W. Trappe

W. Trappe
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey | Rutgers · Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

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303
Publications
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14,319
Citations

Publications

Publications (303)
Article
Wireless networks are susceptible to malicious attacks, especially those involving eavesdropping and jamming. In this paper, we consider a communication scenario involving a transmitter who wishes to communicate secretly and reliably with a receiver, while an adversary wants to obstruct this communication by means of either eavesdropping or jamming...
Article
Full-text available
The course of the COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to many disease trends at various population scales, ranging from local to global. Understanding these trends and the epidemiological phenomena that lead to the changing dynamics associated with disease progression is critical for public health officials and the global community to rein in further...
Article
We consider a single carrier communication system subjected to multi-jammer interference, and study optimal power control in the framework of game theory. The Nash and Stackelberg equilibria are derived in closed form. Conditions involving the background noise variance and the transmission cost are established for determining whether the equilibria...
Patent
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Various embodiments comprise systems, methods, architectures, mechanisms or apparatus for wireless secret communication with a device.
Article
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In this paper, we consider a communication connectivity problem involving a primary user (transmitter, for example, a Ground Control Station (GCS)) servicing a group of secondary users (receivers, for example, drones) under hostile interference. We formulate this multi-link communication connectivity problem, where the channels are affected by Rayl...
Article
Full-text available
Drug resistance in cancer treatments is a frequent problem that, when it arises, leads to failure in therapeutic efforts. Tumor heterogeneity is the primary reason for resistance emergence and a precise treatment design that takes heterogeneity into account is required to postpone the rise of resistant subpopulations in the tumor environment. In th...
Article
A method for determining a dosage strategy is proposed to combat drug resistance in tumor progression. The method is based on a dynamic model for the clonal evolution of cancerous cells and considers the Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling of combination therapy. The proposed mathematical representation models the dynamic and kinetic ef...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a new Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) approach by aligning the phases of a group of spatially distributed Radio Frequency (RF) transmitters (TX) at the target receiver (RX) device. Our approach can transfer energy over tens of meters and even to targets blocked by obstacles. Compared to popular beamforming based WPTs, our approach...
Article
We consider the communication between a source (user) and a receiver in the presence of multiple jammers, and study resource assignment in a noncooperative game theory framework using communication latency as the user’s utility. Equilibrium strategies are found in closed form, and their uniqueness is proven. This allows one to identify jammers whos...
Article
We consider the communication between a source (user) and a destination in the presence of a jammer, and study resource assignment in a noncooperative game theory framework. A player (the user or the jammer) has incomplete information about its rival identity in the form of uncertainty; the player only knows the probabilities that its rival is a pl...
Article
In this paper, we investigate a dilemma of employing silent mode and communication mode by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in communication with its controller. In many applications, a UAV communicates with a controller to receive instructions or accurate positioning, but such active communication poses a threat that the UAV can be hijacked throug...
Chapter
The success of a UAV mission depends on communication between a GCS (Ground Control Station) and a group of UAVs. It is essential that the freshness of the commands received by UAVs is maintained as mission parameters often change during an operation. Ensuring the freshness of the commands received by UAVs becomes more challenging when operating in...
Chapter
In this paper we consider the problem of maintaining communication between a transmitter and a receiver in the presence of hostile interference. To maintain communication the transmitter must keep the SINR greater or equal to an SINR threshold, while the adversary aims to break the communication by making this SINR less than this threshold. In part...
Article
Full-text available
Treatments consisting of mixtures of pharmacological agents have been shown to have superior effects to treatments involving single compounds. Given the vast amount of possible combinations involving multiple drugs and the restrictions in time and resources required to test all such combinations in vitro, mathematical methods are essential to model...
Chapter
In this paper we consider how subjectivity affects the problem of scanning spectrum bands, and the impact on both the scanner and invader’s strategy. To model such subjective behavior, we formulate a prospect theoretical (PT) extension of the Bayesian bandwidth scanning game where the Scanner knows only a priori probabilities about what type of int...
Article
This chapter focuses on received signal strength (RSS)‐based indoor positioning. It provides an overview of various indoor localization techniques employing RSS, including the lateration methods, machine learning classification, probabilistic approaches, and statistical supervised learning techniques. The chapter compares their performance in terms...
Article
Localization of wireless devices in wireless networks is important because the location of wireless devices is a critical input for many higher‐level networking tasks. Both the placement and the selection of anchors can affect the accuracy of location estimation significantly, and consequently impact the widespread deployment of location‐based serv...
Chapter
The paper considers the problem of designing the maxmin strategy for a dual-purpose communication and radar system that employs multicarrier OFDM style waveforms, but faces an uncertain level of background noise. As the payoff for the system, we consider the weighted sum of the communication throughput and the radar’s SINR. The problem is formulate...
Article
Graph theoretical analysis is a powerful tool for quantitatively evaluating brain connectivity networks. Conventionally, brain connectivity is assumed to be temporally stationary, whereas increasing evidence suggests that functional connectivity exhibits temporal variations during dynamic brain activity. Although a number of methods have been devel...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless power transfer (WPT) promises to deliver energy to devices that are otherwise hard to charge or replace batteries for. This paper presents a new power transfer approach by aligning the phases of a collection of radio frequency (RF) energy chargers at the target receiver device. Our approach can ship energy over tens of meters and to mobile...
Article
Full-text available
In medical treatments, a fundamental dilemma often arises: on the one hand, an increase in a drug’s dose could lead to a stronger, therapeutic treatment response, but on the other hand this could also lead to increased toxicity risks. In this paper, we propose to solve this dilemma using a Nash bargaining approach. To do so, we reformulate the trad...
Chapter
In this paper, we consider the problem of finding how a joint radar and communication system should divide its effort between supporting the radar and communication objectives when the system operates in an environment with hostile interference. Our model explores the uncertainty of the jammer’s location by assuming the joint system knows only the...
Chapter
The vast scale of the Internet of Things (IoT), combined with its heterogeneous nature involving many different types of devices and machines, could lead the IoT to be vulnerable to a variety of security threats and malicious attacks. Addressing the broad array of threats requires that different security mechanisms are deployed at appropriate locat...
Chapter
The paper considers a communication system consisting of a communication node utilizing multiple antennas in order to communicate with a group of receivers, while potentially facing interference from one or more jammers. The jammers impact the scenario by possibly interfering some of the receivers. The objective of the jammers is to reduce the thro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ensuring confidentiality of communication is fundamental to securing the operation of a wireless system, where eavesdropping is easily facilitated by the broadcast nature of the wireless medium. By applying distributed beamforming among a coalition, we show that a new approach for assuring physical layer secrecy, without requiring any knowledge abo...
Chapter
Many communication markets, such as cellular networks and Internet Service Providers, are characterized by a set of major service providers that support a large customer base. Typically the service providers must compete aggressively for customers, and thus face a problem involving three aspects: (i) how to attract new customers entering the market...
Conference Paper
This paper examines a dual radar/communication system employing OFDM style waveforms with two objectives: a radar task involving target tracking, and a communication task involving communicating with a distant receiver. One challenge with such two objective problems is that the optimal solution for one of objective could be non-optimal for the othe...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we propose a system that detects approaching cars for smartphone users. In addition to detecting the presence of a vehicle, it can also estimate the vehicle’s driving direction, as well as count the number of cars around the user. We achieve these goals by processing the acoustic signal captured by microphones embedded in the user’s m...
Article
Full-text available
Sharing of radio spectrum between different types of wireless systems (e.g., different service providers) is the foundation for making more efficient usage of spectrum. Cognitive radio technologies have spurred the design of spectrum servers that coordinate the sharing of spectrum between different wireless systems. These servers receive informatio...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a recent trend that extends the boundary of the Internet toinclude a wide variety of computing devices. Connecting many stand-alone IoT systems throughthe Internet introduces many challenges, with security being front-and-center since much of thecollected information will be exposed to a wide and often unknown audien...
Conference Paper
Wireless networks are increasingly moving towards a heterogeneous operating model involving the sharing of spectrum resources by different access technologies. Sharing wireless resources between different wireless technologies requires protocols that share spectrum in an equitable manner. In this paper, we examine the time-sharing of wireless chann...
Article
Unutilized spectra, i.e., spectrum holes, are opportunities that may be used for communication or adapting other services that use radio frequency (RF). Such opportunities can also represent an adversarial target, if his objective is to block the RF system from using such opportunities opened by spectrum holes. In this paper, we explore the challen...
Article
The articles in this special section focus on the deployment of signal processing and radar sensing technologies for smart vehicle communication. As a picture is worth 1,000 words, this guest editorial includes a visual summary consisting of figures selected from articles in both parts in this two-part special issue.
Article
Full-text available
Because of the open access nature of wireless communications, wireless networks can suffer from malicious activity, such as jamming attacks, aimed at undermining the network's ability to sustain communication links and acceptable throughput. One important consideration when designing networks is to appropriately tune the network topology and its co...
Conference Paper
Emerging wireless systems will need to address multiple, conflicting objectives: ensuring the secrecy of the communication secrecy (i.e., maximizing the un-eavesdropped throughput at the receiver), and ensuring the “security” of the communication (i.e., minimizing damage that might arise because of the possibility that there is leakage in communica...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental building block for supporting better utilization of radio spectrum involves predicting the impact that an emitter will have at different geographic locations. To this end, fixed sensors can be deployed to spatially sample the RF environment over an area of interest, with interpolation methods used to infer received power at locations...
Conference Paper
In this paper, the problem of fairly balancing the radar and communication performance in a dual communication and radar system is studied. To gain insight into the problem, a simple model of such a system using OFDM-style waveforms with SNR as the radar's objective and throughput as the communication's objective is explored. As a criteria for bala...
Article
Underlay is an aggressive spectrum sharing paradigm that allows secondary nodes to be active simultaneously with the primary nodes through interference cancelation (IC). In this paper, we design an online admission control algorithm to handle dynamic session arrival and departure in the underlay coexistence paradigm for multi-hop primary and second...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As people become increasingly accustomed to using smartphones while they walk, there will be a corresponding concern about pedestrian safety as smartphone users might become distracted. In this work, we address this concern by developing a system for smartphones that warns users when it detects an oncoming car. In addition to detecting the presence...
Article
Mobile ad hoc networks face many challenges when they are deployed, particularly problems associated with security and network failures arising from the dynamics of their network topologies. To address these issues, there have been many efforts to introduce security into the actual network protocols, most of which unfortunately struggle with the tr...
Article
The problem of ensuring the secrecy of a communication while simultaneously maintaining sufficient throughput is a fundamental challenge facing secret communication. One of the challenges for such problems is that the optimal solution for one of objective might be not optimal for the other (e.g., an increase in secrecy might yield a decrease in thr...
Article
Spectrum sharing enables radar and communication systems to share the spectrum efficiently by minimizing mutual interference. Recently proposed multiple-input multiple-output radars based on sparse sensing and matrix completion (MIMO-MC), in addition to reducing communication bandwidth and power as compared with MIMO radars, offer a significant adv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper is concerned with the problem Wi-Fi and LTE-U networks sharing access to a band of communication channels, while also considering the issue of fairness in how the channel is being shared. As a criteria of fairness for such joint access, α-fairness and maxmin fairness with regards to expected throughput are explored as fairness metrics. Op...
Article
The articles in this special section focus on brain signal processing. Recent advancements in neuroimaging technology have accelerated our understanding of the functioning of human brain, as evidenced by an everincreasing number of publications associated with brain mapping and reflected by several concerted international efforts, such as the U.S....
Article
We propose a distributed access point selection scheme by which nodes select an appropriate access point to associate with based upon each individual device's channel utilization. In this paper, we define channel utilization as the ratio of required bandwidth to estimated available bandwidth. By incorporating channel utilization into the access poi...
Conference Paper
This paper focuses on the challenge of maintaining reliable connectivity in an ad hoc network, where interference is possible. To cope with such interference, the paper introduces throughput connectivity and weighted throughput connectivity. Throughput connectivity reflects the possibility of establishing communication between nodes for given a sig...
Article
Full-text available
The articles in this special section is designed to provide a venue for state-of-the-art research being doing in how signal and information processing is advancing the field of information privacy.
Conference Paper
Fairness plays an important role in networking as it fundamentally describes how different communication participants access and share network resources. The fair sharing of resources becomes complicated when the network faces harsh operational conditions, which may be associated with mutual interference or adversarial conditions. In this paper, we...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the co-existence of Wi-Fi and LTE in emerging unlicensed frequency bands which are intended to accommodate multiple radio access technologies. Wi-Fi and LTE are the two most prominent access technologies being deployed today, motivating further study of the inter-system interference arising in such shared spectrum scenarios...
Article
Full-text available
Jamming attacks are a class of network denial of service attacks that can easily be carried out in wireless networks. In order to be able to repair a network in the presence of such attacks, it is desirable to identify the location of jammed nodes and the congested area that is affected by the jammer. In this paper, we propose the design of a Q-lea...
Article
Many cyber physical networks will involve ad hoc deployments utilizing peer-to-peer communications. Examples include transportation systems where a group of moving cars communicate in order to avoid collisions, teams of robotic agents that work together in support of disaster recovery, and sensor networks deployed for health-care monitoring, monito...