Walter Gerbino

Walter Gerbino
University of Trieste | UNITS · Department of Psychology

About

119
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (119)
Article
Full-text available
Amodal completion (AC) is analyzed, by looking at its historical roots and persisting conceptual difficulties. Looking at the origin of the concept, it becomes clear that it is not equivalent to perception of occluded parts. The role of fragment incompleteness is discussed, to clarify that it cannot be taken as a necessary factor for eliciting AC....
Article
Full-text available
In the revolutionary year 1968, the Institute of Psychology of the University of Trieste directed by Gaetano Kanizsa published a collective volume to celebrate the 70th birthday of Cesare L. Musatti. Kanizsa devoted the opening article to the empirical refutation of an argument developed by Musatti in Structure and experience in perceptual phenomen...
Article
Full-text available
We report two experiments on the role of mid-level processes in image segmentation and completion. In the primed matching task of Experiment 1, a cue→prime sequence was presented before the imperative stimulus consisting of target shapes with positive versus negative contour curvature polarity and one versus two axes of mirror symmetry. Priming sha...
Article
We used a cross-modal priming paradigm to evoke a biphasic effect in visual short-term memory. Participants were required to match the memorandum (a visual shape, either spiky or curvy) to a delayed probe (a shape belonging to the same category). In two-thirds of trials the sequence of shapes was accompanied by a task-irrelevant sound (either tzk o...
Data
Movie S4. First two (out of eight) repetitions of the stimuli presented to the newborns in Experiment 2, Trial B (ANC on both the left and the right sides).
Data
Movie S1. First two (out of eight) repetitions of the stimuli presented to the newborns in Experiment 1, Trial A (AC on the left side, R on the right side).
Data
Movie S3. First two (out of eight) repetitions of the stimuli presented to the newborns in Experiment 2, Trial A (AC on both the left and the right sides).
Data
Movie S2. First two (out of eight) repetitions of the stimuli presented to the newborns in Experiment 1, Trial B (R on the left side, AC on the right side).
Conference Paper
In this paper, we study the impact of the human-readable documentation of Web ontologies on the ability of human users to agree on the membership of instances according to a given ontology. We first introduce a model of the problem and then present a user study, in which we measured the impact of documentation features in schema.org on the quality...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to discriminate the trajectories of moving objects is highly adaptive and fundamental for physical and social interactions. Therefore, we could reasonably expect sensitivity to different trajectories already at birth, as a precursor of later communicative and defensive abilities. To investigate this possibility, we measured newborns' lo...
Article
According to action-perception coupling, extraretinal signals can disambiguate optic information, as in the contribution of head movements to the visual interpolation of twisted surfaces (Fantoni, Gerbino, Milani, Domini, JoV 2014). Going beyond approaches that exploit only the geometry of optic fragments, we focus here on the integration of self-g...
Research
Full-text available
On the problem of stimulus dimensionality we found that: 1) The perceived medium is intermediate between the geometric mean and the arithmetic mean of linear extents, irrespective of stimulus dimensionality and spatial proximity. 2) When the size ratio between reference objects is small (b=2a, for cubes), the perceived medium is closer to the arith...
Article
Full-text available
Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task...
Data
Data from the four experiments. Three worksheets are included in the file: (1) RAW_DATASET, with the set of 64 yes/no responses characterizing each individual raw performance; (2) glm values, with individual d′ triplets associated to the three combinations of (N) and (S +N) trials (0–10, 0–20, 0–30% emotion in the morph), for congruent and incongru...
Article
A growing body of research concerns the influence of auditory stimuli on motor action. The present review recalls the relevance of two theoretical frameworks (referring to the mirror neurons system and the Theory of Event Coding, respectively) for rehabilitation and sport. Then, it describes the laboratory studies showing the effectiveness of acous...
Article
Respecting all constraints proposed by Firestone & Scholl (F&S), we have shown that perceived facial expressions of emotion depend on the congruency between bodily action (comfort/discomfort) and target emotion (happiness/anger) valence. Our studies challenge any bold claim against penetrability of perception and suggest that perceptual theory can...
Article
Full-text available
Comparative Psychology: A Perspective Rather than a Discipline. Commentary: A Crisis in Comparative Psychology: Where Have All the Undergraduates Gone? Cinzia Chiandetti * and Walter Gerbino • Psychology Unit, Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy Abramson seems to underestimate the need for psychology—to hold the pro...
Article
Recently we have shown that performing comfortable and uncomfortable reaching acts produces dramatic changes in the perception of facial expressions consistent with motor action induced mood congruency. More anger is needed to perceive neutrality in a happy-to-anger morph continuum (Fantoni & Gerbino, 2014), and a lower absolute threshold for the d...
Article
Full-text available
In goal-directed web navigation, labels compete for selection: this process often involves knowledge integration and requires selective attention to manage the dizziness of web layouts. Here we ask whether the competition for selection depends on all web navigation options or only on those options that are more likely to be useful for information s...
Conference Paper
Objective: Previous studies have reported differences in obesity between women and men. Gender medicine underlines the impact of the gender differences on the psychopathology and, therefore, on the management of the most common diseases – such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study was...
Article
layer transparency and color scission / the episcotister reflectance model / the episcotister luminance model / the filter reflectance model / the filter luminance model / a comparison of episcotister and filter predictions / an evaluation of the scission hypothesis (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Immediately after birth, newborns are introduced within a highly stimulating environment, where many objects move close to them. It would therefore be adaptive for infants to pay more attention to objects that move towards them -on a colliding pathway -and could therefore come into contact and interact with them. The present study aimed at understa...
Article
Full-text available
Perception, cognition, and emotion do not operate along segregated pathways; rather, their adaptive interaction is supported by various sources of evidence. For instance, the aesthetic appraisal of powerful mood inducers like music can bias the facial expression of emotions towards mood congruency. In four experiments we showed similar mood-congrue...
Article
ABSTRACT The multisensory response enhancement (MRE), occurring when the response to a visual target integrated with a spatially congruent sound is stronger than the response to the visual target alone, is believed to be mediated by the superior colliculus (SC) (Stein & Meredith, 1993). Here, we used a focused attention paradigm to show that the sp...
Article
Abstract Kogo and Wagemans provide an intriguing way of assigning a polarity value to closed edges in fragmented images (solving the border ownership problem), but their model lacks generality and disregards connectability as a relevant aspect of visual completion. The lack of generality depends on considering concave disk sectors (pacmen) as the m...
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: Synthetic offspring faces can be generated in two ways, corresponding to fundamentally different inheritance models: blending (morphing father and mother by mixing all traits in the same proportion) and Mendelian (taking some traits from the father and some from the mother, in an all-or-none fashion). We tried to assess whet...
Article
We studied the classification of seismic images and compared the performan ce of three groups of observers with different degrees of expertise in the seismic domain. The group of more experienced observers was more accurate when classifying a target fragment as belonging or not to a given seismic image. Observers of all groups classified high-relev...
Article
Amodal completion of occluded angles is explained by a field model of visual interpolation (Gerbino & Fantoni 2000) based on the vectorial combination of good continuation (GC) and minimal path (MP). Here we consider symmetrical and asymmetrical occlusions of 90 deg angles and compare psychophysical data with predictions derived from different 2D-i...
Article
Our field model (Gerbino & Fantoni, 2000; Fantoni & Gerbino, 2001) predicts that the interpolated trajectory between two T-junctions is affected by the size of the retinal gap. Kinetic occlusion displays indicate that interpolation is spatially as well as temporally local. When a diamond with partially occluded vertices undergoes a rigid size trans...
Article
To further demonstrate that orientation affects amodal completion (Srebotnjak 1984; Sekuler 1994; Sgorbissa & Gerbino 1999) we studied how variable-duration primes (100, 400, 1000 ms) affect matching of simple patterns (crosses and fish-like polygons). Four primes were utilized: a modal cross; a shape that could be amodally completed as a cross (gl...
Article
Visual processing involves processing stages in which local features are initially analyzed and combined to construct integrative representations of the visual environment in terms of objects and surfaces. In the case there are multiple cues for integration, conflicts may arise and the visual system has to come to a acceptable solution. Here we are...
Article
Expert interpreters inspect seismic images to identify relevant features and diagnose the possible presence of interesting subsoil structures. Typically, a 2D seismic image is a set of adjoining seismic traces referring to variations of acoustic impedance that, taken together, compose a non mimetic representation of the subsoil. Seismic interpreter...
Article
Two disparate views of a planar surface patch are consistent with an infinite number of (V, H, d) triplets; where V and H are inclinations around vertical and horizontal axes, and d the convergence angle. Such indeterminacy is conveniently described by two functions [V= f(K1, d); H= f(K1, K2, d)], with K1 and K2 derivable from the relation between...
Article
The 3D orientation of planar surfaces can be perceived in the absence of edge information. Here, we provide a theoretical and empirical demonstration that 3D orientation is specified by the orientation disparity of surface contours (i.e., intrinsic lines belonging to the same plane). The Local Orientation Disparity of correspondent lines [LOD] was...
Article
Circles are deceptively simple stimuli. When the relative positions of two or more circles are manipulated, different perceived shapes emerge, depending on geometrical constraints that have not been clearly identified so far. Consider relative size and eccentricity of circles as critical variables. While isolated circles are preferentially perceive...
Article
Cognitive models of web navigation emphasize the use of a label-following strategy based on the correspondence between the meaning of labels and user information goals. In a previous study we demonstrated that the information-seeking behavior is driven by page layout rather than by semantic cues alone (Rigutti & Gerbino 2004) and suggested that use...
Article
Although the role of web page layout has been found to affect the Information Seeking Behaviour ISB, cognitive models of web navigation emphasize semantic aspects: the higher the similarity between user's goal and label meaning the easier the selection. We report research demonstrating that ISB is driven by the implicit knowledge of the item to whi...
Article
Although the role of surface-level processes has been demonstrated, models of visual interpolation emphasize contour relationships. We report research on geometric constraints governing 3D interpolation between surface patches having no visible contours. In a previous study, we demonstrated that 3D relatability acts as a cue for spatial unification...
Article
Visual search within a web page depends of different strategies, based on semantic and spatial factors. Semantic aspects refer to the similarity between user's goal and label meaning; spatial aspects to label positions expected on the basis of scanning habits. We ran three visual search experiments to show that another strategy is involved; namely,...
Article
Despite extensive research on stereoscopic cues, whether stereoscopic slant is based on point vs. orientation disparity is still a matter of debate. We measured slant sensitivity for stereoscopic planar patches covered by: back-projected straight lines with random orientation (Experiment 1) and random dots (Experiment 2). Surfaces were inclined aro...
Article
In the chopstick illusion (Anstis 1990) both sticks translate along a circular path. Consider now the following modification of the original display. Both sticks physically oscillate along a rectilinear path, one vertically and the other horizontally, with a phase difference such that any stick reverses its motion when the other crosses the midpoin...
Article
Body image disturbance is a central concept in eating disorder psychopathology. The overestimation of body size and the desire for thinness have been suggested to play an important role in the onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Body image disturbances are measured with questionnaires, figural rating scales and, more recently, digital softwa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines gestural deixis production in a multimodal (natural language and pointing) interaction. Users (N=30) were required to fill in 4 forms by interacting with a simulated system. Labelling of Entry Fields (LEF, Complete-Partial; between-subject) and Feedback (Present-Absent within-subject) were manipulated in a 2*2 design. Results in...
Article
Consider a stereoscopic display simulating two rectangular patches, the lower frontoparallel and the upper slanted around the vertical axis. When the two patches are amodally completed and appear as the unoccluded parts of a smooth surface partially hidden by a foreground frontoparallel surface, either real or illusory, their relative slant is unde...
Article
Full-text available
Although the role of surface-level processes has been demonstrated, visual interpolation models often emphasize contour relationships. We report two experiments on geometric constraints governing 3D interpolation between surface patches without visible edges. Observers were asked to classify pairs of planar patches specified by random dot dispariti...
Article
According to the scale-dependence hypothesis, the visual interpolation of contour fragments depends on the retinal separation of endpoints: as the retinal size of a partially occluded angle increases, the interpolated contour gradually deviates from the shortest connecting path and approaches the shape of the unoccluded angle. In the field model, a...
Poster
Full-text available
On the problem of the bisection of visual size and related configural factors, we found that: 1) when configural effects are minimized (isolated target condition) the perceived medium always differs from the arithmetic mean in the direction of the geometric mean (p< 0.01). The bias towards the geometric mean is stronger when relative size is larger...
Poster
Full-text available
On the problem of the bisection of visual size and related configural factors, we found that: 1) when configural effects are minimized (isolated target condition) the perceived medium always differs from the arithmetic mean in the direction of the geometric mean (p< 0.01). The bias towards the geometric mean is stronger when relative size is larger...
Poster
Full-text available
On the problem of the bisection of visual size and related configural factors, we found that: 1) when configural effects are minimized (isolated target condition) the perceived medium always differs from the arithmetic mean in the direction of the geometric mean (p< 0.01). The bias towards the geometric mean is stronger when relative size is larger...
Article
Contour curvature polarity (i.e., concavity/convexity) is recognized as an important factor in shape perception. However, current interpolation models do not consider it among the factors that modulate the trajectory of amodally-completed contours. Two hypotheses generate opposite predictions about the effect of contour polarity on surface interpol...
Article
Full-text available
Here is a new geometrical illusion. Draw three disks of increasing size, all tangent to a pair of non-parallel straight lines. Ask observers (or yourself) to visually extrapolate the tangents to the two smaller disks and to evaluate whether the largest disk is also tangent or, if not, whether it is too large or too small. Surprisingly, perception o...
Article
Visual processing involves hierarchical stages in which local features are initially analyzed and subsequently grouped into objects and surfaces. In the domain of motion perception, transparent motion has been used as a powerful tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying the grouping of local features. Here, we report a novel way of creating mot...
Article
Some concave volumes are perceived as compositions of joined objects. Joined objects are optically undetermined, being compatible with three possible solutions: an empty intersection volume bounded by two indented objects; an intersection volume entirely filled-in by parts of two indented objects; a totally convex object joined to an indented objec...
Article
We model the visual interpolation of missing contours by extending contour fragments under a smoothness constraint. Interpolated trajectories result from an algorithm that computes the vector sum of two fields corresponding to different unification factors: the good continuation (GC) field and the minimal path (MP) field. As the distance from termi...
Article
Ebenbreite (Morinaga 1941) is a powerful factor of figure/ground organization. Regions bounded by parallel contours are perceived as figures more easily than regions bounded by non-parallel contours (Metzger 1953). Despite its power to generate elegant demonstrations, the crucial stimulus feature involved in Ebenbreite is unclear. Vertically-orient...
Article
To balance Kubovy & Epstein, I evaluate the relationship between Shepard and Gestalt theorists along three dimensions. First, both discover internal universals by reducing external support. Second, they share strengths and weaknesses of the minimum principle. Third, although their attitudes toward an evolutionary account of perception is superficia...
Article
Full-text available
In classical White's effect, intermediate-luminance targets appear lighter when they interrupt the dark stripes of a grating and darker when they interrupt the light stripes. The effect is reversed when targets are of double-increment or double-decrement luminance, relative to the luminances of grating stripes. To find a common explanation for clas...
Article
A visual search experiment was performed to examine whether the detection of constant chromatic relationships occurs in parallel. We used 6 stimulus conditions, corresponding to different combinations of three variables, relevant to description of displays made of different coloured regions: (i) the number of items; (ii) the number of background co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Following the ecological approach to visual perception, this paper presents a framework that emphasizes the role of vision on referring actions. In particular, affordances are utilized to explain gestures variability in a multimodal human-computer interaction. Such a proposal is consistent with empirical findings obtained in different simulation st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines user behavior during multimodal human-computer interaction (HCI). It discusses how pointing, natural language, and graphical layout should be integrated to enhance the usability of multimodal systems. Two experiments were run to study simulated systems capable of understanding written natural language and mouse-supported pointin...
Conference Paper
This paper examines user behavior during multimodal human-computer interaction (HCI). It discusses how pointing, natural language, and graphical layout should be integrated to enhance the usability of multimodal systems. Two experiments were run to study simulated systems capable of understanding written natural language and mouse-supported pointin...
Article
Relational colour constancy refers to the perception of constant relations among surface colours under illumination changes. We tested whether the ability of human observers to discriminate illumination from reflectance changes in a scene involves high-level attentional mechanisms. Observers were shown pairs of computer-generated Mondrian patterns...
Article
Photographs of morphed faces were shown to close friends of portrayed individuals. Three tasks were used: localisation of a morphed target on the continuum between the two original faces, simultaneous same - different discrimination of face pairs separated by a 20% morphing step (AB task), and sequential classification of the same pairs (ABX task)....
Article
Full-text available
This paper empirically investigates how humans use reference in space when interacting with a multimodal system able to understand written natural language and pointing with the mouse. We verified that user expertise plays an important role in the use of multimodal systems: experienced users performed 84% multimodal inputs while inexpert only 30%....
Article
Paradoxical absence of motion in a rotating pattern is reported. The effect requires that the motion of the paradoxically stationary figure be underspecified by local motion signals, and that the paradoxically stationary figure be well segregated. This is consistent with proposals that figural segregation affects the integration of local motion sig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper empirically investigates how humans use reference in space when interacting with a multimodal system able to understand written natural language and pointing with the mouse. We verified that user expertise plays an important role in the use of multimodal systems: experienced users performed 84% multimodal inputs while inexpert only 30%....
Article
Purpose. To tesl that illusory conjunctions (1C) overcome feature errors (FE) only when non-targets, as well as the ta-get, are inattended. Assuming nonuniform attention on large displays, we inferred that non-target attention inhibits migrations (1C) and favors intnisions (FE). Methods. In each trial, a 3x4 matrix co naming 3 characters and 3 obje...
Chapter
As the title reveals, my analysis of information fusion will utilise the problem-solving metaphor of perception. Despite of its limitations, such a metaphor is a friendly and productive one. Evolution provided organisms with systems that capture their environment by solving problems of representation and recovery.1 Of course, most of these problems...
Article
Purpose. Previous research showed that attended regions corresponding to meaningful shapes are likely to be perceived as figures. Our study aimed at establishing the role of meaning in F/G organization when the attended feature is color instead of shape. Method. Using convexity as a figural factor, we constructed patterns containing a black-on-whit...
Article
The right angle is perceived as such only when its sides are vertical and horizontal (Goldmeier effect). We investigated if spontaneous verbal descriptions reflect this type of "oblique effect", and if the relevant frame of reference is retinal or environmental. We compared four conditions in which upright vs. tilted observers were asked to describ...