Vratislav Hurai

Vratislav Hurai
Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia · Institute of Earth Sciences

DrSc.

About

118
Publications
23,071
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Introduction
My research is focused on deciphering origin of minerals, using fluid inclusions, isotopes, Raman spectrometry, and thermodynamics applied to magmatic and metamorphic rocks, and ore deposits. We maintain an electronic Atlas of magmatic rocks (www.atlas-hornin.sk/en/home). Any suggestions and proposals for new rock entries would be greatly appreciated.
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - present
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Position
  • Senior Researcher
January 2007 - June 2012
Comenius University Bratislava
Position
  • Associate professor (part time)
January 2001 - December 2006
Comenius University Bratislava
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 1975 - July 1979
Comenius University Bratislava
Field of study
  • mineralogy, geochemistry, ore deposits

Publications

Publications (118)
Book
Full-text available
Galvanizes direct methods (fluid inclusion microthermometry and spectroscopy) and indirect methods (thermodynamics, stable isotopes) within geofluid research KEY FEATURES  Features working examples in each chapter with step-by-step explanations and calculations  Broad range of case studies aid the analytical and experimental data  Includes appen...
Article
Sulfur-bearing methane inclusions with up to 68 mol% H2S in metamorphic quartzite from Bastar Craton (India) exhibit common v1 vibration modes of H2S and CH4 at 2609 cm-1 and 2919 cm-1, respectively, associated with unknown Raman bands at 2488, 2503, 2574, and 2899 cm-1. The fluid inclusions generate molecular hydrogen and surplus sulfur during irr...
Article
Full-text available
Skarnoid calc-silicate xenoliths composed of anorthite, clinopyroxene and Mg-Al spinel occur in alkali basalts of the Pliocene-Pleistocene intra-plate magmatic province in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin. Randomly oriented and elongated pseudomorphs are tschermakite crystals replaced by olivine, spinel and plagioclase. The relict amphibole...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the first observation of primary magmatic aragonite in carbonatite and carbonated syenite, occurring as xenoliths in a Pliocene basaltic diatreme located near the Hungary–Slovakia border. The aragonite-hosting matrix consists of disordered P-rich calcite, occasionally associated with trachyte glass. We interpret the aragonite growth as...
Article
Full-text available
A plagioclase megacryst containing composite crystal-glass inclusions was ejected in a Pliocene basaltic diatreme in the Carpathian back-arc basin (Pannonian Basin). The megacryst grew from phonolitic melt, relics of which are preserved in the crystal-glass inclusions. Most of the pristine melt has undergone substantial compositional resetting by i...
Data
Supplementary Figures to the article by Hurai et al. (2022) Carbonatite-melilitite-phosphate immiscible melts from aragonite stability field entrained from the mantle by a Pliocene basalt
Article
Full-text available
Here, we report on the first radiometric dating of pre-Quaternary sinters covering the ENE-WSW striking vertical faults filled with Upper Badenian sands (neptunian dykes) in Mesozoic carbonates of the Devín quarry in the Malé Karpaty Mountains. The 238 U/ 206 Pb age of 13.98±0.56 Ma fits well with the former age prediction based on biostratigraphic...
Data
SUPPLEMENTARY Tables for Carbonatite-melilitite-phosphate immiscible melts from aragonite stability field entrained from the mantle by a Pliocene basalt
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The Lakehsiah mining district is hosted in Early Cambrian volcano-sedimentary units (CVSU) of the Kashmar–Kerman zone, Central Iran. The Kashmar-Kerman belt is located between the Yazd block in the west and the Tabas block in the east and it is parallel to the Poshed badam, Tabas and Kalmard faults in the north and Koh Banan and Zarand...
Article
Full-text available
The accessory mineral assemblage (AMA) of igneous cumulate xenoliths in volcanoclastic deposits and lava flows in the Carpathian back-arc basin testifies to the composition of intrusive complexes sampled by Upper Miocene-Pliocene basalt volcanoes. The magmatic reservoir beneath Pinciná maar is composed of gabbro, moderately alkalic to alkali-calcic...
Article
Full-text available
The Evate deposit is a Neoproterozoic (~590 Ma) magnetite-apatite-carbonate body emplaced parallel to foliation of the Monapo granulite complex in NE Mozambique. A complicated history of the deposit is recorded in apatite textures visualized in cathodoluminescence (CL) images. In spite of different solid and fluid inclusions, mineral assemblages, a...
Article
Fluid inclusion and mineral thermobarometric study supplemented by U-Th-total Pb monazite dating has been carried out in country rocks of the Evate carbonatite, which is an example of a Neoproterozoic (~590 Ma) orogenic carbonatite formed within a post-collisional tectonic setting in the Monapo granulite complex of NE Mozambique. The fluid inclusio...
Article
Full-text available
The Tatric Superunit of the Western Carpathians hosts many ore deposits and occurrences. Inspection of innumerable surface and underground outcrops, drill cores, and hand specimens in the past allowed to distinguish these mineralisation stages, ordered from the oldest to the youngest ones: molybdenite, scheelite, arsenopyrite-pyrite-gold, stibnite-...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The Lakeh-Siah iron± apatite deposit is located in the Bafq-Saghand Metallogenic Province (Central Iran) and situated within rhyolitic rocks. Magnetite with minor apatite are the main ore minerals in this deposit. Monazite and xenotime minerals in microscopic scale formed as inclusion in the apatite and magnetite crystals and micro-fractu...
Article
Full-text available
The Lakeh-Siah iron± apatite deposit is located in the Bafq-Saghand Metallogenic Province (Central Iran) and situated within rhyolitic rocks. Magnetite with minor apatite are the main ore minerals in this deposit. Monazite and xenotime minerals in microscopic scale formed as inclusions in the apatite and magnetite crystals and micro-fractures. Base...
Article
Full-text available
The damage zones of exhumed strike-slip faults dissecting Jurassic carbonates in the southwestern part of the Late Palaeozoic Holy Cross Mountains Fold Belt reveal second-order faults and fractures infilled with syntectonic calcite. The subsequent development of a structural pattern of microscopic fault-related structures and calcite infillings ref...
Article
Full-text available
Two types of scapolite occur in the Evate carbonatite deposit – the largest resource of apatite in south-east Africa. Calc-silicate rocks composed of amphiboles (hastingsite, hornblende, actinolite, and pargasite), diopside, Ba-rich phlogopite, allanite, epidote, apatite, K-feldspar, titanite, and minor calcite, also contain scapolite with 62–74 mo...
Article
Full-text available
In the online published article, the name of one of the co-authors Katarína Šarinová was incorrectly published as Katarina Paranoia. The correct name is given below.
Article
U–Pb ages of zircons recovered from Pliocene pyroclastic deposits in northern part of the Cenozoic intra-Carpathian back-arc basin (Pannonian Basin) span the interval from Pliocene (2.2 Ma) to Paleoproterozoic (Orosirian–Rhyacian, 1850–2115 Ma). The scattered U–Pb ages reflect eruption ages of the host basaltic volcanic centres, two episodes of pos...
Article
Full-text available
A1-type granite xenoliths occur in alkali basalts erupted during Pliocene-Pleistocene continental rifting of Carpathian back-arc basin (Central Europe). The Pliocene (5.2 Ma) peraluminous calc-alkalic granite contains unusually high concentrations of critical metals bound in Nb, Ta, REE, U, Th-oxides typical for silica-undersaturated alkalic granit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Evate carbonatite deposit is located in the Monapo structure in Mozambique. As calcite and dolomite are the major mineral phases, the rock can be classified as calciocarbonatite and ferric calciocarbonatite. Apatite, olivine, amphibole, phlogopite, magnetite, ilmenite, anhydrite and spinel are other abundant minerals of the carbonatite and asso...
Article
Natural H2S-CH4 inclusions enclosed in quartz were transformed into H2-CH4 mixture with none or negligible H2S concentration after short irradiation of associated sulphur daughter phase with 532 nm photons emitted by a 25mW Nd-YAG laser. As much as 57 mol. % (73.8 wt. %) H2S in the gas inclusions was converted to its constituent elements in sulphur...
Article
Full-text available
Feldspar megacrysts in Late Miocene-Pliocene maars, diatremes and basaltic lava flows in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin span the composition range from Na-sanidine, through anorthoclase to oligoclase and andesine. Newly formed An82 plagioclase (bytownite) crystallized within composite melt inclusions hosted by the oligoclase. Powder X-ray...
Article
Full-text available
Zirconolite is documented from the Evate apatite-magnetite-carbonate deposit in the circular Monapo Klippe (eastern Mozambique)—a relic of Neoproterozoic nappe thrusted over the Mesoproterozoic basement of the Nampula block. Zirconolite enriched in rare earth elements—REE = Y + Lu+ΣLa–Yb (up to 24.11 wt% REE2O3, 0.596 apfu REE) creates thin rims ar...
Article
A total of 25 inorganic (painting pigment and substrate) and organic components (binding and glaze) have been identified in the Main Altar of the St. James Church – the highest Gothic altar of the World. Micro-sampling of the first wood panel depicting Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane), the third one depicting Christ Crowned with Thorns, and the...
Article
Full-text available
Anorogenic granite xenoliths occur in alkali basalts coeval with the Pliocene–Pleistocene continental rifting of the Pannonian Basin. Observed granite varieties include peraluminous, calcic to peralkalic, magnesian to ferroan types. Quartz and feldspars are dominant rock-forming minerals, accompanied by minor early ilmenite and late magnetite–ulvös...
Data
Electron probe microanalyses, crystallochemical formulas of alkalic pyroxenes, alkalic oxo-fluoro-amphiboles, feldspars and apatites
Article
Full-text available
Peralkaline, Si-oversaturated, Al-depleted (sodium metasilicate-normative) granite xenoliths in Pleistocene alkali basalts of the Carpathian back-arc basin (Pannonian Basin) represent a new type of igneous rocks in Western Carpathians. Investigated granites contain skeletal K-feldspars associated with quartz, pyroxene, amphibole and fluorapatite. N...
Article
The Evate deposit represents the largest resource of apatite in south-east Africa (155 Mt. ore grading 9.3 wt.% P2O5) accumulated in up to 100 m thick magnetite-carbonate-apatite horizons conformable to the granulitic gneiss of the Monapo Klippe. Baddeleyite and zircon from early iron-oxide (magnetite, geikielite, spinel), apatite- and forsterite-b...
Chapter
This chapter is dedicated to the Raman and infrared spectroscopy—fundamental tools in the geofluid research. Basic principles of both methods are explained in terms of classical electrodynamical and quantum-mechanical models. Vibration and absorption modes are illustrated on the example of common gas molecules and their mixtures. Raman spectra of g...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter is devoted to the reduction and interpretation of fluid and melt inclusion microthermometry data. Special emphasis is given to the calculation of trapping temperature and pressure of heterogeneous and homogeneous fluids. Trends in microthermometric data from aqueous and hydrocarbon inclusions are analyzed and explained. Working example...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter 9 is dedicated to stable isotope geochemistry of geofluid reservoirs and their evolution during mixing and fluid–rock interactions. Theoretical aspects of the stable isotope fractionation are provided to describe the behavior of fluids in open and closed reservoirs, and during magmatic and hydrothermal devolatilization. Models are calculate...
Chapter
This chapter is devoted to the description of fluid pressure–volume–temperature relationships using equations of state. A brief history of research is outlined, starting with formulations of a series of gas laws during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and ending with the invention of modern equations of state, which permit properties of ge...
Chapter
This chapter deals with practical aspects of fluid inclusion microthermometric research. Geofluids are treated here as isochoric and isoplethal systems, and phase transformations on cooling and heating are documented in various types of fluid and melt inclusions. Sample calculations of fluid inclusion volumes, densities, volumetric phase ratios, an...
Chapter
Chapter 8 summarizes principles of various spectroscopic and chromatographic methods that are useful in the geofluid research: crush-leach analysis of aqueous inclusions, mass-spectrometric analysis of inclusion gases, and laser ablation mass-spectrometric analyses of aqueous fluids and silicate melts. Practical examples involve cation-exchange the...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter is an introduction to the basic terminology needed for understanding the following chapters. The definition of geofluids, a brief history of their scientific research, and trapping mechanisms of fluids in growing minerals are outlined. Classification schemes of fluid inclusions are provided, and basic state properties of geofluids comp...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes geofluids in terms of thermodynamic systems. Emphasis is given to unusual phase properties of water, which play an important role in biological processes and the transport and deposition of minerals in the Earth's crust. Phase diagrams of water-salt, water-gas, hydrocarbon, and silicate melt systems are presented to describe...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the theoretical background needed to calculate mineral–fluid thermodynamic equilibria. At the outset, additional state properties are defined using thermodynamic laws, and the free-energy change of a reaction is defined as a function of enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity. Working examples include calculations of equilibriu...
Article
Full-text available
Petrogenetic association of post-orogenic A1-type granitoids genetically related to continental rifting and mantle-derived mafic magmas was recognized for the first time in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin. The variegated rock suite comprises syenite, orthopyroxene-rich, charnockite-resembling granite (pincinite), and subalkalic granite str...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Evate carbonatite deposit located within the Monapo Klippe (structure) in the Nampula province is the largest phosphate deposit of southeast Africa. The deposit is 3 km long and 850 m wide. Phosphate-rich zones, 5-100 m thick, occur within marble horizons conformable to gneisses of the Metachéria Complex. The phosphate-rich zones contain REE-ri...
Article
Sodic metasomatites (albitites) occur around and within siderite veins in the southern part of the Gemeric tectonic unit of the Western Carpathians. Accessory minerals of the metasomatites represented by monazite, zircon, apatite, rutile, tourmaline and siderite are basically identical with the quartz-tourmaline stage of other siderite and stibnite...
Article
Full-text available
Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasoma-tised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were...
Article
Full-text available
A honey-yellow hydroxylclinohumite from ruby-bearing marbles of the Luc Yen district in northern Vietnam was characterized by electron microprobe (EPMA), single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The studied crystals correspond to nearly ideal clinohumite with the structural formula 4[M...
Article
Full-text available
The age of intraplate volcanism in northern Pannonian Basin of Carpathians is revisited using a combination of zircon U/Pb, zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite (U-Th)/He dating techniques, complemented by electron microprobe (EMP) characterization of dated minerals. A total of six maar structures and diatremes in the South-Slovakian Volcanic Field (SSVF)...
Article
Crnac is an intermediate sulfidation Pb–Zn–Ag epithermal deposit located within the Vardar suture zone of the Central Balkan Peninsula. The epithermal Pb–Zn–Ag mineralization consists of (i) a series of steeply-dipping veins hosted within the Jurassic amphibolites, and (ii) overlying hydrothermal-explosive breccia with angular (level IV) or rounded...
Data
Crnac is an intermediate sulfidation Pb–Zn–Ag epithermal deposit located within the Vardar suture zone of the Central Balkan Peninsula. The epithermal Pb–Zn–Ag mineralization consists of (i) a series of steeply-dipping veins hosted within the Jurassic amphibolites, and (ii) overlying hydrothermal-explosive breccia with angular (level IV) or rounded...
Article
The Palaeozoic sedimentary sequence of the Prague synform (Ordovician/Devonian) in the centre of the Bohemian massif underwent Variscan deformation and thermal overprint events. Variscan veins widespread throughout the sedimentary strata have precipitated from syntectonic aqueous and hydrocarbon-rich fluids. Homogenization temperatures of aqueous i...
Article
Lacustrine sediments of the Hajnácka I maar of southern Slovakia contain teeth and skeletal remains of a mammal fauna, including index Early Villanyian arvicoline rodents. U–Pb dating of magmatic zircons extracted from the redeposited fossiliferous maar sediments revealed a total of six volcanic events. The oldest age of 3.43 Ma was interpreted as...
Article
Full-text available
Basal hydraulic breccias of alpine thin-skinned Muráň nappe were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence petrography, stable isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusions analysis. Our study reveals an unusual dynamic fluid regime along basal thrust plane during final episode of the nappe emplacement over its metamorphic substratum. Basal thrustin...
Article
Primary fluid inclusions in metasomatic magnesite deposits hosted in Palaeozoic basement of the Western Carpathians are filled with of low-to-moderately saline aqueous solutions, with locally increased CO2 concentrations (up to 34 mol.%). Brine inclusions with up to 42 wt.% of dissolved salts are less frequent. K/Na ratios in the fluid inclusion le...
Article
Full-text available
Baddeleyite occurs together with anorthoclase and sanidine in reaction corona developed around zircon crystal separated from the Hajnáčka-Kostná dolina maar located in the Cerová vrchovina Upland. Chemically homogeneous baddeleyite, without signs of metamictization, contains 96.7-98.3 wt. % ZrO2 and minor amounts of Ti, Hf and REE as main impuritie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Quenched carbonatite melts occur in basaltic diatreme near Hajnáčka village in the Lučenec basin of southern Slovakia. The 2.60– 2.75 Ma old diatreme (Konečný et al., 1995; Vass et al., 2000) together with spatialy associated monogenic maars and lava flows belong to the alkali basalt volcanic province of the intra-Carpathian back-arc basin (the Pan...
Article
Full-text available
Sulphidic skarn in an exo-contact zone between diorite and Triassic carbonates contains the Mn-rich minerals ferroan alabandite (Mn0.84-0.89Fe0.11-0.16S), manganoferroan sphalerite (Zn0.37-0.76Mn0.01-0.36Fe0.22-0.28S), hübnerite, manganoan magnesiohornblende, and Mn-carbonates. The Mn-content in sphalerite (up to 21.4 wt. %) is the highest ever rec...
Article
Phreatomagmatic eruptions in the Lučenec Basin in Slovakia ejected fragments of igneous rocks of unknown age and ranging in composition from gabbro to syenite and orthopyroxene granodiorite – pincinite. Two kinds of syenites with different Fe3+ contents composed of anorthoclase and interstitial metaluminous trachyte-to-alkali rhyolite glass represe...