# Volodymyr VovchenkoUniversity of Houston | U of H, UH · Department of Physics

Volodymyr Vovchenko

PhD

## About

210

Publications

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3,220

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Introduction

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Education

September 2007 - June 2013

## Publications

Publications (210)

We propose a new method to investigate the existence and location of the conjectured high-temperature critical point of strongly interacting matter via contours of constant entropy density. By approximating these lines as a power series in the baryon chemical potential $\mu_B$, one can extrapolate them from first-principle results at zero net-baryo...

This work studies the influence of an external magnetic field on hadron yields and fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas by performing calculations within an updated version of the open-source package. The presence of the magnetic field has a sizable influence on certain hadron yield ratios. Most notably, it leads to enhanced p / π and suppressed...

This work presents a formalism to compute spatial $n$-point correlations of a conserved charge density in a large thermal system in the canonical ensemble, with explicit results presented up to 4th order. The resulting correlators contain local and balancing terms expressed through the grand-canonical susceptibilities for any equation of state. The...

The chemical freeze-out curve in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the context of QCD critical point (CP) search at finite baryon densities. Taking the hadron resonance gas picture at face value, chemical freeze-out points at a given baryochemical potential provide a lower bound on the possible temperature of the QCD CP. We first verify that...

In this study, we assess the effectiveness and robustness of the recently proposed $T'$-expansion scheme for expanding the equation of state of strongly interacting matter to finite density, by comparing its performance relative to the conventional Taylor expansion method in various effective QCD models. We use baryon number density and its suscept...

The possibility that nuclear matter might be quarkyonic is considered. Quarkyonic matter is high baryon density matter that is confined but can be approximately thought of as a filled Fermi sea of quarks surrounded by a shell of nucleons. Here, nuclear matter is described by the IdylliQ sigma model for quarkyonic matter, generalizing the noninterac...

We analyze particle number fluctuations in the crossover region near the critical endpoint of a first-order phase transition by utilizing molecular dynamics simulations of the classical Lennard-Jones fluid. We extend our previous study [V. A. Kuznietsov , ] by incorporating longitudinal collective flow. The scaled variance of particle number distri...

Subensemble Acceptance Method (SAM) [1, 2] is an essential link between measured event-by-event fluctuations and their grand canonical theoretical predictions such as lattice QCD. The method allows quantifying the global conservation law effects in fluctuations. In its basic formulation, SAM requires a sufficiently large system such as created in c...

We overview recent theoretical developments in the search for QCD critical point at finite temperature and density, including from lattice QCD, effective QCD theories, and proton number cumulants in heavy-ion collisions. We summarize the available constraints and predictions for the critical point location and discuss future challenges and opportun...

We study the influence of an external magnetic field on hadron yields and fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas by performing calculations within an updated version of the open-source Thermal-FIST package. The presence of the magnetic field has a sizable influence on certain hadron yield ratios. Most notably, it leads to enhanced $ p/pi$ and suppr...

We analyze particle number fluctuations in the crossover region near the critical endpoint of a first-order phase transition by utilizing molecular dynamics simulations of the classical Lennard-Jones fluid. We extend our previous study [V.A. Kuznietsov et al., Phys. Rev. C 105, 044903 (2022)] by incorporating longitudinal collective flow. The scale...

The effects of a finite system volume on thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, energy density, specific heat, speed of sound, conserved charge susceptibilities, and correlations, in hot and dense strongly interacting matter are studied within the parity-doublet chiral mean field model. Such an investigation is motivated by relativistic he...

We incorporate the empirical low-density properties of isospin symmetric nuclear matter into the excluded-volume model for quarkyonic matter by including attractive mean field in the nucleonic sector and considering variations on the nucleon excluded volume mechanism. This corresponds to the quantum van der Waals equation for nucleons with the inte...

It is demonstrated that the presence of a phase transition in heavy ion collisions, at beam energies that probe dense QCD matter, leads to a significant enhancement of the dilepton yield at low invariant mass and low beam energies per produced pion due to the extended emission time.
In addition, the temperature of low mass dileptons shows a modest...

We incorporate the empirical low-density properties of isospin symmetric nuclear matter into the excluded-volume model for quarkyonic matter by including attractive mean field in the nucleonic sector and considering variations on the nucleon excluded volume mechanism. This corresponds to the quantum van der Waals equation for nucleons, with the int...

The effects of a finite system volume on thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, energy density, specific heat, speed of sound, conserved charge susceptibilities and correlations, in hot and dense strongly interacting matter are studied within the parity-doublet Chiral Mean Field (CMF) model. Such an investigation is motivated by relativist...

Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a finite nonrelativistic system of particles with Lennard-Jones potential. We study the effect of liquid-gas mixed phase on particle number fluctuations in coordinate subspace. A metastable region of the mixed phase, the so-called nucleation region, is analyzed in terms of a noninteracting cluster mo...

We study the equation of state of a mixture of (quasi-)free constituent quarks and nucleons with hard-core repulsion at zero temperature. Two opposite scenarios for the realization of the Pauli exclusion principle are considered: (i) a Fermi sea of quarks surrounded by a shell of baryons – the quarkyonic matter, and (ii) a Fermi sea of nucleons sur...

Hot QCD physics studies the nuclear strong force under extreme temperature and densities. Experimentally these conditions are achieved via high-energy collisions of heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In the past decade, a unique and substantial suite of data was collected at RHIC and the LH...

Molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a finite non-relativistic system of particles with Lennard-Jones potential. We study the effect of liquid-gas mixed phase on particle number fluctuations in coordinate subspace. A metastable region of the mixed phase, the so-called nucleation region, is analyzed in terms of a non-interacting cluster...

This White Paper presents the community inputs and scientific conclusions from the Hot and Cold QCD Town Meeting that took place September 23-25, 2022 at MIT, as part of the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) 2023 Long Range Planning process. A total of 424 physicists registered for the meeting. The meeting highlighted progress in Quantum Ch...

Prediction for hyper nuclei multiplicities from GSI to LHC energies from the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model combined with a final state coalescence approach is presented and compared to the thermal model. The influence of the coalescence radius on the collision energy and centrality dependence of the Λ³H/ΛΛ3H/Λ ratio is...

Subensemble is a type of statistical ensemble which is the generalization of grand canonical and canonical ensembles. The subensemble acceptance method (SAM) provides general formulas to correct the cumulants of distributions in heavy-ion collisions for the global conservation of all QCD charges. The method is applicable for an arbitrary equation o...

We investigate extensions of the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) Model beyond the ideal case by incorporating both attractive and repulsive interactions into the model. When considering additional states exceeding those measured with high confidence by the Particle Data Group, attractive corrections to the overall pressure in the HRG model are imposed....

We present an overview of recent theoretical results on fluctuations of conserved charges in heavy-ion collisions obtained in relativistic hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics frameworks. In particular, we discuss the constraints on the location of the QCD critical point based on comparisons of experimental data on proton number cumulants with prec...

The time evolution of particle number fluctuations in nuclear collisions at intermediate energies (Elab=1.23–10AGeV) is studied by means of the UrQMD-3.5 transport model. The transport description incorporates baryonic interactions through a density-dependent potential. This allows for an implementation of a first-order phase transition including a...

The nuclear equation of state (EOS) is at the center of numerous theoretical and experimental efforts in nuclear physics. With advances in microscopic theories for nuclear interactions, the availability of experiments probing nuclear matter under conditions not reached before, endeavors to develop sophisticated and reliable transport simulations to...

A comparison of light hypernuclei production, from Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD)+coalescence and the thermal model, in heavy ion collisions over a wide range of beam energies and system sizes is presented. We find that both approaches provide generally similar results, with differences in specific details. Especially the rat...

This work incorporates the effect of short-range repulsion between particles into the Cooper-Frye hadron sampling procedure. This is achieved by means of a rejection sampling step, which prohibits any pair of particles from overlapping in the coordinate space, effectively modeling the effect of hard-core repulsion. The new procedure—called the fist...

We study the equation of state of a mixture of (quasi-)free constituent quarks and nucleons with hard-core repulsion at zero temperature. Two opposite scenarios for the realization of the Pauli exclusion principle are considered: (i) a Fermi sea of quarks surrounded by a shell of baryons -- the quarkyonic matter, and (ii) a Fermi sea of nucleons su...

The time evolution of particle number fluctuations in nuclear collisions at intermediate energies ($E_{\rm lab} = 1.23-10A$ GeV) is studied by means of the UrQMD-3.5 transport model. The transport description incorporates an implementation of baryonic interactions through a density-dependent potential. This allows for a consistent implementation of...

We investigate extensions of the Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) Model beyond the ideal case by incorporating both attractive and repulsive interactions into the model. When considering additional states exceeding those measured with high confidence by the Particle Data Group, attractive corrections to the overall pressure in the HRG model are imposed....

Since the release of the 2015 Long Range Plan in Nuclear Physics, major events have occurred that reshaped our understanding of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and nuclear matter at large densities, in and out of equilibrium. The US nuclear community has an opportunity to capitalize on advances in astrophysical observations and nuclear experiments and...

The centrality dependence of the p/π ratio measured by the ALICE Collaboration in 5.02 TeV Pb-Pb collisions indicates a statistically significant suppression with the increase of the charged multiplicity once the centrality-correlated part of the systematic uncertainty is eliminated from the data. We argue that this behavior can be attributed to ba...

The centrality dependence of the $p/\pi$ ratio measured by the ALICE Collaboration in 5.02 TeV Pb-Pb collisions indicates a statistically significant suppression with the increase of the charged multiplicity once the centrality-correlated part of the systematic uncertainty is eliminated from the data. We argue that this behavior can be attributed t...

A comparison of light hypernuclei production, from UrQMD+coalescence and the thermal model, in heavy ion collisions over a wide range of beam energies and system sizes is presented. We find that both approaches provide generally similar results, with differences in specific details. Especially the ratios of hypertriton to $\Lambda$ are affected by...

Subensemble is a type of statistical ensemble which is the generalization of grand canonical and canonical ensembles. The subensemble acceptance method (SAM) provides general formulas to correct the cumulants of distributions in heavy-ion collisions for the global conservation of all QCD charges. The method is applicable for an arbitrary equation o...

I present an overview of recent theoretical results on fluctuations of conserved charges in heavy-ion collisions obtained in relativistic hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics frameworks. In particular, I discuss the constraints on the location of the QCD critical point based on comparisons of experimental data on proton number cumulants with precis...

It is demonstrated that the presence of a phase transition in heavy ion collisions, at beam energies that probe dense QCD matter, leads to a significant enhancement of the dilepton yield per produced pion due to the extended emission time. In addition, the temperature of low mass dileptons shows a modest decrease due to the mixed phase. The emissio...

In order to complete the Beam Energy Scan (BES) physics program, including the search for the QCD critical point, the extraction of the hyperon-nucleon interaction, and the determination of constraints on the nuclear matter equation of state at high baryon density, active US participation in the international collaboration of the Compressed Baryoni...

This work incorporates the effect of short-range repulsion between particles into the Cooper-Frye hadron sampling procedure. This is achieved by means of a rejection sampling step, which prohibits any pair of particles from overlapping in the coordinate space, effectively modeling the effect of hard-core repulsion. The new procedure -- called the F...

We analyze the behavior of (net-)proton number cumulants in central collisions of heavy ions across a broad collision energy range by utilizing hydrodynamic simulations. The calculations incorporate essential non-critical contributions to proton fluctuations such as repulsive baryonic core and exact baryon number conservation. The experimental data...

We develop a framework to relate proton number cumulants measured in heavy-ion collisions within a momentum space acceptance to the susceptibilities of baryon number, assuming that particles are emitted from a fireball with uniform distribution of temperature and baryochemical potential, superimposed on a hydrodynamic flow velocity profile. The rap...

We study fluctuations of particle number in the presence of a critical point by utilizing molecular dynamics simulations of the classical Lennard-Jones fluid in a periodic box. The numerical solution of the N-body problem naturally incorporates all correlations, exact conservation laws, and finite size effects, allowing us to study the fluctuation...

We point out how proton number cumulants measured in heavy-ion collisions within a momentum space acceptance can be related to the grand-canonical cumulants of baryon number, assuming that particles are emitted from a fireball with uniform distribution of temperature and baryochemical potential, superimposed on a hydrodynamic flow velocity profile....

We present results of a phase space coalescence approach within the UrQMD transport and -hybrid model for a very wide range of beam energies from SIS to LHC. The coalescence model is able to qualitatively describe the whole range of experimental data with a fixed set of parameters. Some systematic deviations are observed for very low beam energies...

We point out that the variance of net-baryon distribution normalized by the Skellam distribution baseline, κ2[B−B¯]/〈B+B¯〉, is sensitive to the possible modification of (anti)baryon yields due to BB¯ annihilation in the hadronic phase. The corresponding measurements can thus place stringent limits on the magnitude of the BB¯ annihilation and its in...

We study fluctuations of particle number in the presence of critical point by utilizing molecular dynamics simulations of the classical Lennard-Jones fluid in a periodic box. The numerical solution of the $N$-body problem naturally incorporates all correlations, exact conservation laws, and finite size effects, allowing us to study the fluctuation...

The creation of loosely bound objects in heavy ion collisions, e.g. light clusters, near the phase transition temperature (Tch≈155 MeV) has been a puzzling observation that seems to be at odds with Big Bang nucleosynthesis suggesting that deuterons and other clusters are formed only below a temperature T≈0.1−1 MeV. We solve this puzzle by showing t...

We investigate the chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions (HICs) and the impact of the hadronic spectrum on thermal model analyses. Detailed knowledge of the hadronic spectrum is still an open question, which has phenomenological consequences on the study of HICs. By varying the number of resonances included in Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) Model...

We present a dynamical description of (anti)proton number cumulants and correlation functions in central Au-Au collisions at sNN=7.7–200GeV by utilizing viscous hydrodynamics simulations. The cumulants of proton and baryon number are calculated in a given momentum acceptance analytically, via an appropriately extended Cooper-Frye procedure describi...

This paper introduces the subensemble acceptance method 2.0 (SAM-2.0)—a procedure to correct cumulants of a random number distribution inside a subsystem for the effect of exact global conservation of a conserved quantity to which this number is correlated, with applications to measurements of event-by-event fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. Th...

Utilizing viscous hydrodynamic simulations of heavy-ion collisions, we study the behavior of cumulants of (net-)(anti)proton number distributions at RHIC beam energy scan energies, incorporating non-critical contributions like baryon conservation and excluded volume. The experimental data on net-proton cumulants at √ S NN > 20 GeV are consistent wi...

We investigate the chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions (HICs) and the impact of the hadronic spectrum on thermal model analyses [1, 2]. Detailed knowledge of the hadronic spectrum is still an open question, which has phenomenological consequences on the study of HICs. By varying the number of resonances included in Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG...

We simultaneously incorporate two common extensions of the hadron resonance gas model, namely the addition of extra, unconfirmed resonances to the particle list, and the excluded volume repulsive interactions. We emphasize the complementary nature of these two extensions and identify combinations of conserved charge susceptibilities that allow us t...

A brief overview of the recent developments concerning theoretical description of event-by-event fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions is presented, with an emphasis on the role of exact conservation laws and calculations based on relativistic hydrodynamics.

The thermal fit to preliminary HADES data of Au+Au collisions at sNN=2.4 GeV shows two degenerate solutions at T≈50 MeV and T≈70 MeV. The analysis of the same particle yields in a transport simulation of the UrQMD model yields the same features, i.e. two distinct temperatures for the chemical freeze-out. While both solutions yield the same number o...

The Beam Energy Scan Theory (BEST) Collaboration was formed with the goal of providing a theoretical framework for analyzing data from the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The physics goal of the BES program is the search for a conjectured QCD critical point as well as f...

We present results of a phase space coalescence approach within the UrQMD transport and -hybrid model for a very wide range of beam energies from SIS to LHC. The coalescence model is able to qualitatively describe the whole range of experimental data with a fixed set of parameters. Some systematic deviations are observed for very low beam energies...

The Beam Energy Scan Theory (BEST) Collaboration was formed with the goal of providing a theoretical framework for analyzing data from the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The physics goal of the BES program is the search for a conjectured QCD critical point as well as f...

We simultaneously incorporate two common extensions of the hadron resonance gas model, namely the addition of extra, unconfirmed resonances to the particle list and the excluded volume repulsive interactions. We emphasize the complementary nature of these two extensions and identify combinations of conserved charge susceptibilities that allow to co...

We present a dynamical description of (anti)proton number fluctuations cumulants and correlation functions in central Au-Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 7.7-200$ GeV by utilizing viscous hydrodynamics simulations. The cumulants of proton and baryon number are calculated in a given momentum acceptance analytically, via an appropriately extende...

We introduce the subensemble acceptance method 2.0 (SAM-2.0) -- a procedure to correct cumulants of a random number distribution inside a subsystem for the effect of exact global conservation of a conserved quantity to which this number is correlated, with applications to measurements of event-by-event fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. The meth...

We point out that the variance of net-baryon distribution normalized by the Skellam distribution baseline, $\kappa_2[B-\bar{B}]/\langle B+\bar{B}\rangle$, is sensitive to the possible modification of (anti)baryon yields due to $B\bar{B}$ annihilation in the hadronic phase. The corresponding measurements can thus place stringent limits on the magnit...

Equation of state and electric (isospin) charge fluctuations are studied for matter composed of interacting pions. The pion matter is described by self interacting scalar fields via a ϕ4−ϕ6-type Lagrangian. The mean-field approximation is used, and interaction parameters are fixed by fitting lattice QCD results on the isospin density as a function...

We study the applicability of a Deep Neural Network (DNN) approach to simulate one-dimensional non-relativistic fluid dynamics. Numerical fluid dynamical calculations are used to generate training data-sets corresponding to a broad range of profiles to perform supervised learning with DNN. The performance of the DNN approach is analyzed, with a foc...

The thermal fit to preliminary HADES data of Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{_{NN}}}=2.4$ GeV shows two degenerate solutions at $T\approx50$ MeV and $T\approx70$ MeV. The analysis of the same particle yields in a transport simulation of the UrQMD model yields the same features, i.e. two distinct temperatures for the chemical freeze-out. While both so...

We revisit the problem of particlization of a QCD fluid into hadrons and resonances at the end of the fluid dynamical stage in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in a context of fluctuation measurements. The existing methods sample an ideal hadron resonance gas, and therefore, they do not capture the non-Poissonian nature of the grand-canonical fluc...

In this note we discuss subtleties associated with the efficiency corrections for measurements of off-diagonal cumulants and factorial moments for a situation when one deals with overlapping sets of particles, such as correlations between numbers of protons and positively charged particles. In particular, we discuss the situation commonly encounter...

General formulas are presented for higher order cumulants of the conserved charge statistical fluctuations inside the mixed phase. As a particular example, the van der Waals model in the grand canonical ensemble is used. The higher order measures of the conserved charge fluctuations up to the hyperkurtosis are calculated in a vicinity of the critic...

We report on recent progress concerning theoretical description of event-by-event fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. Specifically we discuss a new Cooper-Frye particlization routine -- the subensemble sampler -- which is designed to incorporate effects of global conservation laws, thermal smearing and resonance decays on fluctuation measurements...

Equation of state and electric (isospin) charge fluctuations are studied for matter composed of interacting pions. The pion matter is described by self interacting scalar fields via a $\phi^4-\phi^6$ type Lagrangian. The mean-field approximation is used, and interaction parameters are fixed by fitting lattice QCD results on the isospin density as a...

We investigate the possible formation of a Bose-Einstein condensed phase of pions in the early Universe at nonvanishing values of lepton flavor asymmetries. A hadron resonance gas model with pion interactions, based on first-principle lattice QCD simulations at nonzero isospin density, is used to evaluate cosmic trajectories at various values of el...

In this note we discuss subtleties associated with the efficiency corrections for measurements of off-diagonal cumulants and factorial moments for a situation when one deals with overlapping sets of particles, such as correlations between numbers of protons and positively charged particles. In particular, we discuss the situation commonly encounter...

The thermodynamic properties of high temperature and high density QCD-matter are studied using the Chiral SU(3)-flavor parity-doublet Polyakov-loop quark-hadron mean-field model, CMF. The CMF model provides a proper description of lattice QCD data, heavy-ions physics, and static neutron stars. The behavior of lines of constant pressure with increas...

We report on recent progress concerning effects of global conservation laws on cumulants of conserved quantities. Specifically, we will relate for an arbitrary equation of state cumulants of a conserved charge measured in a subvolume of a thermal system with the corresponding grandcanonical susceptibilities, taking into account exact global conserv...

We report on recent progress concerning the theoretical description of event-by-event fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. Specifically, we discuss a new Cooper–Frye particlization routine — the subensemble sampler — which is designed to incorporate effects of global conservation laws, thermal smearing and resonance decays on fluctuation measureme...

We revisit the problem of particlization of a QCD fluid into hadrons and resonances at the end of the fluid dynamical stage in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in a context of fluctuation measurements. The existing methods sample an ideal hadron resonance gas, therefore, they do not capture the non-Poissonian nature of the grand-canonical fluctuat...

We derive the relation between cumulants of a conserved charge measured in a subvolume of a thermal system and the corresponding grand-canonical susceptibilities, taking into account exact global conservation of that charge. The derivation is presented for an arbitrary equation of state, with the assumption that the subvolume is sufficiently large...

General formulas are presented for higher order cumulants of the conserved charge statistical fluctuations inside the mixed phase. As a particular example the van der Waals model in the grand canonical ensemble is used. The higher order measures of the conserved charge fluctuations up to the hyperkurtosis are calculated in a vicinity of the critica...

The QCD equation of state at finite temperature and densities of conserved charges is considered in the framework of a Hagedorn bag-like model, incorporating both the finite sizes of hadrons as well as their exponential mass spectrum. Augmented with non-zero masses of quarks and gluons in the bag spectrum, the model yields a fair quantitative descr...

A bstract
We analyze the behavior of cumulants of conserved charges in a subvolume of a thermal system with exact global conservation laws by extending a recently developed subensemble acceptance method (SAM) [1] to multiple conserved charges. Explicit expressions for all diagonal and off-diagonal cumulants up to sixth order that relate them to the...

The role of repulsive interactions in statistical systems of Bose particles is investigated. Three different phenomenological frameworks are considered: a mean-field model, an excluded volume model, and a model with a medium-dependent effective mass. All three models are tuned to yield similar equations of state, with only minor deviations from the...