Wai-Leng Lee

Wai-Leng Lee
Monash University (Malaysia) · School of Science

PhD

About

43
Publications
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Introduction
Wai-Leng Lee currently works at the School of Science, Monash University (Malaysia). In Wai-Leng's laboratory, techniques for isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from biological fluids such as urine and saliva were established. Our proteomic study discovered several exosomal proteins that can potentially be developed as the theranostic markers for the sensitivity of oral cancer patients to cisplatin treatment. Novel approaches such as FTIR are also being explored to discover cancer-specific markers from the isolated EVs. Another research interest of Wai-Leng's lab is to discover the therapeutic use of local medicinal plant-derived phytochemicals for cancer treatment.

Publications

Publications (43)
Article
Full-text available
Drug resistance remains a severe problem in most chemotherapy regimes. Recently, it has been suggested that cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) could mediate drug resistance. In this study, the role of EVs in mediating the response of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells to cisplatin was investigated. We isolated and characterized...
Chapter
Bezoar stone formation is an infrequent event in the gastrointestinal (GI) system due to the chemical reaction between stomach bile and the high intake of nondigestible food materials. There are mainly four types of GI bezoars: trichobezoar, lactobezoar, pharmacobezoar, and phytobezoar, and formations of these bezoars in humans are physical disorde...
Chapter
Cancer remains one of the major causes of human death worldwide, especially with recurring, metastatic, or drug-resistant tumors. As botanical preparations have been used for treating various human diseases throughout history, plant-derived chemicals (phytoagents) thus become an important resource for discovery of novel therapeutic agent for cancer...
Article
Background: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and 90% of oral malignancies are caused by oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Curcumin, a phytocompound derived from turmeric (Curcuma longa) was observed to have anti-cancer activity which can be developed as an alternative treatment option for OSCC. However, OSCC cells with vari...
Article
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanovesicles secreted for intercellular communication with endosomal network regulating secretion of small EVs (or exosomes) that play roles in cancer progression. As an essential oncoprotein, Kirsten rat sarcoma virus (KRAS) is tightly regulated by its endosomal trafficking for membrane attachment. However, the cro...
Article
Viruses are intracellular pathogen that exploit host cellular machinery for their propagation. Extensive research on virus-host interaction have shed light on an alternative antiviral strategy that targets host cell factors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a versatile signal transducer that is involved in a range of cellular processes. N...
Article
Full-text available
Sunlight is an important factor in regulating the central circadian rhythm, including the modulation of our sleep/wake cycles. Sunlight had also been discovered to have a prominent influence on our skin’s circadian rhythm. Overexposure or prolonged exposure to the sun can cause skin photodamage, such as the formation of irregular pigmentation, coll...
Chapter
Paclitaxel (Taxol) is a chemo-drug found in the 1960s, which has anti-mitotic effect on cancerous cells and is widely used for various types of cancer like breast, ovarian, lung cancers etc. The mechanisms of action exerted by Taxol will be reviewed in this chapter. Briefly, the principal mechanism of Taxol is its ability to stabilize and prevent m...
Article
Full-text available
Since the commercialization of morphine in 1826, numerous alkaloids have been isolated and exploited effectively for the betterment of mankind, including cancer treatment. However, the commercialization of alkaloids as anticancer agents has generally been limited by serious side effects due to their lack of specificity to cancer cells, indiscrimina...
Article
L-asparaginase from endophytic Fusarium proliferatum (isolate CCH, GenBank accession no. MK685139) isolated from the medicinal plant Cymbopogon citratus (Lemon grass), was optimized for its L-asparaginase production and its subsequent cytotoxicity towards Jurkat E6 cell line. The following factors were optimized; carbon source and concentration, ni...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous nanoparticles naturally released from living cells which can be found in all types of body fluids. Recent studies found that cancer cells secreted EVs containing the unique set of biomolecules, which give rise to a distinctive absorbance spectrum representing its cancer type. In this study, we aimed to de...
Article
Cell entry of influenza A virus (IAV) was reported to be promoted by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). On the other hand, binding of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) to EGFR leads to internalisation and degradation of the receptors. This study aimed to testify whether or not HB-EGF-induced downregulation of EGFR could attenuat...
Article
Full-text available
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) remains a cancer with poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. Even with multimodal treatment options available for OSCC, tumor drug resistance is still a persistent problem, leading to increased tumor invasiveness among OSCC patients. An emerging trend of thought proposes that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a...
Article
Full-text available
With the ever-growing number of cancer deaths worldwide, researchers have been working hard to identify the key reasons behind the failure of cancer therapies so the efficacy of those therapies may be improved. Based on extensive research activities and observations done by researchers, chemoresistance has been identified as a major contributor to...
Article
Full-text available
Exosomes are cell-derived nanovesicles, and lately, cancer-derived exosomes have been reported to carry KRAS protein, which contributes to the malignancy of many cancers. In this study, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS) was used to inhibit the activities of mutated KRAS in colon cancer SW480 cells to discover the potential link between KRAS activiti...
Preprint
One in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) in their lifetime, resulting in over 2 million cases annually. BC is the most common cancer among women. Unfortunately, the etiology of majority of cases remains unknown. Recently, evidence has shown that the human microbiota plays an important role in health and disease. Intriguingly, st...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dengue fever is currently endemic in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide and effective drug against DENV infection is still unavailable. Porcupine dates, which are traditionally used to treat dengue fever, might contain potential anti-dengue compounds. Two porcupine dates, black date (BD) and powdery date (PD) from Himalayan p...
Chapter
Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau or Sabah snake grass is well-known for its traditional uses in cancer treatment and antidiabetic properties in Asian countries. The plant has demonstrated various pharmacological activities as evidenced by in vitro and in vivo biological investigations, which include antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, antiox...
Article
Full-text available
Angelicin, a member of the furocoumarin group, is related to psoralen which is well known for its effectiveness in phototherapy. The furocoumarins as a group have been studied since the 1950s but only recently has angelicin begun to come into its own as the subject of several biological studies. Angelicin has demonstrated anti-cancer properties aga...
Article
Full-text available
Infrared spectroscopy has long been used to characterize chemical compounds, but the applicability of this technique to the analysis of biological materials containing highly complex chemical components is arguable. However, recent advances in the development of infrared spectroscopy have significantly enhanced the capacity of this technique in ana...
Article
Full-text available
Epinecidin-1 is an antimicrobial peptide derived from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The mature epinecidin-1 peptide is predicted to have an amphipathic α-helical structure and a non-helical hydrophilic domain at the C-terminal RRRH. The majority of work studying the potential pharmacological activities of epinecidin-1, utilize...
Chapter
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most commonly diagnosed cancers affecting both genders in the world. It is characterized by genetic instability, which drives tumor formation via the activation of oncogenes, such as KRAS and B-RAF. Approximately 40% of CRC patients harbor the mutated KRAS oncogene as the predominant form of RAS mutation which p...
Article
Full-text available
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the third most frequent cancer in men and prostate-specific antigen is currently the biomarker used despite its low specificity. Lately, extracellular vesicles (EVs) which are secreted by all types of cells have raised research interest for their association with cancer progression. Urinary EVs UEVs) has emerged as a potent...
Article
A series of bidendate pyridine-functionalized metal N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes with various wingtip substituents (R = methyl, phenyl and tert-butyl) had been prepared from silver oxide-mediated transmetalation method. The basic backbone of the NHC ligands were prepared in two stepwise reactions: reduction of the commercially available 2...
Chapter
Full-text available
Malaysia hosts a diverse range of medicinal plants having therapeutic values including anticancer properties. Over the years, a group of microorganisms called endophytes producing bioactive compounds similar to their host plants has been discovered. These endophytes, producing important compounds such as Taxol, L-asparaginase, and sclerotiorin, can...
Article
A series of bidentate pyridine‐functionalized palladium N‐heterocyclic carbene (Pd NHC) complexes with various wingtip substituents (R = methyl, phenyl and tert‐butyl) have been synthesized and evaluated for their potential biomedical applications as antimicrobials and antiproliferative drug candidates. The obtained Pd NHC complexes were applied in...
Article
Full-text available
Cancer mortality and morbidity is projected to increase significantly over the next few decades. Current chemotherapeutic strategies have significant limitations, and there is great interest in seeking novel therapies which are capable of specifically targeting cancer cells. Given that fundamental differences exist between the cellular membranes of...
Article
Introduction: Tamoxifen, an anti-oestrogenic drug for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, was observed to stimulate tumor growth or drug resistance in patients. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), a precious medicinal fungus has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for cancers in Asian countries. The objective of this study was to investigat...
Article
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with high grade, metastatic phenotype, younger patient age, and poor prognosis. The discovery of an effective anti-TNBC agent has been a challenge in oncology. In this study, fifty-eight ester derivatives (DETDs) with a novel sesquiterpene dilactone skeleton were organically synthesized from a bioa...
Article
Breast cancer is one of the frequently diagnosed and life-threatening cancer diseases in women worldwide, especially, the triple negative breast cancer (ER-/PR-/HER2- TNBC) is a clinically challenging breast cancer disease due to lack of efficient targeted therapeutics. Recently, the development of phytocompounds derived from traditional medicinal...
Article
Full-text available
Accumulation of oxidized nucleic acids causes genomic instability leading to senescence, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Phytoagents are known to reduce the risk of cancer development; whether such effects are through regulating the extent of nucleic acid oxidation remains unclear. Here, we outlined the role of reactive oxygen species in nucleic acid...
Article
Plants produce a remarkably diverse array of metabolites, many of which have evolved to confer effectiveness against microbial attack, resist environmental stress or function as signalling molecules in interplant communication. Further, botanical preparations have been used for treating and preventing various human diseases throughout history. More...
Article
We previously showed that deoxyelephantopin (DET), a plant sesquiterpene lactone, exhibits more profound suppression than paclitaxel (PTX) of lung metastasis of mammary adenocarcinoma TS/A cells in mice. Proteomics studies suggest that DET affects actin cytoskeletal protein networks and downregulates calpain-mediated proteolysis of several actin-as...
Chapter
Full-text available
Breast cancer is one of the main causes of death by cancer in women, with an alarming year-by-year increase in incidence. Conventional cancer therapies, including surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and targeted therapy, play an important role in the treatment of breast cancer; however, drug resistance, severe side effect, and h...
Article
A major germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone, deoxyelephantopin, identified from Elephantopus scaber L. (known as "Didancao" in Chinese medicine) showed significant antitumor growth and antimetastatic effect on murine mammary adenocarcinoma TS/A cells in vitro and in vivo in mice. Deoxyelephantopin exhibited a superior effect to that of the paclita...
Article
Full-text available
Callus of Orthosiphon stamineus could be induced successfully from petiole, leaf and stem tissues but not roots when cultured on MS medium containing different concentration of NAA (0–4.0 mg l–1) and 2,4-D (0–2.0 mg l–1). Highest fresh weight callus production was obtained from leaf explants and those with best friability were obtained on MS medium...
Article
Full-text available
A micropropagation method for Orthosiphon stamineus, using stem nodal segments, has been developed. The highest number of regenerated shoots was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6.7 μM benzyladenine with the formation of an average of 6.1 shoots per explant over a period of 4 wk. The number of shoots increased with long...
Article
The in vitro shoots of Carica papaya 'Eksotika' cultured in MS medium containing a combination of 0.5 mg l-1 BA and 6 mg l-1 to 10 mg l-1 IBA produced roots which were thick and stumpy accompanied by callus tissue at the basal end. Papaya microcuttings dipped in 2.5 g l -1 IBA and then cultured in medium of distilled water plus 10 g l-1 agar (Difco...

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