W. Craig Riddell

W. Craig Riddell
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Vancouver School of Economics

PhD

About

120
Publications
23,249
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3,512
Citations
Citations since 2016
19 Research Items
1154 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Additional affiliations
July 1979 - present
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (120)
Article
The Canadian labour market is currently emerging from a holding pattern with unusually high numbers of people in temporary (or “recall”) unemployment, people who are “employed but absent from work” for unspecified reasons, or people who are not in the labour force while waiting to be recalled. Two encouraging signs are evident. New postings of vaca...
Article
en We examine the changing relationship between unionization and wage inequality in Canada and the United States. Our study is motivated by profound recent changes in the composition of the unionized workforce. Historically, union jobs were concentrated among low‐skilled men in private sector industries. With the steady decline in private sector un...
Article
The relationship between ageing and skills is of growing policy significance due to population ageing, the changing nature of work and the importance of literacy for social and economic well‐being. This article examines the relationship between age and literacy skills in a sample of OECD countries using three internationally comparable surveys. By...
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Canada's immigration system is currently undergoing significant change driven by several goals that include (1) a desire to improve the economic outcomes of entering immigrants; (2) an attempt to better respond to short-term regional labor market shortages often associated with commodity booms, and (3) a desire to shift immigration away from the th...
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Les inégalités de revenus ont fait l'objet d'inquiétudes de plus en plus marquées depuis quelque temps dans le monde. Toutefois, le débat s'est fait en des termes très généraux et a surtout porté sur le cas des États-Unis. On ne peut comprendre comment le Canada devrait réagir à cette situation sans présenter des faits et des chiffres clairs. Dans...
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This paper investigates whether policies that encourage recipients to exit welfare for full-time employment influence participation in educational activity. The Self-Sufficiency Project ('SSP') was a demonstration project where long-term welfare recipients randomly assigned to the treatment group were offered a generous earnings supplement if they...
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The financial and economic crisis shattered the Lisbon Strategy’s attempt to increase the EU’s employment rate to 70% among 15–64 year olds by 2010. The new Europe 2020 strategy envisages a 75% adult employment rate by 2020; however, this goal also seems unrealistic in light of the economic crisis which has caused the EU’s employment rate to drop s...
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We study the relationship between age and literacy skills in Canada, Norway and the U.S. – countries that represent a wide range of literacy outcomes – using data from the 1994 and 2003 International Adult Literacy Surveys. In cross-sectional data there is a weak negative partial relationship between literacy skills and age. However, this relations...
Article
Considerable concern has recently been expressed about growing income inequality. Much of the discussion, though, has been in general terms and focused on the U.S. experience. To understand whether and how Canada ought to respond to this development, we need to be clear on the facts. This paper documents Canadian patterns in income inequality and i...
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This study assesses the effects of education on both job search intensity and re-employment success for unemployed workers. Given that the positive correlation between education and job search intensity or re-employment success is likely to be confounded by the endogeneity of education, we make use of data on compulsory schooling laws to create ins...
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This study investigates the causal effects of education on individuals' transitions between employment and unemployment, with particular focus on the extent to which education improves re-employment outcomes among unemployed workers. Given that positive correlations between education and labour force transitions are likely to be confounded by the e...
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The unemployment protection systems that exist in most Latin American economies are generally considered inadequate in terms of providing insurance to workers. They may also encourage stratified labor markets and impose barriers to the employee's mobility and the firm's adjustment to changing labor market conditions. In addition, some of these syst...
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Adoption of innovations by firms and workers is an important part of the process of technological change. Many prior studies find that highly educated workers tend to adopt new technologies faster than those with less education. Such positive correlations between the level of education and the rate of technology adoption, however, do not necessaril...
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This paper examines the role of EI in providing support to “displaced workers,†those who permanently lose their jobs because of changing circumstances. Adjusting to change benefits Canadians as a whole. However, some workers suffer much more from job loss than do others. Those who have held their jobs for an extended period experience substanti...
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In this article, we examine the literature on adult education and training focusing on the acquisition of skills that are job related, but where learning is a separate activity from regular job activities. We provide an overview of the methods commonly used to evaluate the outcomes of adult education and training, mainly the effect on earnings and...
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We examine whether the factors associated with the rise in the Canadian born - immigrant entry earnings gap played different roles in the 1980s, the 1990s, and the early 2000s. We find that for recent immigrant men, shifts in population characteristics had the most important effect in the 1980s when their earnings gap expanded the most, but this â€...
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The papers that follow review and assess the report of the Expert Panel on Older Workers. This introduction to the symposium provides a brief history of the Expert Panel, its mandate, and its recommendations. The appointment of an Expert Panel to study labour market conditions affecting older workers was announced by the federal government on 23 Ja...
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This study investigates the causal effects of education on individuals’ adaptability to employment shocks. Specifically, we assess the extent to which education influences re-employment success for unemployed workers. We also examine the impact of education on job search intensity, one potential mechanism through which education may increase the...
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Dans cet article, nous étudions l’évolution du rendement du capital humain au Canada de 1980 à 2005. La principale conclusion à laquelle nous arrivons – et qui s’oppose à celles d’études antérieures – est que les avantages associés à un niveau d’études plus élevé ont considérablement augmenté dans le temps chez les hommes; cette augmentation a été...
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Change is an enduring feature of the economy and the labour market, even in normal times. The importance of adjusting to change, and of policies that promote adjustment, has been a recurring theme throughout David Dodge’s distinguished career. This paper deals with “displaced workers,†those who permanently lose their jobs because of changing...
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Full-text available
Adoption of innovations by firms and workers is an important part of the process of technological change. Many prior studies find that highly educated workers tend to adopt new technologies faster than those with less education. Such a positive correlation between the level of education and the rate of technology adoption, however, does not necessa...
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Full-text available
This paper examines the evolution of the returns to human capital in Canada over the period 1980-2006. Most of the analysis is based on Census data, and on weekly wage and salary earnings of full-time workers. Our main finding is that the returns to education increased substantially for Canadian men between 1980 and 2000, in contrast to conclusions...
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Using 1981 to 2001 Census data, we study how the human capital of immigrants is rewarded in Canada. We distinguish between years of schooling and degrees obtained in order to estimate ‘sheepskin’ effects – the gain in earnings associated with receipt of a degree, controlling for years of schooling. We find that immigrant years of schooling and immi...
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We examine the impact of literacy on immigrant earnings and the sources of lower returns to education and experience among immigrants. We find that the native-born literacy distribution dominates that for immigrants. However, the two groups obtain similar returns to literacy skills, contrary to discrimination-based explanations for immigrant—native...
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The determination of how to distinguish between unemployment and nonparticipation is important and controversial. The conventional approach employs a priori reasoning together with self-reported current behavior. This paper employs an evidence-based classification of labor force status using information about the consequences of the behavior of the...
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This paper provides a survey on studies that analyze the macroeconomic effects of intellectual property rights (IPR). The first part of this paper introduces different patent policy instruments and reviews their effects on R&D and economic growth. This part also discusses the distortionary effects and distributional consequences of IPR protection a...
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This paper examines recent Canadian experience relating to education and skill formation and compares this experience to that in other G-7 and OECD countries. Several linkages are examined: those between educational expenditures and outcomes in the form of educational attainment, student achievement, and the literacy skills of the adult population....
Chapter
Unionisation has declined substantially in several Anglo-Saxon countries, especially the U.S. and UK. In contrast, Canadian unionisation has been relatively stable. Nonetheless, during the 1980s and 1990s Canada experienced a gradual but steady decline in union density. The principal objective of this paper is to analyse the causes of the decline i...
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This paper uses direct measures of literacy to examine the influence of cognitive and unobserved skills on earnings. We find that cognitive skills contribute significantly to earnings and that their inclusion in earnings equations reduces the measured impact of schooling. The impact of literacy on earnings does not vary across quantiles of the earn...
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Full-text available
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the link between unionization and wage inequality in the U.S., the U.K., and Canada. Our main motivation is to see whether unionization can account for differences and trends in wage inequality in industrialized countries. We focus on the U.S., the U.K., and Canada because the institutional arrangements...
Article
We study the role of credentials or "sheepskin effects" in the Canadian labour market. Sheepskin effects refer to increases in wages associated with the receipt of a degree after controlling for educational inputs such as years of schooling. We find strong evidence of sheepskin effects associated with graduation from high school, community college...
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Full-text available
Determining how to distinguish between unemployment and non-participation is important and controversial. The conventional approach employs a priori reasoning together with self-reported current behaviour. This paper employs an evidence-based classification of labour force status using information about the consequences of the behaviour of the none...
Chapter
As countries engage in greater economic integration, programs like unemployment insurance (UI) become subject to increased public scrutiny and policy analysis. This is true both in countries that have an extensive history and involvement with UI, and in countries that have little or no history with such programs, or that are contemplating their imp...
Chapter
Training issues are at the forefront of concern for all major actors in the labor market in both developed and developing countries. For employers training is crucial to productivity and competitiveness. For employees it is a key ingredient of human capital formation to enhance wages and employability. For governments it is an important policy inst...
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We introduce a new hybrid approach to joint estimation of Value at Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) for high quantiles of return distributions. We investigate the relative performance of VaR and ES models using daily returns for sixteen stock market indices (eight from developed and eight from emerging markets) prior to and during the 2008 fi...
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Large increases in the educational attainment of Canadians have occurred during the past three decades. While Canadians' average years of completed schooling remains slightly below that in the U.S., it is higher than many OECD countries. Further, international tests of adult literacy show that the skills of well-educated Canadians are comparable to...
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Since unification, the debate about Germany's poor economic performance has focused on supply-side weaknesses, and the associated reform agenda sought to make low-skill labour markets more flexible. We question this diagnosis using three lines of argument. First, effective restructuring of the supply side in the core advanced industries was carried...
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I study a budget-constrained, private-valuation, sealed-bid sequential auction with two incompletely-informed, risk-neutral bidders in which the valuations and income may be non-monotonic functions of a bidder's type. Multiple equilibrium symmetric bidding functions may exist that differ in allocation, efficiency and revenue. The sequence of sale a...
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This paper surveys recent research on how to measure labour market activities such as unemployment and labour force participation. The conventional approach to distinguishing between unemployment and non-participation is to use a priori reasoning and self-reported survey responses about current activities, specifically availability for work and job...
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This paper, which is to be published as a chapter in the Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare, provides a survey of Utilitarianism as a theory of justice. We review and discuss axiomatizations of Utilitarian and Generalized-Utilitarian social-evaluation functionals in a welfarist framework. In addition, we analyze extensions of Utilitarian princip...
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2 Dept. of Economics, University of British Columbia, Canada
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Wages for more- and less-educated workers have followed strikingly different paths in the U.S. and Canada. During the 1980's and 1990's, the ratio of earnings of university graduates to high school graduates increased sharply in the U.S. but fell slightly in Canada. Katz and Murphy (1992) found that for the U.S. a simple supply-demand model fit the...
Article
Nous utilisons des données brutes sur les flux de travail afin de faire une analyse comparée des marchés du travail canadien et américain sur la période 1976 à 1994. Même si l'augmentation relative du chômage au Canada est en partie associée aux changements relatifs des transitions de probabilités entre les situations de chômage et d'emploi (dans l...
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This article provides an introduction to the volume on the Canada-US umemployment rate gap. It is divided into three parts. The first examines comparative labour market trends in Canada and the United States. The second reviews the factors that have been advanced to explain the gap, categorizing explanations into three types: measurement issues, de...
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Little is known about the effect of unemployment insurance on employment durations. In this paper, the authors take advantage of a unique accidental experiment in the Canadian unemployment insurance system which created an exogenous increase in the entrance requirement (the number of weeks an individual must work to qualify for benefits) of up to f...
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This paper carries out a comparative Canada-United States analysis of aggregate labour market dynamics using gross flows data. We find that there are many similarities in the behaviour of the flows among the states employment (E), unemployment (U), and out-of-the-labour-force (N) in the two countries, including the cyclical and seasonal features. I...
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During the 1980s a substantial gap emerged between unemployment rates in Canada and the United States. In this paper, we use microdata from labour force surveys at the beginning and the end of the decade to examine the sources of the emergent gap.
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This article explores the measurement of labor force dynamics using longitudinal data, focusing in particular on the Canadian Labour Market Activity Survey (LMAS), which represents a potential advance in longitudinal data collection because it measures aspects of dynamics not available in existing panel data such as the Panel Study of Income Dynami...
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This article provides an overview of the Canadian unemployment insurance program, including its evolution, salient features, relative size, and knowledge about its labor-market impacts. Understanding of these impacts is limited and the authors conclude that an event-study approach is a promising way to further this knowledge. They examine the effec...
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The paper focuses on satisfaction with income and proposes a utility model built on two value systems, the `Ego' system - described as one own income assessment relatively to one own past and future income - and the `Alter' system - described as one own income assessment relatively to a reference group. We show how the union of these two value syst...
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The impact of unionization on male-female earnings differences in Canada is analyzed using data spanning 1981 to 1988, a period in which the male-female unionization gap narrowed considerably. Gender differences in union density, union wages, and nonunion wages are decomposed into characteristics-related and discriminatory components. We find that...
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This paper discusses the design, implementation, and administration of comparable worth legislation in Canada, focusing particular attention on the potential of comparable worth to close the male-female earnings gap. The authors document the Canadian legislative initiatives, provide illustrative evidence on the impact of comparable worth, and ident...
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Evidence relating unemployment to health is found at every level of social science analysis from national population rates to individual psychophysiological stress response. At the population level of analysis, increase in the unemployment rate indicates recession and/or structural economic decline. At the individual level, unemployment is interpre...