W. B. Traill

W. B. Traill
University of Reading · Department of Food Economics and Marketing

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93
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Affective processes and the role of automaticity are increasingly recognised as critical in determining food choice. This study investigated the association of affective attitude, self-identity and habit with fruit and vegetable (FV) intentions and intake in children. Previous studies have not fully explored their implications for children of diffe...
Article
Eating fruit and vegetables (FV) offers important health benefits for children and adolescents, but their average intake is low. To explore if negative trends with age exist as children grow, this study modelled differences in FV consumption from childhood to young adulthood. A pseudo-panel was constructed using years 1-4 (combined) of the Rolling...
Article
Full-text available
World Health Organization estimates that obesity accounts for 2-8% of health care costs in different parts of Europe, and highlights a key role for national policymaking in curbing the epidemic. A variety of healthy-eating policy instruments are available, ranging from more paternalistic policies to those less intrusive. Our aim is to measure and e...
Article
Full-text available
Full text http://www.informationr.net/ir/19-3/paper633.html Introduction. This study investigates how Europeans seek information related to healthy eating, what determines their information seeking and whether any problems are encountered in doing so. Method. A survey was administered through computer-assisted on-line web-interviewing. Respondents...
Article
Full-text available
The Second International Conference on Nutrition, organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, will take place in November 2014. In 1992, the First International Conference on Nutrition declared, “Hunger and malnutrition are unacceptable.” Twenty-two years later, it is timely to revisit...
Chapter
Technological change has made calorie consumption cheaper by lowering food costs while raising calorie expenditure 'costs' by making jobs more sedentary. Globalization has also contributed to unhealthy diets and increased obesity prevalence. This has imposed substantial direct (medical) and indirect (productivity loss) costs on economies. In many c...
Article
There is much talk about the need for policies to be evidence-based; an admirable objective but not easily achievable, as illustrated in this article with reference to policies to improve diets. The evidence base requires estimates of policy effectiveness (the impact of policy on diets), of the impact of dietary change on health, and an estimate of...
Article
Full-text available
The EATWELL research project (www.eatwellproject.eu) (Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating Habits: Evaluation and Recommendations) funded by the European Commission aimed to improve nutrition policy in Europe by providing scientifically sound evidence on the effectiveness of past healthy eating interventions. This interdisciplinary project invol...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To investigate the sociodemographic determinants of diet quality of the elderly in four EU countries. Design: Cross-sectional study. For each country, a regression was performed of a multidimensional index of dietary quality v. sociodemographic variables. Setting: In Finland, Finnish Household Budget Survey (1998 and 2006); in Swede...
Article
This paper shows how economic and psychological approaches to explaining why people overeat are based on different basic assumptions about human behaviour. Three such views of human behaviour are distinguished: rational behaviour, reasoned behaviour, and automatic behaviour. Economic approaches, trying to explain behaviour leading to weight gain an...
Article
Too much food energy intake (relative to expenditure) and unbalanced diets are implicated in a range of diseases that impose major burdens on healthcare systems and cause pain and suffering. Governments have responded by introducing a range of measures, mainly targeting information and education, largely to children. However, more interventionist m...
Article
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This review provides a classification of public policies to promote healthier eating as well as a structured mapping of existing measures in Europe. Complete coverage of alternative policy types was ensured by complementing the review with a selection of major interventions from outside Europe. Under the auspices of the Seventh Framework Programme'...
Article
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Many prepared and take‐away foods contain high levels of ‘unhealthy’ nutrients such as salt, trans and saturated fats and sugar. As diets have developed to include higher proportions of these products, consumers intakes have grown beyond World Health Organisation recommended maximum levels. Countries have responded by regulatory action (Denmark’s b...
Article
Full-text available
Unhealthy diets can lead to various diseases, which in turn can translate into a bigger burden for the state in the form of health services and lost production. Obesity alone has enormous costs and claims thousands of lives every year. Although diet quality in the European Union has improved across countries, it still falls well short of conformity...
Article
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To identify and assess healthy eating policies at national level which have been evaluated in terms of their impact on awareness of healthy eating, food consumption, health outcome or cost/benefit. Review of policy documents and their evaluations when available. European Member States. One hundred and twenty-one policy documents revised, 107 retain...
Article
Poor diet quality is a major public health concern that has prompted governments to introduce a range of measures to promote healthy eating. For these measures to be effective, they should target segments of the population with messages relevant to their needs, aspirations and circumstances. The present study investigates the extent to which attitu...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity), and to make specific recommendations for t...
Article
Increases in the prevalence of obesity have led to calls for policy interventions in the United Kingdom. Little is known, however, about how the public explains overweight, or their support for interventions. Our research team recruited 500 adults (≥18 years of age) across the United Kingdom to complete a cross-sectional survey asking about beliefs...
Article
Three main changes to current risk analysis processes are proposed to improve their transparency, openness, and accountability. First, the addition of a formal framing stage would allow interested parties, experts and officials to work together as needed to gain an initial shared understanding of the issue, the objectives of regulatory action, and...
Article
This article provides an overview of economic methods to measure costs and benefits related to food safety issues. After an introduction on general economic principles, including the distinction between social and private costs and benefits, the article highlights the various methods for calculation of costs and benefits, including “willingness to...
Article
Quadratic programming techniques were applied to household food consumption data in England and Wales to estimate likely changes in diet under healthy eating guidelines, and the consequences this would have on agriculture and land use in England and Wales. The first step entailed imposing nutrient restrictions on food consumption following dietary...
Article
A theory based healthy eating leaflet was evaluated against an existing publicly available standard leaflet. The intervention leaflet was designed to encourage healthy eating in 18-30 year olds and was developed by modifying an existing British Nutrition Foundation leaflet. The intervention leaflet targeted attitudes and self-efficacy. Participants...
Article
Full-text available
Although in several EU Member States many public interventions have been running for the prevention and/or management of obesity and other nutritionrelated health conditions, few have yet been formally evaluated. The multidisciplinary team of the EATWELL project will gather benchmark data on healthy eating interventions in EU Member States and revi...
Book
The obesity epidemic and the growing debate about what, if any, public health policy should be adopted is the subject of endless debates within the media and in governments around the world. Whilst much has been written on the subject, this book takes a unique approach by looking at the obesity epidemic from an economic perspective. Written in a la...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the sociodemographic determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in England and determine the differential effects of socio-economic variables at various parts of the intake distribution, with a special focus on severely inadequate intakes. Quantile regression, expressing F&V intake as a function of sociodemographic variables,...
Article
The yellow fats sector comprises butter, margarine and a number of newer dairy-and low-fat spreads. In analysing the transmission of policy prices (e.g. the intervention price of butter) in this sector, which is characterised by concentrated processors and retailers, it is unrealistic to assume that marketing margins are competitively determined. T...
Article
Strategic groups of food manufacturers are derived using factor and cluster analysis applied to a survey of European food manufacturers. The aim is to obtain groupings of businesses that are meaningful for industry and policy analysis. Eight strategic groups are derived and profiled. The sources of competitive advantage of the businesses in the eig...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Objectives This reports aims at assessing the impacts in terms of consumption and public health of a tax applied to food products linked to an increased risk of diet-related conditions. This tax scheme is focused on sources of saturated fats, and the 'fat tax' thus levied is used to subsidise fruit & vegetables consumption, which are acknowledged t...
Technical Report
Objectives This reports aims at assessing the impacts in terms of consumption and public health of a tax applied to food products linked to an increased risk of diet-related conditions. This tax scheme is focused on sources of saturated fats, and the 'fat tax' thus levied is used to subsidise fruit & vegetables consumption, which are acknowledged t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Household food consumption data is used to estimate likely changes in diet under healthy eating guidelines, and the consequences this would have on the agricultural sector in England and Wales. The first step entails imposing nutrient restrictions on food consumption following dietary recommendations. The resulting diet is then used as a proxy for...
Article
Abstract With 25% of the UK population predicted to be obese by 2010, the costs to individuals and society are set to rise. Due to the extra economic and social pressures obesity causes, there is an increasing need to understand what motivates and prevents consumers from eating a healthy diet so as to be able to tailor policy interventions to speci...
Article
This paper investigates Willingness to Accept (WTA) Genetic Modification (GM) foods based on experimental auctions carried out in the USA, UK and France. It explores perceptions of risk and benefits, moral concerns and their antecedents, attitudes to the environment and technology and trust in various sources using Structural Equation Modelling (SE...
Article
Agricultural policy liberalisation, concern about unhealthy diets and growing recognition of the importance of sustainable land use have fostered interest in the development of competitive food chains based around products that are beneficial to the rural environment. We review the potential for foods with enhanced health attributes based on altern...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer an exploratory case study comparing one Brazilian beef processor's relationships supplying two different distribution channels, an EU importer and an EU retail chain operating in Brazil. Design/methodology/approach – The paper begins with a short review of global value chains and the recent literature...
Article
An increasing set of evidence has been reported on how consumers could potentially react to the introduction of genetically modified food. Studies typically contain some empirical evidence and some theoretical explanations of the data, however, to date limited effort has been posed on systematically reviewing the existing evidence and its implicati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Concern over diet-health relationships has moved to the forefront of public health concerns in the UK and much of the developed world. It has been estimated, for example, that obesity costs the UK National Health Service up to £6b per year (Rayner and Scarborough, 2005), but if all consumers were to follow recommended healthy eating guidelines ther...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a household health production framework, this paper exploits the combination of socioeconomic, health and nutrition information from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey to analyze the endogenous relationship among wealth, nutrition, weight and the final health outcomes. Results show that higher wealth determines lower weight and bett...
Article
The complex interactions between the determinants of food purchase under risk are explored using the SPARTA model, based on the theory of planned behaviour, and estimated through a combination of multivariate statistical techniques. The application investigates chicken consumption choices in two scenarios: (a) a 'standard' purchasing situation; and...
Article
The study reviews the literature on global chain governance and food standards to allow for an assessment of Brazilian beef exports to the European Union. The empirical approach employed is based on company case studies. The results suggest that the Brazilian beef chain has little choice but to adapt to market changes as standards evolve. Costs of...
Article
The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a partic...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report examines consumers’ willingness-to-pay for enhanced foods by sur- veying a representative sample of 200 people across the UK. Acceptance by the general public of these non-genetically modified products is addressed using choice- based experiments. Our research focuses on three fresh products, strawberries and lettuce with higher antioxi...
Article
This study suggests a statistical strategy for explaining how food purchasing intentions are influenced by different levels of risk perception and trust in food safety information. The modelling process is based on Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour and includes trust and risk perception as additional explanatory factors. Interaction and endogenei...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical models suggest that decisions about diet, weight and health status are endogenous within a utility maximization framework. In this article, we model these behavioural relationships in a fixed-effect panel setting using a simultaneous equation system, with a view to determining whether economic variables can explain the trends in calorie...
Article
Full-text available
Our objective in this paper is to assess diets in the European Union (EU) in relation to the recommendations of the recent World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization expert consultation and to show how diets have changed between 1961 and 2001. Computations make use of FAOSTAT data on food availability at country level linked to a f...
Article
Reform of agricultural policies, notably the continuing elimination of production-enhancing subsidies, makes it possible for policies to respond to social issues such as the rural environment and health in future. In this paper, we draw on a Rural Economy and Land Use (RELU) research project which is examining the potential for the development of h...
Article
There has been debate in the literature as to whether: (1) the risks and benefits of genetically-modified (GM) food and agriculture are considered and determined by individuals separately or whether they are jointly determined by attitudes; (2) consumer acceptance is determined by individuals weighing up their risk and benefit perceptions in a rati...
Article
Full-text available
As the avian flu pandemic threatens Europe, consumer awareness of the ‘theoretical’ possibility of contraction of the avian flu virus through consumption of chicken saw a decline in demand at the end of 2005, with peaks between 40% - 50% in Southern European countries such as Italy whilst having little impact on demand in Northern countries l...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the role of trust in food safety information in determining consumer choice in relation to socio-demographic effects and other determinants. The complexity of factors influencing the way a consumer processes food safety information makes it difficult to develop adequate risk communication strategies. This is, however, a priority...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper a consumer food choice model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is extended to account for risk perception and trust. The data are from a nationally representative European survey of 2 725 respondents from five countries, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The model relates the intention to purchas...
Article
A series of articles, many of them published in this journal, have charted the rapid spread of supermarkets in developing and middle-income countries and forecast its continuation. In this article, the level of supermarket penetration (share of the retail food market) is modelled quantitatively on a cross-section of 42 countries for which data coul...
Article
The United States (US) exports more than US$6& billion in agricultural commodities to the European Union(EU) each year, but one issue carries the potential to diminish this trade: use of biotechnology in food production. The EU has adopted more stringent policies towards biotechnology than the US. Understanding differences in European and American...
Article
Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States...
Article
This article explores the economic issues associated with diet choices and nutrition policies in Europe. A review of the current and potential policy measures is provided and the issues associated with the development of a common nutritional policy in Europe discussed, with a special focus on the collection of appropriate data for benchmarking. We...
Article
The completion of the Single European Market was expected to create a large market that would enable firms to capture economies of scale that would in turn result in lower prices to European consumers. These benefits are only likely to be realised if consumers in the various countries of the EU wish to consume the same products and respond to simil...
Article
The findings from a study measuring consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods are presented. The empirical data were collected in an experimental market, an approach used extensively in experimental economics for measuring the monetary value of goods. The approach has several advantages over standard approaches used in sensory and mark...
Article
This study investigates the effect of information about potential benefits of biotechnology on consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods. Consumer willingness to accept compensation to consume a GM food was elicited using an incentive compatible auction mechanism in three US states (California, Florida, and Texas) and in two European c...
Article
In the growing body of literature concerning consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods, there are significant differences in conclusions about the impact of knowledge on such acceptance. One potential explanation for these differences is the manner in which knowledge is measured. This paper first provides a review of the literature on...
Article
The stated benefits and perceived risks of genetic modification (GM) cover very diverse issues, such as food safety, world food security, and the environment, that may differentially affect consumer acceptance. In this research, we hypothesize that consumers perceive up to eight dimensions: risks to business (farmers, agribusiness, etc.), benefits...
Article
Full-text available
This paper defines the relative role of firms' characteristics on both their likelihood to innovate and the intensity of innovation (innovative outputs). Using Christensen's (1995; 1996) and Teece's (1986) proposals for analysing assets (resources and capabilities) and inter-asset linkages in order to produce and commercially exploit technological...
Article
Twelve food-manufacturing companies in six European countries have been studied with respect to the way in which they innovate, their motivations, and their emphasis on product or process innovation. It is suggested that the traditional “demand-pull” versus “technology-push” versus “a mixture of both” debate is too simplistic. Firms behave differen...
Article
The paper explores the use of multi-item summated scales for the measurement of the perceived performance of the food system and of an index to measure consumer food-related welfare. Scales are developed that encompass a range of factors that influence the welfare consumers derive from food, including food safety, convenience, ethical issues, healt...
Article
An increasingly competitive international environment makes it necessary for firms to focus more and more on cross-country consumer segments. This increases the importance of international market segmentation and the need to develop new research approaches. The aim of this work is to present some of the results of a yoghurt segmentation study acros...
Chapter
The term barriers to entry is used with reference to the additional costs to be incurred by a new entrant to an industry which provide a measure of protection to incumbent firms. The term mobility barriers is a similar concept used to describe the barriers which protect firms within a particular strategic group in an industry from competition with...
Article
This short paper reports the results of a survey of expert opinion aimed at assessing the impact of new technologies introduced to the dairy industry over the past 20 years and new technologies expected over the coming 5-10 years, on production costs of different sized firms. While recognising that many factors influence industry structure, if new...
Article
This article is a simple presentation of data on changes in the size distribution of enterprises in the EU food and drink manufacturing sector from 1980 to 1992. The data were collected, with some difficulty, from national statistical offices of the member states and “manipulated” to make them as comparable as possible. Analysis of the observed cha...
Article
This article concerns aspects of internationalization and market servicing modes in the Greek food industry. During the late 1980s, foreign direct investment into the Greek food industry increased to around US $80 million per year from below US $10 million in the early 1980s and sales arising from accumulated FDI inflows (called here subsidiary sal...
Article
The traditional approach to the analysis of food policy treats government as an impartial 'clearing house,' balancing the needs of different groups and correcting for market failures. Recent writings on political economy, particularly relating to agriculture, argue that policy making should be treated as an endogenous component of the food system w...
Article
Agricultural policies in most developed countries involve elements of price support. The primary objective appears to be the support of farm incomes, but effects of the policies are more wide ranging than this. The impact of price support on agricultural input markets in the UK is highlighted in this article and it is shown that the main effects of...
Article
With a view to examining the impact of E.C. product price changes on land values and rents in the U.K., econometric models are developed to show the effect of farm incomes on these variables. The long-run effect conforms closely with the often expressed theoretical view that the benefits of farm support policies are capitalised into higher land val...