect of the anti-inflammatory agent C1-esterase inhibitor (C1inh) on atrial inflammation...
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Background: The combination of cardiac and renal disease driven by metabolic risk factors, referred to as cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRMS), is increasingly recognized as a critical pathological entity. The contribution of (micro)vascular injury to CRMS is considered to be substantial. However, mechanistic studies are hampered by lack of in vi...
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Cardiac thyroid-hormone signaling is a critical determinant of cellular metabolism and function in health and disease. A local hypothyroid condition within the failing heart in rodents has been associated with the re-expression of the fetally expressed thyroid-hormone inactivating enzyme deiodinase type III (Dio3). While this enzyme emerges as a co...
Article
Renal dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common and is associated with increased mortality. Impaired renal function is also a risk factor for developing HFpEF. A new paradigm for HFpEF, proposing a sequence of events leading to myocardial remodelling and dysfunction in HFpEF, was recently introduced, involving...
Article
The measurement of the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a common method to observe changes in motor cortical excitability. The level of cortical excitability has been shown to change during motor learning. Conversely, motor learning can be improved by using anodal transcranial dir...
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The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of pulse configurations and current direction for corticospinal activation using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In 11 healthy subjects (8 female), a motor map for the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI), abductor digiti minimi (ADM)...
Article
. Low-intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) techniques are a group of noninvasive brain stimulation approaches, where currents are applied with intensities ranging between 0.4 and 2 mA through the human scalp. The most frequently used tES methods are transcranial direct current (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise stim...
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Full-text available
### Learning objectives Heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) currently account for roughly equal proportions of HF.1 The incidence of HFpEF increased rapidly during the past decades and is becoming the dominant form of HF.2 Recently this was reappraised and it was shown that the...