W Darlene Reid

W Darlene Reid
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Physical Therapy

PT, PhD

About

233
Publications
63,967
Reads
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6,338
Citations
Citations since 2016
84 Research Items
3259 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Introduction
W Darlene Reid currently works at the Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto. Dr. Reid performs research primarily directed towards muscle performance and implications for function with a particular focus on inspiratory muscles. She directs the Rehabilitation Aimed at Muscle Performance (RAMP) lab, an integrative physiology lab. Many of her methods involve wireless technologies that can be readily brought to the study participants at the beside or in the real world setting.'
Additional affiliations
November 2014 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Professor (Full)
April 1988 - November 2014
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • I began working at UBC in 1988 as an Assistant Professor, tenured, and was promoted through the ranks to full Professor. I also was Chair of Research Graduate Programs in Rehabilitation Sciences for a couple of terms.

Publications

Publications (233)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this narrative review is to highlight the oxidative stress induced in COVID-19 patients (SARS-CoV-2 infection), describe longstanding functional impairments, and provide the pathophysiologic rationale that supports aerobic eccentric (ECC) exercise as a novel alternative to conventional concentric (CONC) exercise for post-COVID-19 pat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Insufficient or excessive respiratory effort during acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) increases the risk of lung and diaphragm injury. We sought to establish whether respiratory effort can be optimized to achieve lung- and diaphragm-protective (LDP) targets (esophageal pressure swing - 3 to - 8 cm H2O; dynamic transpulmonary d...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the JTECH computerized, wireless apparatus and its validity (compared to established devices) for measurements of maximal shoulder isometric strength and handgrip strength among healthy adults with no shoulder pathology. Methods: Twenty healthy young adults had shoulder...
Article
Full-text available
The physical impairments (e.g., slower walking speed) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been attributed to peripheral characteristics (e.g., muscle atrophy). However, cognitive impairment may compromise motor control including walking automaticity. The objective of this study was to investigate PFC neural activity,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To contrast older and younger adults’ prefrontal cortex (PFC) neural activity (through changes in oxygenated hemoglobin) during single and dual tasks, and to compare decrements in task performance. Methods Changes in oxygenated hemoglobin of dorsolateral PFC were monitored using functional near-infrared spectroscopy during single tasks of...
Article
We aimed to investigate whether changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) associates with inspiratory muscle effort during inspiratory threshold loading (ITL) in healthy participants. Participants performed an incremental ITL. Breathing pattern, partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), mouth pressure and O...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Respiratory muscle electromyography (EMG) can identify whether a muscle is activated, its activation amplitude, and timing. Most studies have focused on the activation amplitude, while differences in timing and duration of activity have been less investigated. Detection of the timing of respiratory muscle activity is typically based on...
Article
Rationale: Reverse triggering is a patient-ventilator interaction where a respiratory muscle contraction is triggered by a passive mechanical insufflation. Its impact on diaphragm structure and function is unknown. Objective: To establish an animal model of reverse triggering with lung injury receiving lung-protective ventilation and to assess i...
Conference Paper
Onset and offset detection of electromyography (EMG) data is an important step in respiratory muscle coordination assessment. Impaired respiratory coordination can indicate breathing disorders and lung diseases. In this paper, we present an algorithm for onset and offset timing detection of real-world EMG signals from respiratory muscles, which are...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to examine sex differences in oxygen saturation in respiratory (SmO 2-m.intercostales) and locomotor muscles (SmO 2-m.vastus lateralis) while performing physical exercise. Twenty-five (12 women) healthy and physically active participants were evaluated during an incremental test with a cycle ergometer, while ventilatory variables [...
Article
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Background: Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS) and Hypermobility Spectrum Disorders (HSD) are a heterogeneous group of heritable genetic connective tissue disorders with multiple characteristics including joint hypermobility, tissue fragility, and multiple organ dysfunction. Respiratory manifestations have been described in EDS patients, but have not b...
Article
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is used to assist spontaneous breathing in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MV is a cornerstone of critical care medicine but it is now known that inspiratory muscle dysfunction due to injury, disuse, and/or atrophy during MV plays a major role in outcomes for these patients. For example, prolong...
Article
Background Ultrasound may be useful to assess the structure, activity, and function of the abdominal muscles in mechanically ventilated patients. Research Question Does measurement of abdominal muscle thickening on ultrasound in mechanically ventilated patients provide clinically relevant information about abdominal muscle function and weaning out...
Article
Full-text available
Background Acute increases in muscle sonographic echodensity reflect muscle injury. Diaphragm echodensity has not been measured in mechanically ventilated patients. We undertook to develop a technique to characterize changes in diaphragm echodensity during mechanical ventilation and to assess whether these changes are correlated with prolonged mech...
Article
Full-text available
To synthesize evidence for prefrontal cortex (PFC), quadriceps, and respiratory muscle oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cycling in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A scoping review was performed searching databases (inception-August 2020): Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Systematic Reviews, Coc...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine scalene (SA) and sternocleidomastoid (SM) activation during normoxic (norm-ITL; FIO2 = 21%) and hypoxic (hyp-ITL; FIO2 = 15%) incremental inspiratory threshold loading (ITL). Thirteen healthy participants (33 ± 4 years, 9 female) performed two ITL tests breathing randomly assigned gas mixtures through an ins...
Article
Cognitive and motor impairment are well documented in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but their relationship has not been studied. This study evaluated and compared cognitive and motor performance during dual tasks and related dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (ΔO2Hb), a proxy measure of ne...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Decreased oxygenation of muscle may be accentuated during exercise at high altitude. Monitoring the oxygen saturation of muscle (SmO2) during hand grip exercise using near infrared spectroscopy during acute exposure to hypoxia could provide a model for a test of muscle performance without the competing cardiovascular stresses that occu...
Article
Background Physical training, regardless of the presence of concurrent weight loss, provides numerous health benefits for individuals who are overweight and obese and have or are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Purpose The purpose of this review was to identify different types of physical training programs (aerobic, resistance, or combined), w...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Low diaphragm muscle mass at the outset of mechanical ventilation may predispose critically ill patients to poor clinical outcomes. Objective To determine whether lower baseline diaphragm thickness (Tdi) is associated with delayed liberation from mechanical ventilation and complications of acute respiratory failure (reintubation, trache...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD) exhibit reduced exercise capacity and exertional hypoxaemia. The role of peripheral (muscle) limitation to exercise tolerance in ILD is not well studied to date. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study examined skeletal muscle oxygen saturation ( S mO 2 ) and regional blood volume o...
Article
Purpose: to compare muscle activation of the diaphragm (DIA), scalenes (SA), parasternal intercostals (PS), and sternomastoid (SM) during submaximal intermittent neck flexion (INF) versus submaximal inspiratory threshold loading (ITL) until task failure in healthy adults. Methods: Twelve healthy adults performed submaximal ITL or INF tests in ra...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease associated with significant dyspnea and limited exercise capacity. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence of exercise interventions during pulmonary rehabilitation that aim to improve exercise capacity, dyspnea, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in IPF pa...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the effect of dual tasking that combines walking with a mental tracking task on spatiotemporal gait parameters in younger and older adults. After completing the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), participants performed single tasks: preferred paced walk (PPW); fast paced walk (FPW); single-leg stance (SLS); spelling b...
Article
Despite several advances in treatment, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains a progressive, symptomatic, and terminal disease in patients not suitable for lung transplantation. With disease progression, IPF often leads to a constellation of symptoms including dyspnea, cough, anxiety, and depression. Palliative care is appropriate to support t...
Article
Background: Aerobic exercise is used in the rehabilitation setting in people with interstitial lung disease (ILD), however little is known about interval exercise as a training strategy. The aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses and preferences of a single bout of interval exercise with continuous exercise in individuals...
Article
Full-text available
The volumes assessed by optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) and based on a three-compartmental model provide an accurate breath-by-breath index of expiratory and inspiratory (ribcage muscles and diaphragm) muscle length. Thus, after performing thixotropic maneuvers, OEP may also provide evidence regarding the history-dependent properties of these...
Article
Background: Osteoporosis is prevalent in individuals with COPD. Updated evidence is required to complement the previous systematic review on this topic to provide best practice. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantitatively synthesize data from studies with respect to the prevalence and risk factors for osteoporosis amo...
Article
RATIONALE: Pulse wave velocity (PWV), as a measure of arterial stiffness, has been shown to be associated with resting heart rate (RHR) in general population studies. Yet, the evidence on this relationship in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is scarce and contradictory. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationship between RHR and PWV and ex...
Article
Patients with muscular temporomandibular disorder (TMD) present with abnormal oxygenation of the jaw muscles. Nonetheless, the deoxygenation pattern of jaw muscles of healthy subjects with frequent wake-time tooth-clenching episodes, who are at greater risk for TMD, has never been investigated. This case-control study compared the deoxygenation of...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps muscle strength and thickness in liver transplantation patients. Design: Phase-II, randomized, parallel-group, allocation-concealed, assessor-blinded, single-center controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation sector. Subjects: Patients following living...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps muscle strength and thickness in liver transplantation patients. Design: Phase-II, randomized, parallel-group, allocation-concealed, assessor-blinded, single-center controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation sector. Subjects: Patients following...
Article
Several mechanisms of diaphragm muscle injury (myotrauma) can result in ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction, including ventilator over-assistance, under-assistance, eccentric contractions, and end-expiratory shortening. In this Personal View, we summarise the evidence for the clinical relevance of these mechanisms, and present new data based o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Nocturnal worsening of asthma symptoms is a common feature of asthma. Physical exercise training improves general asthma control; however, there is no evidence showing the effects of physical exercise on nocturnal asthma symptoms. Indeed, asthma patients with daytime and nighttime symptoms are physiologically different, and thus the ef...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Contrast baths (CB) is a thermal treatment modality used in sports medicine, athletic training, and rehabilitation settings. Proposed physiological effects of CB include increasing tissue blood flow and oxygenation and decreasing tissue swelling and edema to promote better healing, improved limb function, and quicker recovery. Objective:...
Article
Purpose of the study: the aim of this study was to synthesize PFC fNIRS outcomes on the effects of cognitive tasks compared to resting/baseline tasks in healthy adults from studies utilizing a pre/post design. Material and methods: original research studies were searched from seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, SCOPUS, PEDro and P...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To provide an overview of skeletal muscle pathophysiology in pulmonary and cardiovascular conditions commonly managed by physical therapists. Summary of Key Points: This review describes the muscle pathophysiology associated with congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, cystic fibrosis, in...
Article
The aim of this systematic review was to examine procedures used and outcome measures reported from surface EMG (sEMG) of extradiaphragm inspiratory muscles in healthy people. Relevant articles were searched using the concepts "electromyography (EMG)", "respiratory muscles (sternocleidomastoid [SM], scalene, intercostal [IC] and parasternal)" and "...
Article
Background Pain is prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) appears to be a feasible questionnaire to assess this symptom. However, the reliability and validity of the BPI have not been determined in individuals with COPD. This study aimed to determine the internal consistency, test‐retest reliabi...
Article
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the prevalence, intensity and interference of pain in women, and how it affects quality of life and level of physical activity; and to determine independent predictors of pain intensity. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Settings: Obesity treatment clinic, community and...
Article
Purpose: Little is known about the oxygen requirements during physical exertion or exercise in individuals with interstitial lung disease (ILD). This study examined exertional oxygen requirements, the relationships between exertional oxygen use, exercise capacity and aerobic training parameters, and predictors of change in exertional oxygen requir...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Nocturnal worsening of asthma symptoms is a common feature of asthma. Patients with nocturnal asthma have nighttime increases in airway inflammation and decreases in steroid responsiveness. Physical exercise training improves general asthma control. However considering the physiological differences between asthma patients with daytime...
Article
Background: Respiratory muscle weakness is common in critically ill patients; the role of targeted inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in ICU rehabilitation strategies remains poorly defined. Objectives: The primary objective was to describe the range and tolerability of published methods for IMT. The secondary objectives were to determine whether...
Article
Background Pain, commonly localized to the trunk in individuals with COPD, may be due to osteoporosis-related vertebral deformity and chest wall hyper-expansion causing misalignment of joints between the ribs and vertebrae. The purpose of this study was to determine if thoracic vertebral deformity and arthropathy were independent contributors to tr...
Article
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) remains under-recognized in chronic lung disease (CLD) patients. Rehabilitation health professionals need accessible clinical measurements to identify the presence of prior MI in order to determine appropriate training prescription. Objectives: To estimate prior MI in CLD patients entering a pulmonary rehab...
Article
In addition to dyspnea and fatigue, pain is a prevalent symptom in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Understanding the relative prevalence, magnitude, and interference with aspects of daily living of these symptoms can improve COPD management. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to: (1) compare the prevalence and magnitude of dys...
Article
Assessing inspiratory muscle deoxygenation and blood flow can provide insight into anaerobic stress, recruitment strategies and mechanisms of inspiratory muscle limitation. Therefore, this review aimed to synthesize measurements of inspiratory muscle oxyhaemoglobin (O2Hb), deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb), blood volume and flow of the inspiratory muscles acq...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of autonomic system dysfunction, has been reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Yet, limited data exists on the reliability of HRV measurement in this population. Here we investigated the reliability of short-term HRV measurement performed during spontaneo...
Article
Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has consistently been shown to reduce exertional dyspnea in health and disease; however, the physiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. A growing body of literature suggests that dyspnea intensity can largely be explained by an awareness of increased neural respiratory drive, as indirectly measured using di...
Article
Objective: To determine comorbidities that cause pain and the potential contributors to pain in individuals with COPD. Design: Prospective cross-sectional survey study. Setting: Pulmonary rehabilitation programs of six centers. Participants: A convenience sample of individuals with COPD who attended pulmonary rehabilitation programs (n=137)....
Article
Introduction: Vertebral deformity (compression fracture) is thought to be common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and considered to contribute to kyphosis. However, the association between vertebral deformity and hyperkyphosis (defined as a Cobb angle >40°) (Katzman W.B. et al. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40:352-360) in COPD has n...
Poster
Introduction: Pain is prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) is commonly used to evaluate pain magnitude and its interference with daily aspects of living. Although its reliability and validity have been determined in people who experience pain due to cancer or other conditions, the BPI has not bee...