Vladislav Andreevitch Ryzhkov

Vladislav Andreevitch Ryzhkov
Tomsk Polytechnic University · Research School of High-Energy Physics and School of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

PhD

About

90
Publications
3,602
Reads
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471
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2018 - February 2021
Tomsk Polytechnic University
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Diagnostics and applications of collectively accelerated ions
July 2013 - March 2017
Independent Researcher
Position
  • CTO/CSO, co-founder
Description
  • Licensed transfer of Rosseter's proprietary technology and sh-MWCNTs for use as additives to thermoplastic composites
March 2003 - July 2013
University of Cyprus
Position
  • visiting reasercher
Description
  • Collaborative works with teams of Prof. A.Efstathiou (Chemistry Department) and Prof. Ch.Doumanidis and Dr. Claus Rebholz (Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department)
Education
September 1986 - October 1989
Tomsk Polytechnic University
Field of study
  • Experimental Nuclear Physics
September 1975 - February 1981
Tomsk Polytechnic University
Field of study
  • Experimental Nuclear Physics

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
In this work, we investigated the possibility of selectively detecting carbon ion bunches collectively accelerated in a Luce diode by a time-of-flight spectrometry of neutrons from the threshold reaction ²H(¹²C,n)¹³N induced in Ca(OD)2 layers deposited on Mo substrates by ‘staining’ lime freshly prepared by quenching CaO in heavy water. Oxygen and...
Article
The collective acceleration of deuterons from the residual atmosphere of the Luce diode chamber is studied at a pressure of gaseous deuterium in the range of 0.029–0.177 Pa. The energy and number of accelerated deuterons were determined by neutron time-of-flight spectrometry and by measuring the activity of ¹³N and ¹¹C radionuclides induced in B4C...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we investigated the possibility of detecting high-energy proton bunches collectively accelerated in a Luce diode by combining selective time-of-flight spectrometry of neutrons from the threshold reaction ¹¹B(p,n)¹¹C and instantaneous γ-spectrometry based on reactions ¹⁰B(p, αγ)⁷Be, ¹²C(p, γ)¹³N, and ¹¹B(p, γ)¹²C, excited in B4C target...
Article
Full-text available
X-Ray Fluorescence analysis based on excitation with ¹⁰⁹Cd source and registration of characteristic X-rays with Si(Li) detector was used to record the kinetics of desorption of Kr and Xe from carbonaceous samples of 1–100 mg after their treatment with the inert gases at temperatures from 20 to 700 °C. Activated coals with a known pore distribution...
Article
The paper demonstrates that temporal behavior of proton components of intense pulsed ion beams accelerated to average energy of up to 200 keV with number of 10¹⁵ per shot can be reliably evaluated with use of prompt γ-spectrometry. The ion shots are dumped onto a pyrolytic h-BN plate in which a 5 mm diameter hole is provided to enable simultaneous...
Article
Collective acceleration of protons and deuterons is compared in the same geometry of a Luce diode with a polyethylene anode at an accelerating diode voltage of 250 kV, current and pulse duration of relativistic electrons up to 30 kA and 90 ns, respectively. The accelerated ions were intercepted by B4C, BN, and AlN wafers, in which analytical radion...
Article
A two-channel γ-spectrometer with time resolution of 2.5 ns enables a prompt control of number and energy of collectively accelerated protons in their separate bunches dumped into a sustainable and refractory B4C target. The proton energy and number is determined within the range of 460 to 1600 keV and 10¹²–4⋅10¹⁴ per pulse, respectively, by separa...
Article
In this work, the mass and linear thicknesses of AlN and CrN coatings deposited onto silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering were measured, respectively, by a combination of the methods of nondestructive radioactivation analysis on proton beams of the U-120M cyclotron and optical micro-interferometry. It is shown that, at linear thicknesses in t...
Article
Collective acceleration of protons and deuterons is compared in the same geometry of a Luce diode with a polyethylene anode at an accelerating diode voltage of 250 kV, current and pulse duration of relativistic electrons up to 30 kA and 90 ns, respectively. The accelerated ions were intercepted by B4C, BN, and AlN plates, in which analytical radion...
Article
In this work, the mass and linear thicknesses of AlN and CrN coatings deposited onto silicon substrates by magnetron sputtering were measured, respectively, by a combination of the methods of nondestructive radioactivation analysis on proton beams of the U-120M cyclotron and optical micro-interferometry. It is shown that, at linear thicknesses in t...
Book
Full-text available
The monograph describes the scientific foundations of nuclear-physical diagnostics of energy input by Intense Pulsed Ion Beams as applied to their main technological applications. The diagnostics is mostly based on instantaneous products of interaction of ions with materials, including ablation of surface layers, Rutherford Backscattering of ions,...
Presentation
Solid plates of boron carbide B4C, boron nitride BN, aluminum nitride AlN and corundum Al2O3 were used as refractory targets for determination of energy and number of protons and deuterons collectively accelerated in Luce diodes [1]. A lead shielded Canberra HP Ge detector was used to control gamma-radioactivity of 7Be (T1/2 =53 days, Eγ = 477.6 ke...
Article
A combination of two methods (nondestructive proton beam radioactivation analysis and optical microinterferometry) has been used for measuring the mass and linear thicknesses of AlN and CrN coatings deposited onto silicon substrates by means of magnetron sputtering. It is established that, at linear thickness from 2.2 to 5.7 μm, the density of depo...
Article
Number and energy of protons and ¹²C ions collectively accelerated in the Luce diode were determined by radioactivation techniques for residual atmosphere pressure controlled from 5.5 Pa down to 12 mPa. We demonstrate for the first time that the reduction of pressure dramatically reduces average number of ¹²C ions with energy of up to 2.64eU/amu (U...
Article
Full-text available
Nanotubes made of boron nitride (BN) and carbon have attracted considerable attention within the literature due to their unique mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, BN and carbon nanotubes, exhibiting high purity (>99%) and similar surface areas (~200 m2/g), were systematically investigated for their thermal stability and ox...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of residual atmosphere gases to the flux of collectively accelerated protons in a Luce diode has been determined by comparing the number of protons generated by anodes made of polyethylene and pyrolytic boron nitride. Radioactivation diagnostics based on the nuclear reactions 10B(p, α)7Be and 12C(p, γ)13N has been used to determine...
Article
Full-text available
To control ion fluences, ablation of a thin layer of surface contamination of the target is used, which is self-healing after each pulse of a powerful ion beam. The time-of-flight optical spectrometer measures the average velocities of the lightest components of the ablative plasma, hydrogen and carbon, and the ion fluence is determined from their...
Article
Ablation of a thin surface contamination layer is used to control fluencies of intense pulsed ion beams. The layer is self-restored after each ion pulse. An optical time-of-flight spectrometer measures velocities of the lightest components of the ablation plasma, hydrogen and carbon, to determine the ion fluence.
Article
Contribution of gases of residual atmosphere on number of protons collectively accelerated in Luce diode was determined by comparison of the number of protons generated with polyethylene and boron nitride anodes. The proton average number and energy were determined by a use of the radioactivation diagnostics via nuclear reactions 10B(p,α)7Be and 12...
Article
Full-text available
Plates of boron carbide B4C were used as refractory targets for determination of energy and fluences of protons collectively accelerated in a Luce diode accelerator by control of ⁷Be and ¹³N gamma radioactivity induced by nuclear reactions ¹⁰B(p, α)⁷Be and ¹²C(p, γ)¹³N, respectively. The Luce diode exploited a cylindrical tungsten rod as a cathode...
Article
Naturally short-length multi-walled Russian-doll-like carbon nanotubes derived by a catalyst-free arc-discharge method were used as nano-sized “cutters” to transform bulk graphitic sheets into thin/few-layered graphene-like nano-sized platelets (GNPs) during a jet milling procedure. A short follow-up oxygen plasma treatment in a plasma reactor furt...
Article
Full-text available
Пластины карбида бора B4C использованы в качестве термостойких мишеней для определения энергии и флюенсов протонов, коллективно ускоренных в ускорителе с диодом Люса, посредством контроля гамма- радиоактивности радионуклидов 7Be и 13N, наведенных в ядерных реакциях 10B(p, �)7Be и 12C(p, )13N. Диод Люса с цилиндрическим вольфрамовым катодом и анодом...
Article
The facile, rapid and bulk production of composite materials consisting of carbon nanostructures doped with metal-based compounds has been a significant challenge for various research areas where such types of materials can be applied, including catalysis, energy storage and water purification. In this work, a carbon foam aluminum fluoride composit...
Presentation
Full-text available
In recent years, much attention has been increasingly drawn towards nanostructured, nanoporous and nanocomposite materials since improved properties are expected. However, in most cases, the available physical and/or chemical methods of producing these systems may be considered rather confusing, difficult to reproduce as well as time consuming. Her...
Article
A novel, one-step, wet-free, environmental friendly and high-yield method for producing few-layer graphene powders with large surface areas (up to 800 m2/g) and narrow nanopore sizes (0.7-0.8 nm) using plasma-induced exfoliation of natural graphite is presented. Advanced characterization techniques were employed, including scanning and transmission...
Presentation
Full-text available
Exfoliated 2-D graphene has been a subject of considerable research during the last decade attributed to its unique electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties. An intense effort has been also devoted towards the development of porous graphene-based materials for gas storage and separation applications. In this respect, few-layer graphen...
Article
In the present work, a nanoporous (pore width ~ 0.7 nm) graphene-based sponge-like material with large surface area (~ 350 m2/g) was synthesized by wet chemical reduction of graphene oxide in combination with freeze-drying. Surface morphology and elemental composition were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energ...
Presentation
Full-text available
Chemically or micro-mechanically exfoliated 2D graphene has been a subject of considerable research during the last decade due to its unique electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. Porous graphene-based nanostructures combine multiple advantages such as lightweight, large surface areas and pore volumes, as well as thermal and chemical stabil...
Article
The present work reports on the production of H2 and secondary carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during catalytic decomposition of ethylene over a novel catalytic system, namely, nickel supported on carbon nanotubes (Ni/CNTs) at remarkably low-temperatures, e.g. 400°C. A number of catalyst parameters were investigated, namely the chemical nature of support,...
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided naturally short arc-produced Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes (sh-MWNTs) having a mean diameter of 2 to 15 nm and a length of between 50 and 1000 nm, preferably, the sh-MWNTs have a median diameter of 6-8 nm and a length of 100-500 nm
Poster
Full-text available
Carbon nanotube / aluminum matrix composites have been processed by powder metallurgy. Blends of metal powder and CNTs have been prepared by ball milling. Both commercially pure aluminum and prealloyed powders were used. Composite powders where obtained with nanotube embedded in the metallic matrix. Disk shaped specimens where consolidated by hot c...
Presentation
Full-text available
- Low cost bulk production of short MWCNTs in self-regulated liquid phase arc-discharge - Structure, morphology and deliverable grades - Approaches to bulk characterisation - Best current applications: li-ion batteries, electroconductive polymer composites and catalysts - Routes for commercialisation of the applications
Presentation
Full-text available
■ Measuring the benefits and weaknesses of nanotubes and nanofibres over traditional polymer additives ■ Exploring future pricing structures and predicting when costs will come down ■ Scaling-up production processes to accommodate high performance materials ■ Case studies of innovative applications
Poster
Full-text available
A model for carbon MWNT formation in the arc discharge has been developed. MWNTs’ and metallic nanoparticles’ (MeNPs) morphology have been controlled versus median arc durations for 40 different regimes of arc discharges provided in gas and liquid phases with use of graphite anodes of different purity grades. Being normalized, all the morphologic d...
Poster
Full-text available
Naturally short MWNTs (sh-MWNTs) produced with use of Self-regulated Liquid-phase Arc-discharge, SLA, were functionalized and integrated into the anode materials of Li-ion-batteries (LIBs). Median lengths and outer diameter of the sh-MWNTs are controlled within the ranges of 150-350 nm and 7-10 nm, correspondingly. Also SLA enables selective produc...
Article
Ethylene decomposition over Ni supported on novel carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nanofibers under consecutive reaction/regeneration cycles to form CO-free hydrogen and carbon deposits have been investigated. The present work highlights the effects of support chemical composition, catalyst synthesis method and Ni metal loading on the catalytic activity...
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided a method for the enhanced production of fullerenes, nanotubes and nanoparticles. The method relies upon the provision of a hydrocarbon liquid which is converted by a suitable energy source to a synthesis gas such as acetone, ethylene, methane or carbon monoxide, the synthesis gas(es) forming the precursors need for fullerene, nano...
Poster
Full-text available
Raw deposits of naturally short Multi Wall Nanotubes (sh-MWNTs with median length of 220nm) have been produced in Self-regulated Liquid-phase Arc discharge (SLA) provided in a hydrocarbon liquid. The deposits were powdered, oxidized in air at 535◦C, intercalated with bromine, washed with boiling chlorobenzene and then with toluene, dried in vacuum...
Presentation
Full-text available
- Reviewing the state of the art in electrical conductivity of CNT and CNF polymer composites - Identifying the keys to improving the electrical conductivity of nanotube and nanofibre polymer composites - Exploring future enhancements and applications of electrically conductive nanotube and nanofiber polymer composites
Poster
Full-text available
A self regulated contact arc discharge in hydrocarbon liquids successfully produces shorten (100-500 nm) low-defective MWNTs with no use of catalysts [1]. We have found that introduction of catalysts (either in the liquids or in the anodes) tends to essential changes in the MWNTs’ morphology. First, the nanotubes are elongated (on average in 1.5-2...
Presentation
Full-text available
Rosseter’s technology based on a principle of Self-Regulated Electric Contact Arc Discharge in hydrocarbon liquids [1,2] has been dramatically improved for bulk production of high-quality Carbon MWNTs. A typical 2 kW apparatus produces about 20 g/hour of a raw deposit that for more than 95wt% is composed of shorten MWNTs and carbon polyhedral nanop...
Article
Carbon nanotube products (MWNTs, SWNTs, SWNHs, and polyhedral nanoparticles) are derived from carbonaceous deposits formed by a cracking of liquid hydrocarbons, driven by a self-regulated low-voltage AC/DC contact arc discharge and/or a resistive heating. A unique geometry of the electrode system allows a continuous production of the dense deposits...
Poster
Full-text available
Production of CNTs in bulk presupposes a reliable characterization of such quantities. The most crucial moment in the characterization is a sample cutting. Normally, in Analytical Chemistry they use for the cutting a consecutive quartering of powdered samples leaving at final stages quantities representing 1/100-1/10,000 parts of the starting sampl...
Poster
Full-text available
A Self-Regulated Electric Contact Arc Discharge in hydrocarbon liquids continuously produces CNT deposits containing 30-50wt % of shorten MWNTs. No catalysts are used to grow the deposits. XRF shows that, normally, metallic admixtures are less than 0.1-0.2 wt% in the raw deposits. Use of catalysts (Co, Ni, Mo) and promoters (S) in the process produ...
Poster
Full-text available
Carbon nanotube products (MWNTS, SWNTs) are derived from carbonaceous deposits formed by a cracking of liquid hydrocarbons, driven by a self-regulated low-voltage AC or DC contact arc discharge. A unique geometry of the electrode system allows a continuous producing of dense nanotube deposits with a record yield and lowest specific consumption of e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Methods for producing higher fullerenes (the fullerenes higher than C70) are developed in less extent than ones for C60 and C70. The main problem being a very low yield of the higher fullerenes, which for С74, С76, С78, and С84 is usually about 1-3% and less than n0.1% for С90, C94, C98 in comparison to the 10-40% of the later ones [1-3]. Modak et...
Article
This paper presents research on practical applications of high intensity pulsed ion beams (HIPIBs) investigated at the Nuclear Physics Institute of the Tomsk Polytechnic University (NPI TPU) and the Scientific Industrial Enterprise ‘Linetron’, N. Novgorod.The most interesting scientific results have been obtained in the following fields:•HIPIB surf...
Article
Radionuclide tracing has demonstrated that intraperitoneal introduction of natural brine and mud solutions to intact rats followed by ultrasound versus galvanization provides more intensive delivery of chemical elements to the target organs and tissues. These differences should be taken into account when planning rehabilitation schemes with various...
Article
We review research investigating the application of intense pulsed ion beams (IPIBs) for the surface treatment and coating of materials. The short range (0.1–10 μm) and high-energy density (1–50  J/cm <sup> 2 </sup>) of these short-pulsed (≤1 μ s ) beams (with ion currents I=5–50  kA , and energies E=100–1000  keV ) make them ideal in flash heating...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The present paper briefly discusses possibilities of the instant IPIB diagnostics based on the spectroscopy of the back-scattered/sputtered ions and X-rays generated due to the IPIB-solid interaction. The peculiarities of the RBS/PIXE diagnostic facilities are theoretically examined for short-pulsed ion implantation (“MUK-M”-accelerator with C<sup>...
Conference Paper
The present paper briefly discusses the questions of accuracy of depth profiling techniques in studies of mass transfer processes induced by intense pulsed ion beams (IPIB) in solids. The best measurement tools provide good precision only. An acceptable reproducibility, correctness, and, finally, accuracy of measurement are a result of complete eli...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The complex of Nuclear Interaction Analysis Methods including a charged particle activation analysis (CPAA and HIAA), a spectrometry of ion induced gamma-emission (PIGE and HIIGE), characteristic X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) have been used for diagnostics of the High Power Ion Beam (HPIB) assisted technolog...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The high-intensity pulsed ion beam with parameters: ion energy 350–500 keV, ion current density at a target > 200 A/cm2, pulse duration 60 ns) was used for the metallic deposition. Film deposition rate was 0.6–4.0 mm1s. Transmission electron microscopy/ transmission electron diffraction investigations of the copper target-film system have been perf...
Article
Rat experiments with short-life radionuclides revealed a marked differences in the action of dry mud extract and dry brine in spite of the fact that their composition was almost similar. Galvanization and ultrasound induce effects acting differently on accumulation of chemical elements from brine and mud in the body and skin of both healthy animals...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of the effect of excess deuterium concentrations on living organisms have a long standing past history. However, a number of problems have not been solved. One of them is the effect of deuterium in drinking water on the growth of calculi in the following human internal organs: liver, kidneys, and a gallbladder. The development of methods fo...
Article
Full-text available
The techniques are suggested for the activation analysis on the charged particles to determine traces of C, N, and O in high-purity substances with the radio-chemical isolation of the analytical radionuclides 13N and 11C by distillation in the form of 13NH3 and 11CO2 during the continuous layer-by-layer decomposition of the radiated samples in the...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental evidence is presented of the detection of the deuteron acceleration effect upon the collision, at a fixed angle, of two quasi-perpendicular magnetoacoustic shock waves. Possible mechanisms involved in the injection of ions into the acceleration regime along the magnetic field are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Non-destructive methods are proposed for determining micro amd macro components of ceramics based on BN and AlN. The methods are based on the activation by cyclotron accelerated ions. Lithium and beryllium contents of BN and AlN were estimated. Carbon, oxygen and yttrium contents, which determine the structure and basic properties of AlN-based cera...
Article
Full-text available
The possibility to use the activation and inversion-voltametric methods to determine the microimpurities of Na, K, Zn, Pb, Cu, Co, Ni, Mn, C, O, and N is shown at the preparation of AsxS1-x chalcogenic glasses, On a basis of the studies carried out a set of techniques for the analysis of arsenic chalcogenide and starting process environment for its...
Article
Full-text available
Non destructive and radiochemical determination of Li, B, Be, C, N and Na in high purity lithium iodate single crystals by use of accelerated cyclotron ions in combination with the other methods to develop a technology for production of high-purity single crystals of lithium iodate
Article
Full-text available
Special conical geometries of the targets are used to dramatically increase the efficiency of implantation of radionuclides due to the inelastic nuclear recoil from nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions. In addition, bombardment of the samples with the primary ion beam is avoided
Article
Full-text available
The author describes a compact target device for simultaneous irradiation in vacuum of four specimens by heavy-ion beams in activation analysis. Two target-holder designs are examined: with specimen rotation only about a common axis and with additional rotation of the specimens about their own axes. The target-holder is rotated by a magnetic drive...
Article
Full-text available
The kinetics of removal of oxygen and carbon from the liquid molybdenum in the high levitation in vacuo. range detected concentrations of both impurities from 10-1 to 5x10-6 wt. %. The possibility of obtaining molybdenum concentration-specified of oxygen and carbon atoms in the specified range. There was defined effective constant of the rate of re...
Article
Express methods are proposed for layer-by-layer activation analysis. The methods are based on continuous pickling of irradiated samples and simultaneous control of analytical radionuclide γ-activity in a sample - picling solution system or measurement of pickling solution absorbance. The results of layer-by -layer analysis of LiF samples irradiated...
Patent
Full-text available
the mode of production of castings by levitation and electron-beam melting in vacuum is presented.
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided a better sensitivity of deuterium determination in water. A water sample is treated with an aliquot quantity of CaO powder to obtain a powder sample of Ca(OH)2. The dried sample of Ca(OH)2 is pressed into a self-supported solid disk and irradiated by accelerated heavy ions to produce radionuclides from deuterium, e.g. by nuclear r...
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided a better sensitivity of deuterium determination in water. A water sample is treated with an aliquot quantity of CaO powder to obtain a powder sample of Ca(OH)2. The dried sample of Ca(OH)2 is pressed into a self-supported solid disk and irradiated by accelerated heavy ions to produce radionuclides from deuterium, e.g. by nuclear r...
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided a better accuracy and simplification of controlling fluxes of accelerated ions in CPAA by measuring radioactivity of nuclei recoiled from a thin film into another thin film made of different material and placed behind the first film. The both films are not thinner than the recoil range of the analytical radionuclide
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided better accuracy and shorter duration of measuring depth distributions of radionuclides. The target device contains a thin layer of LiCl deposited onto a substrate which is made of two alternating layers made of Al and Cu which can be dissolved by HCl and HNO3 acids correspondingly but are inert in the opposite solvent. The device...
Patent
Full-text available
The device of SU Patent 1279357 is substantially improved by co-axially adding several additional truncated cones with apex angles of 20°-10° of smaller and conformal sizes, while their bigger bases are combined at the same level
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided higher sensitivity (by 3-4 times) and shorter duration (by 2-3 times) of Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) due to continuous layer-by-layer decomposition of the radioactivated part of the sample and distillation of the analytical radionuclide in a gaseous phase with simultaneous adsorption of the radionuclide and registr...
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided a radiochemical separation of Nitrogen-13 to increase sensitivity of CPAA determination of Carbon admixtures by nuclear reaction 12C(d,n)13N in high-purity Al2O3 samples. Nuclear reaction 16O(p,α)13N was used to develop the radiochemical separation from Al2O3 matrices. A proper ratio of chemical reagents, namely KOH, AlN, KNO3 and...
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided a dramatic increase of number of radioactive nuclei recoiled from a target irradiated by accelerated ions into an isolated sample located close to the target but outside the ion beam. The device contains a source of accelerated ions (e.g. cyclotrone) and a target made in the form of a truncated cone with apex angle of 10°-20°, fac...
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided better selectivity, accuracy and visual control for a proper removal of the contaminated surface layers of samples radioactivated by accelerated deutrons, by adding an aliquot quantity of the KMnO4 marker which provides the visual control. The detection limit of Carbon in ZnSe was about 0.001-0.01 ppm.
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided higher accuracy and shorter time of determination of the layer-by-layer depth during etching of the CPAA radioactivated sample due to a continuous and simultaneous measurement of the gamma-radioactivity of the etching solution and the sample in the solution. The gamma-source has been changing from a small flat disk to a much large...
Patent
Full-text available
There is provided shorter time and lower temperature of the N-13 separation by use of a hydrogen flow. The invention was used in routine CPAA of C and N admixtures in various high-purity solid substances with detection limits down to 0.001 ppm and 0.01 ppm, correspondingly.
Article
Full-text available
Naturally short carbon Multi Wall Nanotubes are effectively produced in bulk by Self-regulated Liquid-phase Arc-discharge as nested tubules and partially scrolled nanotubes. The process controls the nanotubes' type, morphology and structure, enabling their optimal applications.
Article
Flame retardant (FR) properties of carbon nanotubes were first reported in 2002 for polyethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) (1) and polypropylene (PP) (2) composites. Further outcome (3) ruled out that CVD single wall nanotubes (SWNTs) do not act as flame retardants in low density polyethylene (LDPE) where as CVD multi wall nanotubes (CVD- MWNTs) do reduc...

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