VM Balasubramaniam

VM Balasubramaniam
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Food, Agricultural, and Biological Engineering

PhD
OSU Center for Clean Processing Technology. High pressure, Ultrashear technology, superheated steam sanitatitation

About

147
Publications
69,197
Reads
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5,843
Citations
Citations since 2016
43 Research Items
3052 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Additional affiliations
November 2021 - present
United States Department of Agriculture
Position
  • Board Member
Description
  • https://nareeeab.ree.usda.gov/
January 2018 - present
John Wiley And Sons
Position
  • Editor
Description
  • https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Journal+of+Food+Process+Engineering-p-9780J
January 2003 - present
The Ohio State University
Position
  • Professor of Food Engineering
Education
January 1990 - July 1993
The Ohio State University
Field of study
  • Agricultural Engineering
January 1988 - August 1989
Asian Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Post harvest technology
January 1983 - December 1987
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Field of study
  • Agricultural Engineering

Publications

Publications (147)
Article
The efficacy of pressure-heat treatment was evaluated for the inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores in cooked rice. The spores of B. cereus ATCC 9818 were inoculated (1.1 × 10(8) CFU/g) in a parboiled rice product (pH 6.0, water activity of 0.95) and inactivated to an undetectable level (<10 CFU/g) by treatment of 600 MPa and process temperatures...
Article
Pressure ohmic thermal sterilization (POTS) involves ohmic heating of foods by applying an electric field under elevated pressure. Experiments were conducted using a custom made POTS apparatus using carrot as the model food. The samples were processed at a target temperature of 105 °C at 600 MPa and treated for 0, 1, 3, and 5 min by regulating the...
Book
Full-text available
Presents a comprehensive overview of high-pressure processing, an industrially relevant solution to the growing consumer demand for wholesome, fresh-tasting foods, where application of pressure assures food safety Reviews and summarizes current state-of-the-art knowledge, from process engineering, packaging, industrial scale equipment, consumer acc...
Article
High pressure processing has emerged as a versatile technology for food processor use to ensure food safety and preserve various heat sensitive nutrients and bioactive compounds. By carefully controlling pressure-thermal intensity, the treatment helps to reduce product thermal exposure while simultaneously achieving different treatment effects incl...
Research
This fact sheet provides information on how high-pressure processing (HPP) is used to pasteurize food, improve food safety, and enhance food quality.
Technical Report
This fact sheet describes how pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is used to inactivate food microbes or modify the foods’ structures.
Article
Full-text available
Sanitation in dry food processing environments is a major challenge for the industry. The influence of superheated steam (SH) temperatures (125 to 250 °C) on the inactivation of spores on selected coupon surfaces (stainless steel, rubber, and concrete) coated with wheat flour as a model food soil residue was investigated using a bench scale superhe...
Article
Full-text available
Sanitation in dry food processing environments is challenging due to the exclusion of water. Superheated steam (SHS) is a novel sanitation technique that utilizes high temperature steam to inactivate microorganisms. The high sensible heat of SHS prevents condensation on surfaces. Here we evaluated SHS thermal inactivation of various vegetative and...
Article
This study evaluated the feasibility of producing stable protein colloidal dispersion by blending dairy and pea proteins using ultra shear technology (UST). The influence of different UST process parameters (shear, temperature, pressure, and interactions) on the quality attributes of milk and pea protein suspensions of different protein proportions...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the presented study was to determine the ability of the high pressure processing (HPP) for extraction of bioactive compounds from black carrot pomace and to optimize treatment conditions (pressure, temperature, processing time) for obtaining the maximum yield of bioactive compounds. Experiments were conducted using pilot scale high press...
Article
Mycotoxins are a significant threat to food safety and quality. Over the years, mycotoxins have been detected in almost all food and feed crops without any regional barrier. Conventional techniques for decontamination of mycotoxin involve physical, chemical, and biological methods, but these technologies often impact the quality of food in terms of...
Article
Understanding the inactivation kinetics of bacterial spores during combined pressure-thermal processing is essential for process design. The knowledge on the influence of pH and water activity (aw) during combined pressure-thermal treatment is limited. Experiments were conducted using Bacillus cereus spores suspended in citrate-phosphate buffers, a...
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation kinetics of Enterococcus faecium in peanut butter under different water activities (aw) and superheated steam temperatures. Peanut butters were prepared at 4 different water activities (0.19, 0.40, 0.60, and 0.80) and E. faecium was inoculated into the peanut butter (7.4-8.7 log CFU/g)...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of pressure, temperature, shear, and their interactions on selected quality attributes and stability of milk during ultra-shear technology (UST) were investigated. The UST experiments include pressure (400 MPa) treatment of the milk sample preconditioned at 2 different initial temperatures (25°C and 15°C) and subsequently depressurizing...
Article
Full-text available
The combined pressure (0.1 and 600 MPa) and thermal (30, 65, 75, 90, and 105°C) treatment effects on the binding properties of egg‐white avidin were investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy titrations with fluorescein‐labeled biotin for various holding times (up to 45 min). Pressure treatment was carried out in a high‐pressure kinetic tester wh...
Article
Full-text available
Aeration in beverages, which is manifested as foam or bubbles, increases the sensory preference among consumers. They are either entrapped within the beverage or float at the surface. It is a unique feature that allows the product to garner considerable consumer attention and has been appreciated in hot as well as cold beverages. Recent studies hav...
Chapter
High pressure based technologies are of interest, as they enable the food processors to inactivate harmful and spoilage organisms, extend product shelf life, while having minimal impact on nutrients and fresh like quality attributes of foods. However, simultaneous application of pressure-thermal treatment is required for spore inactivation. Pressur...
Article
Full-text available
Different fractions of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) in soybean oil (10–30% w/w) and the addition of 1% salt (sodium chloride) were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure treatments (HP) on the crystallization behaviors and physical properties of the binary mixtures. Sample microstructure, solid fat content (SFC), thermal and rheo...
Article
Experiments were conducted to investigate osmotic dehydration of ginger slices suspended in three different osmotic agents at 0.1–600 MPa and 40 °C for various pressure holding times. A Weibull distribution mathematical model was employed to predict the kinetics of moisture and solute transport during osmotic dehydration of ginger. Increased proces...
Article
A study assessed combined pressure-thermal treatment effect on quality attributes of selected acidified vegetables (banana pepper, red beets and green asparagus) over 30 days storage at 25 °C. Vegetables were acidified by suspending them in pickling liquid either through thermal blanching or 8 h storage at ambient temperature. Subsequently, samples...
Article
Full-text available
Turkish white cheeses after brine salting were subjected to high pressure processing (HPP) at 50, 100, 200 and 400 MPa for 5 and 15 min and the samples pressurized for 15 min were ripened in brine for 60 days. The effects of HPP on the salt distribution in external, middle and internal zones of cheese after pressurization and on the salt uptake of...
Article
The mass transfer kinetics during osmotic dehydration of granny smith apple slices in 60 Brix fructose and sucrose solution was studied at atmospheric pressure and at elevated pressure of 200–600 MPa at 40°C. The moisture and solute fractions in apple slices during osmotic dehydration under high pressure were predicted by Weibull frequency distribu...
Article
A study was conducted to investigate and model kinetic degradation of ascorbic acid in freshly prepared pineapple juice subjected to various pressure (0.1, 300,450 and 600 MPa)-thermal (30, 75, 85 and 95 °C) treatment combinations. Experiments were conducted using a semi-custom made high pressure kinetic tester as well as an aluminum thermal kineti...
Article
Full-text available
Furan, a potential carcinogenic compound, can be formed in array of processed foods. The objective of this study was to conduct kinetic studies in pineapple juice and assess the interactive effects of pressure (0.1 to 600 MPa) and temperature (30 to 120 °C) on furan formation. Additional experiments were carried out in tomato, watermelon, cantaloup...
Article
Full-text available
Fluid foods are a rapidly growing segment serving the needs of consumers’ healthy life style. Though high-pressure pasteurized beverages have been recently commercialized, the batch nature of the technology has been a hurdle for wider adaptation of the technology for high-throughput commodity-oriented beverage products. Further development of conti...
Article
The crystallization behavior of a model fat consisting of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) and soybean oil (SBO) is studied under isobaric cooling (<300 MPa), adiabatic compression (>100 MPa) and atmospheric conditions (0.1 MPa). To monitor the relationship between pressure and the onset of crystallization at both isobaric cooling and adiabat...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the quality attributes of high pressure homogenized whey protein emulsions with and without lecithin. Samples were prepared by mixing whey protein concentrate (10%), soybean oil (0 or 5%) and soy lecithin (0 or 5%). The premixtures were processed by a laboratory scale high pressure homogenizer at various pressures (25, 50, 75,...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of thermal processing (TP) (90 °C, 90 s), high-pressure processing (HPP) (600 MPa, 46 °C, 5 min), and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) (246 MPa, 99 °C, <1 s) on product quality parameters, specifically carotenoid content, and physicochemical attributes of particle size, color, viscosity, total s...
Article
A study was conducted to identify optimal ultrasound processing conditions (ultrasound energy density and temperature) to maximize the extraction of anthocyanin colorants from black carrot pomace. The treatment maximized the yield of five different anthocyanin compounds from black carrot pomace with cyanidin-3-xyloside-galactoside-glucoside-ferruli...
Article
Full-text available
This review examines the combined pressure–thermal effects on thermophysical and crystallization properties of lipids. Pressure treatment transiently accelerates the phase transition and shifts the melting temperature of lipids by 10 °C/100 MPa–20 °C/100 MPa. It also transiently alters various thermophysical properties of lipids including density,...
Article
Full-text available
As consumers demand more minimally processed foods, new nonthermal technologies, including high pressure processing, are promoting the growth of extended shelf life foods.
Article
The impact of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on physical characteristics and emulsion stability of nutritional formulations were evaluated on a pilot scale HPH unit. Two products of industrial interest were used for these experiments. Manufactured formulations were analyzed using material characterization methods as particle size distribution,...
Article
Crystallization mechanism of triglycerides plays an important role in structuring of the plastic fats, such as margarine and shortening. The effects of cooling under high pressure on crystallization and functional properties of a mixture of fully hydrogenated soybean oil and soybean oil (3:7 mass ratio) at 30 °C were investigated and compared again...
Article
Pressure‐assisted thermal processing is an innovative technology, which has been discussed for sterilization of low‐acid foods for over a decade. This approach can result in improved product quality from rapid temperature increase during pressurization and temperature decrease during depressurization. Five plastics (high‐density polyethylene, low‐d...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes research efforts in the experimentation and measurement of various in situ thermophysical properties of food and packaging material subjected to combined pressure-thermal treatment. The properties investigated include heat of compression, compressibility, thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal diffusivity, electrical c...
Chapter
During high pressure processing, the prepackaged food material is pasteurized or sterilized by subjecting it to combined pressure-thermal treatment of different intensity. This chapter summarizes the impact of pressure-thermal treatment on moisture and gas barrier properties, seal and mechanical strength, as well as migration characteristics of the...
Chapter
High-pressure processing has been established as a commercially viable food preservation technology, where application of elevated pressure serves as the main lethal agent for pathogen reduction without compromising nutritional and organoleptic properties of the food. The rapid temperature increase during compression, and subsequent cooling upon de...
Chapter
High-pressure processing (HPP) of food utilizes elevated pressures with or without combination of heat to inactivate harmful pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in their vegetative or spore state. Since the treatment reduces thermal impact, pressure-treated products have better organoleptic attributes. The importance of identifying a relevant sur...
Chapter
High-pressure processing has been adopted by a number of food processors, and the demand for adequate equipment in size and throughput is continuously growing. This chapter provides information on the basic components of industrial-scale high-pressure equipment and how they work. This may help to select appropriate high-pressure systems to match in...
Article
Pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP; 500–700 MPa, 90–121 °C) offers new opportunities to sterilize low-acid foods while preserving quality attributes to an extent greater than is possible with traditional thermal processing (TP). This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of enhancing PATP lethality against the spores of Bacillus a...
Article
Background: A study was conducted to investigate the impact of high pressure (450 and 600 MPa at 30 °C ) and thermal (72, 85 and 99 °C at 0.1 MPa) treatments on dispersive and aggregative characteristics of almond milk. Experiments were conducted using a kinetic pressure testing unit and water bath. Particle size distribution, microstructure, UV a...
Article
Alternative food preservation technologies include substitutes to heating methods that may have benefits that include reduction of energy consumption. High-pressure processing (HPP), membrane filtration (MF), pulsed electric fields (PEF), and ultraviolet radiation (UV) are examples of alternative preservation technologies of growing commercial inte...
Article
Effect of aqueous extracts of pomegranate peel (PPE) and tamarind pulp (TPE) on lethality of pressure assisted thermal processing (PATP) against Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Fad 82 spores was investigated. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores (≈108 CFU ml−1) were suspended in deionized water (DIW), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPE...
Article
Full-text available
High pressure processing (HPP) has emerged as a commercially viable food manufacturing tool that satisfies consumers' demand for mildly processed, convenient, fresh-tasting foods with minimal to no preservatives. Pressure treatment, with or without heat, inactivates pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, yeast, mold, viruses, and also spores and extends...
Article
Background The effect of pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) on the inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores was determined in deionized water, cooked ground beef, egg patty mince, whole milk, and mashed potatoes at 105 °C under 500 and 700 MPa.ResultsThe numbers of G. stearothermophilus spores in deionized water and milk were...
Article
Pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) inactivation kinetics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores in deionized water (DIW) were evaluated for egg patty mince (EPM) and green pea puree (GPP). Recovery of PATP-injured spores during storage was determined. The number of B. amyloliquefaciens spores in DIW was reduced more than 6 log when treated a...
Article
Effects of surface pasteurization on inactivation of Listeria innocua were investigated. Surface temperature, monitored during post-packaging pasteurization, was used to predict the lethality of L. monocytogenes. Temperatures reached 70A degrees C for lean and fat sausages within 9 min of treatment. An inoculation study validated the efficacy of po...
Chapter
High-pressure processing (HPP) retains food quality and natural freshness and extends shelf life. During high-pressure processing, food material is subjected to elevated pressures with or without adding heat to achieve microbial inactivation with minimal damage to the food. Physical compression of the product during the process increases the temper...
Article
Influence of high pressure processing (HPP) at 450 and 600 MPa, 30 degrees C for various holding times (0, 30, 60,180, 300 and 600 s) on almond milk amandin was investigated. The immunoreactivity of pressure treated almond milk was compared with raw and thermally processed (TP) almond milk (72, 85 and 99 degrees C for 0 to 300 s) using a sandwich e...
Article
This study was carried out to isolate pressure- and heat-resistant indicator spores from selected food matrices (black pepper, red pepper, garlic, and potato peel). Food samples were processed under various thermal (90 to 105°C) and pressure (700 MPa) combination conditions, and surviving microorganisms were isolated. An isolate from red pepper pow...
Article
This chapter summarizes some basic principles associated with processing and preservation of food. Most food processes utilize six different unit operations such as heat transfer, fluid flow, mass transfer, mixing, size adjustment and separation. The scope of food processing describes unit operations occurring after harvest of raw materials until t...
Article
A study was conducted to develop an integrated process lethality model for pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP) taking into consideration the lethal contribution of both pressure and heat on spore inactivation. Assuming that the momentary inactivation rate was dependent on the survival ratio and momentary pressure–thermal history, a differen...
Article
The efficacy of a pressure-ohmic-thermal sterilization (POTS) for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spore inactivation was investigated. Spores (2.5 x 10(8) cfu/ml) were inoculated in 0.1% NaCl solution (pH 5.0 and 7.0), green pea puree (pH 6.1), carrot puree (pH 5.0) or tomato juice (pH 4.1). Samples were ohmically (50...
Article
The efficacy of combined pressure–heat treatment was evaluated for the inactivation of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice. A spore crop of B. coagulans 185A was prepared on nutrient agar plus 500 mg L−1 dextrose and 3 mg L−1 MnSO4·H2O, incubated at 50 °C for 7 d. Spores were suspended (1.7 × 108 CFU mL−1) in tomato juice (pH 4.23) and treate...
Article
Pressure-induced textural changes in selected vegetables (carrot, potato, and red radish) were investigated using in situ electrical conductivity measurement. Electrical conductivity of the vegetables was recorded in situ up to 10 min under elevated pressures (200, 400, 600 MPa at 25 °C) using a custom-fabricated experimental setup. The tissue disi...
Article
The objective of this work was to study the effect of nisin, alone or combined with sucrose laurate ester (SL), on enhancing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Fad 82 spores inactivation by pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP). Spores of B. amyloliquefaciens (108 CFU ml−1) were suspended in sterile phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.6) with concentration...
Chapter
High-pressure processing (HPP) is a method of food processing where food is subjected to elevated pressures (up to 87,000 pounds per square inch or approximately 600 MPa), with or without the addition of heat, to achieve microbial inactivation or to alter the food attributes in order to achieve consumer-desired qualities. Unlike high-pressure homog...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the application of dense phase CO 2 (DPCD) technology as an alternative to thermal food preservation. This technology has been applied mostly to liquid foods; however, applications for solid foods exist, and research in this area is accelerating. This chapter first reviews the principles of the DPCD process, its advantages, i...
Article
Full-text available
Grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Macfad) contain several phytochemicals known to have health maintaining properties. Due to the consumer's interest in obtaining high levels of these phytochemicals, it is important to understand the changes in their levels by common household processing techniques. Therefore, mature Texas "Rio Red" grapefruits were proc...
Chapter
High pressure processing (HPP) is an alternative method of food preservation capable of inactivating pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms while maintaining the desirable quality attributes of the product, including nutritional and sensory properties. Depending on the process temperature, HPP can be used for either pasteurization or sterilization...
Article
Role of packaging barrier properties and storage conditions on pressure-assisted thermally processed (PATP) carrot quality were investigated. Samples were packaged in pouches fabricated using three packaging materials (Nylon/EVOH/EVA, Nylon/EVA and MetPET/PE) and processed at 600 MPa and 110 °C for 10 minutes. Processed pouches were stored at 25 an...
Article
Full-text available
Producing a thermally sterilized egg-based product with increased shelf life without losing the sensory and nutritional properties of the freshly prepared product is challenging. Until recently, all commercial shelf-stable egg-based products were sterilized using conventional thermal processing; however, this heat treatment was problematic as quali...
Article
Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric specific heat, and isobaric specific heat of tomato puree, soy protein isolate, soybean oil, guacamole, honey, cream cheese, and sucrose solution under pressure was determined using a dual needle probe from 0.1 to 600 MPa at 25°C. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of tested materials...
Article
Grapefruit juice treated with high pressure processing (HPP), thermal processing (TP) and control (no treatment) was analyzed for the levels of various bioactive compounds and color, during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. The TP treatment juice had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher L* and b* values than HPP and control juice throughout the storage period...
Article
Grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Macfad) contain several phytochemicals known to have health maintaining properties. Due to the consumer's interest in obtaining high levels of these phytochemicals, it is important to understand the changes in their levels by common household processing techniques. Therefore, mature Texas "Rio Red" grapefruits were proc...