Vivienne de Vogel

Vivienne de Vogel
Hogeschool Utrecht · Research Centre for Social Innovation

PhD

About

177
Publications
89,388
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,785
Citations
Introduction
I am professor of Forensic Mental Health Care at the Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University and at the University of Applied Sciences Utrecht, Working with Mandated Clients. Furthermore, I work as researcher at De Forensische Zorgspecialisten (Van der Hoeven Kliniek). The overall aim of my work is to gain more insight into adequate and effective assessment and treatment of forensic clients thereby improving the quality of forensic mental health care.
Additional affiliations
February 1998 - February 2015
Van der Hoeven Kliniek
Position
  • Head of Research Department
Education
January 2001 - May 2005
University of Amsterdam
Field of study
  • Forensic Psychology
September 1991 - September 1997
Leiden University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (177)
Article
Sancties. Tijdschrift over straffen en maatregelen 2022/42 - themanummer risicotaxatie. Een relevant thema waar nog relatief weinig aandacht naar uitgaat, is hoe over de resultaten van een risicotaxatie helder wordt gecommuniceerd naar bijvoorbeeld besluitvormers. Risicocommunicatie vormt in feite de link tussen enerzijds de risicotaxatie en anderz...
Chapter
In this chapter, the nature and scope of mental health problems among justice-involved females will be discussed with a focus on internalizing mental disorders. Several clinical case studies will be provided to illustrate the role serious mental health problems may have in violent offending behavior and the often complex needs of justice-involved f...
Article
Artikel in Expertise en Recht, 2022-02. Vrouwen vormen een minderheid in justitiële instellingen en de forensische zorg. Het is dan ook niet verwonderlijk dat de meeste instrumenten om het recidiverisico in te schatten zijn ontwikkeld en onderzocht voor mannen. De afgelopen jaren is er meer aandacht ontstaan voor specifieke kenmerken, risicofactore...
Article
Purpose Despite the rising number of females in forensic psychiatry, research about their characteristics remains limited and is currently lacking in Belgium. Optimizing knowledge about the characteristics of these women will lead to a better understanding of this specific group. Therefore, the aim of the study was to gain insight into the characte...
Article
Delikt en Delinkwent 2022/8 Afl. 2 Verlof is een essentieel onderdeel van de tbs-behandeling. We analyseerden 1313 aanvragen voor begeleid verlof, ingediend tussen 2010-2018 bij het AVT, om patronen in de beoordeling, de duur tot de eerste aanvraag en patiëntkenmerken die daarop van invloed zijn te onderzoeken. De resultaten laten een min of meer...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Victimization is highly prevalent in individuals with mild intellectual disability (MID) or borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) and is an important risk factor for mental health problems and violent behavior. Not much is known, however, about victimization history in women with MID-BIF admitted to forensic mental health care. Aims...
Article
Previous studies have found evidence for a relationship between debt and crime, and for problems in childhood, education, work, and mental and physical health as underlying risk factors. However, insight into the interplay between these possible risk factors is limited. Therefore, a mixed methods approach was applied by both creating a quantitative...
Article
The probationer–probation officer working alliance plays an important role in the outcome of probation supervision. This study explored the development of the working alliance between probationers and probation officers in the Netherlands, from the perspective of both probationers and probation officers. More specifically, we explored the significa...
Article
Full-text available
The HCR-20 V3 is a violence risk assessment tool that is widely used in forensic clinical practice for risk management planning. The predictive value of the tool, when used in court for legal decision- making, is not yet intensively been studied and questions about legal admissibility may arise. This article aims to provide legal and mental health...
Article
Full-text available
The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a risk assessment instrument for adolescents that estimates the risk of multiple adverse outcomes. Prior research into its predictive validity is limited to a handful of studies conducted with the START:AV pilot version and often by the instrument’s developers. The...
Article
In high security forensic institutions, patients are sometimes placed on small-scale wards to be treated individually if their psychiatric condition and behaviour do not allow for them to live and interact more freely with other patients. On these so-called individual wards, there is little contact between patients and more security measures are in...
Article
Full-text available
Een kwetsbare groep burgers onder wie schuldenproblematiek in hoge mate voorkomt zijn delinquenten. Schuldenproblematiek onder deze doelgroep is sterk verweven met problemen op andere levensdomeinen en verhoogt bovendien het risico op terugval in criminaliteit. Reclasseringswerkers missen veelal handvatten om cliënten met schul-denproblematiek te b...
Article
Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, online supervision has increased markedly, including within the Dutch probation services. In the present research, we systematically collected and analysed both clients and probation officers’ experiences of working online in the prior year. Although the clients were generally positive about remote supervis...
Article
Narcissism is a personality construct with grandiose, and vulnerable aspects, that are interconnected through antagonistic characteristics. While antagonism is strongly related to antisocial behavior, the role of narcissism remains underexplored in offender rehabilitation practice. Research in non-forensic samples has already shown promising result...
Article
Purpose Nonspecific factors such as therapy alliance and treatment motivation have been shown to be predictive of therapy outcome. However, research investigating these factors among patients with personality disorders, or studies in the context of mandated treatment showed mixed results. A new theory furthermore speculates there may be differences...
Article
This study presents the development of the Working Alliance of Mandated Clients Inventory (WAMCI). The goal of the WAMCI is to measure positive and negative factors of the working alliance from two perspectives: the probationer and the probation officer (PO) in the Dutch context. Data from 302 probationers and 267 POs of all three probation service...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Met de COVID-19 pandemie heeft het werken op afstand een enorme vlucht genomen. Ook voor de reclassering geldt dat de meeste cliënten (uitgezonderd wanneer het vanuit begeleidingsperspectief niet anders kan) niet face to face worden gezien, maar dat er wordt gewerkt op afstand (o.a. beeldbellen, telefonisch, WhatsApp). Een cruciale vraag hierbij is...
Article
Psychopathy in females has been understudied. Extant data on gender comparisons using the predominant measure of assessment in clinical practice, the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), points to a potential lack of measurement invariance (MI). If indeed the instrument does not perform equally (well) in both genders, straightforward comparison o...
Article
Substance abuse is an important risk factor for offending, but is mostly studied in males. The aim of this multicentre study is to gain insight into possible gender differences in substance abuse history and offending behavior in forensic psychiatric patients. Files were analyzed of 275 women and 275 matched men who have been admitted between 1984...
Article
Full-text available
Zelfbeschadigend gedrag door forensisch psychiatrische patiënten maakt vaak grote indruk op alle betrokkenen en is een belangrijke voorspeller voor geweld naar anderen tijdens de behandeling. Doel: Beschrijven van incidenten van zelfbeschadiging door patiënten die opgenomen zijn in de forensische psychiatrie. Methode: Alle geregistreerde incidenten...
Article
Full-text available
Background Violent criminal offenders with personality disorders (PD's) can cause immense harm, but are often deemed untreatable. This study aimed to conduct a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of long-term psychotherapy for rehabilitating offenders with PDs. Methods We compared schema therapy (ST), an evidence-based psychotherap...
Article
Health professionals’ attitudes to substance abusers have been reported as suboptimal with potential adverse consequences for the quality of health care provided. Less is known about professionals working with addicted clients in mandated contexts. The aim of this study is to gain insight into forensic social professionals’ attitudes to substance u...
Article
Therapy alliance has been studied largely in voluntary psychotherapy but less is known about its predictive factors for positive alliance and treatment outcome in forensic populations. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between offenders’ emotional states and therapy alliance. Moreover, we were interested in the predictive impact...
Article
Purpose Incidents of self-injury by forensic psychiatric patients often have a deleterious impact on all those involved. Moreover, self-injurious behaviour is an important predictor for violence towards others during treatment. The aim of this study is to analyse methods and severity of incidents of self-injury of patients admitted to forensic psyc...
Article
The responsivity principle is a vital element in the risk-need-responsivity model. The working alliance is a good illustration of the intention of this responsivity principle. In this study, we examine the influence of the working alliance (WAMCI) between 199 offenders and probation officers on recidivism. Data for this longitudinal study originate...
Article
Full-text available
Little research exists on what works in the supervision of offenders with debt problems. This qualitative study aims to provide insight into the barriers probation officers and clients experience during supervision regarding debt and the support that clients need. Interviews were conducted with 33 Dutch probation officers and 16 clients. The result...
Article
Full-text available
There is emerging evidence that the performance of risk assessment instruments is weaker when used for clinical decision-making than for research purposes. For instance, research has found lower agreement between evaluators when the risk assessments are conducted during routine practice. We examined the field interrater reliability of the Short-Ter...
Chapter
The Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF; de Vogel, de Ruiter, Bouman, & de Vries Robbé, 2009 , 2012 ) is a structured professional judgment (SPJ) checklist for the assessment of protective factors for violence risk. It is the only SPJ risk assessment tool that focuses solely on protective factors. The tool was deve...
Article
Forensische Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 27(3), 289-304. Die Prävalenz häuslicher Gewalt scheint während der COVID-19-Pandemie zuzunehmen. In den meisten Medienberichten und Forderungen nach Präventionsmaßnahmen von Fachleuten und Politikern werden Männer durchweg als Täter häuslicher Gewalt und Frauen und Kinder als Opfer dargestellt, auch von...
Article
Forensische Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 27(3), 326-342. Eine strukturierte Beurteilung des Risikos für neuerliche Delikte ist im rechtlichen Rahmen immer mehr Standard geworden. Der Art und Weise, wie die Ergebnisse dieser Risikoeinschät-zung der Justiz oder den Verantwortlichen forensischer Institutionen mitgeteilt werden, wird jedoch viel wen...
Article
Full-text available
Although studies point to a relationship between debt and crime, there is a limited understanding of their reciprocal relationship and possible mediating risk factors. Moreover, knowledge about the prevalence and scope of debt among offenders is lacking. Therefore, the present study analyzed 250 client files including risk assessment data from the...
Article
Full-text available
Compared to macroeconomic factors, the financial situation of the individual may provide better insight into the relationship between debt and crime. However, the relationship between debt and crime is still unclear and little is known about the causality of this relationship and the factors that influence it. To obtain more insight into this relat...
Article
Full-text available
Huiselijk geweld lijkt sterk toe te nemen tijdens de-19 pandemie. Wat opvalt in de berichtgeving, is dat er stelselmatig wordt uitgegaan van mannelijke daders en vrouwelijke slachtoffers. Is dit wel terecht? In dit artikel beschrijven Vivienne de Vogel en Kasia Uzieblo dat ook vrouwen huiselijk geweld plegen en gaan ze in op de weerstand in de maat...
Article
Victim-offender contact has been studied extensively in prisons, but research on contact between victims and mentally disordered offenders in forensic mental health settings is lacking. Therefore, an exploratory study was conducted on contact between victims and offenders in four Dutch forensic psychiatric hospitals. These offenders have committed...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Forensisch sociale professionals hebben een cruciale rol in de trajecten van cliënten met verslavingsproblematiek. Veel onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van het forensische werk gaat over methodieken, er is nog maar weinig bekend over de persoon van forensisch sociale professionals en diens persoonlijke stijl en opvattingen. Wat zijn bijvoorbeeld op...
Article
Continuïteit van zorg in de forensische keten heeft al geruime tijd de aandacht. Ondanks vele initiatieven blijven er toch knelpunten bestaan. Voor cliënten is gebrek aan continuïteit niet alleen vervelend, maar kan ook tot vertraging in het zorgtraject of nieuwe delicten leiden. In dit artikel beschrijven we de ervaringen van cliënten met aspecten...
Article
Although the association between working alliance and outcome is a consistent finding in voluntary psychotherapy research, there is a lack of knowledge of the significance of this concept in mandated treatment. This study examined the relationship between the offender-rated working alliance and recidivism in a sample of 199 offenders mandated to co...
Article
Forensische Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Volume 27, 2020 (1), 56-73 Menschen mit einer psychotischen Störung haben häufig ein negatives Selbstbild und damit ein geringes Selbstwertgefühl. Untersuchungen haben auch gezeigt, dass Paranoia direkt mit nega-tiven Vorstellungen über das Selbst zusammenhängen kann. Sich minderwertig zu fühlen und an P...
Article
Gedragstherapie, 53, 53, 2, 82-102. Er is een groep patiënten binnen de forensische psychiatrie bij wie er sprake is van psychose en paranoia. Deze kenmerken voorspellen slechte behandeluitkomst en chronische hospitalisatie. Het huidige onderzoek heeft als doel de effectiviteit te onderzoeken van COMET, een cognitief-gedragstherapeutische intervent...
Article
This study explores variables that predict physical violence in 614 (forensic) psychiatric inpatients. All violent incidents that occurred in a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital between 2014 and 2019 (N = 3,713) were coded with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale+ based on daily hospital reports and patients' medical records. Binary logistic regr...
Article
NURSE ACADEMY GGZ, 2020, 2 Inschatten van het risico van herhaald delictgedrag is steeds belangrijker in het forensisch sociale domein. In dit artikel wordt beschreven hoe de risicotaxatie het best vorm kan krijgen in de praktijk en wat de rol van de verpleegkundig specialist hierin kan zijn. Aan de hand van de casus over Kimberly wordt duidelijk h...
Article
Full-text available
PROCES 2020 (99) 3 Het belang van goede samenwerking in de begeleiding van cliënten in de forensi-sche zorg is evident. Wanneer professionals binnen de forensische zorg goed met elkaar en met hun cliënt kunnen samenwerken, is de kans op succesvolle afronding van een behandeltraject aanzienlijk groter dan wanneer dit niet het geval is. Hoe komt het...
Article
Full-text available
Problematisch middelengebruik is een belangrijke risicofactor voor criminaliteit en geweld, maar is vooral bij mannen onderzocht. In dit onderzoek werden genderverschillen onderzocht tussen 275 vrouwelijke en 275 mannelijke forensisch psychiatrisch patiënten. Hoewel problematisch middelenmisbruik bij vrouwen prevalent was (57%) kwam het bij mannen...
Chapter
Veel mensen denken dat zedendelicten alleen door mannen worden gepleegd. Deze opvatting is ook zichtbaar in wetenschappelijk onderzoek, aangezien er weinig studies naar vrouwelijke zedendelinquenten zijn verricht. Hierbij dient wel opgemerkt te worden dat de laatste 15 jaar een opwaartse trend zichtbaar is waarbij steeds meer aandacht is voor vrouw...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between debts and delinquency is still unclear and knowledge about the prevalence and scope of debts among delinquents, which is needed to systematically explore this relationship, is lacking. The present study contains a systematic and scoping literature review on this relationship and analyzed data from risk assessment and client...
Article
Full-text available
In order to improve the effectiveness of offender supervision many studies have been conducted into risk factors for delinquency. Evidence was found that debts and crime are interrelated. However, understanding of potential underlying risk factors in this relationship is limited. Results of an analysis of client files (N = 250) show that debts amon...
Article
Full-text available
Risk assessment instruments are widely used to predict risk of adverse outcomes, such as violence or victimization, and to allocate resources for managing these risks among individuals involved in criminal justice and forensic mental health services. For risk assessment instruments to reach their full potential, they must be implemented with fideli...
Article
Full-text available
An effective implementation approach is crucial for successful integration of structured risk assessment instruments into practice. This qualitative study explored barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) in a Dutch residential youth care service. Perception...
Article
Full-text available
Article in Dutch language - English summary: Background: Substance abuse is an important risk factor for (violent) offending, but is mostly studied in male populations. More knowledge about women is needed. AIM: To gain insight into possible gender differences in substance abuse and offending in forensic psychiatric patients. METHOD: Files were a...
Article
Previous research has shown that female persistent offenders have multiple psychiatric and psychosocial problems , such as substance use disorders, other mental disorders, financial problems and housing problems. The present study examined recidivism and predictors of recidivism in a sample of 74 Dutch female high level persistent offenders who had...
Article
Full-text available
Het gestructureerd inschatten van het risico van herhaald delictgedrag is steeds meer gemeengoed geworden binnen het justitiële kader. Veel minder aandacht is er echter voor de wijze van communiceren over de resultaten van deze risicotaxaties naar de rechterlijke macht of naar vervolginstellingen. Onderzoek laat zien dat de wijze van communiceren o...
Book
Full-text available
Hoe denken cliënten en professionals over de kwaliteit van het contact en de onderlinge samenwerking tussen cliënten en professionals in het (semi)gedwongen kader? En helpt het volgens hen als zij daar samen af en toe systematisch over praten aan de hand van een eerder door ons ontwikkeld hulpmiddel? En heeft dat hulpmiddel aanpassingen nodig om he...
Article
Full-text available
Continuïteit van forensische zorg is een thema dat de laatste jaren sterk in de belangstelling staat. Wanneer de strafrechtelijke titel (bijna of voorwaardelijk) afloopt is het essentieel dat er een soepele overgang is naar eventuele vervolgvoorzieningen en/of maatschappelij- ke re-integratie door middel van goede huisvesting, werk en sociale inbed...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Waar voorheen penitentiaire inrichtingen (PI) zich primair richtten op een humane uitvoering van de detentie, is hun opdracht verbreed naar het leveren van een bijdrage aan het terugdringen van recidive. Terugdringen van recidive blijkt alleen haalbaar als er een vorm van zorg, begeleiding of behandeling wordt geboden in de terugkeer naar de samenl...
Article
The body of evidence that the working alliance is associated with positive outcomes for mandated clients is growing. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of several characteristics of probation officers (POs) and offenders on the course of the working alliance during probation supervision. This study examined the patterns on th...
Article
There are few studies of stalking recidivism and none examining risk factors for recidivistic stalking of the same victim versus a different victim. Data from 70 clients of Dutch community forensic mental health clinics was used to investigate the prevalence of stalking recidivism, risk factors, and any potential protective effect of psychological...
Article
Full-text available
Sinds enkele jaren krijgt slachtofferbewust werken speciale aandacht bij de reclassering. Daarbij staan drie doelen centraal: respecteren van de rechten en belangen van het slachtoffer; in kaart brengen en vergroten van het slachtofferbewustzijn van de reclasseringscliënt; en toewerken naar de mogelijkheden voor herstel. In deze bijdrage wordt, op...
Article
Full-text available
Psychopathy, as described by the triarchic model, encompasses three distinct phenotypes: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The current study sought to operationalize these in a sample of 100 Dutch male forensic-psychiatric patients with differing forms of personality pathology who participated in a multi-site randomized clinical trial. Using a...
Article
Purpose Continuity of forensic mental health care is important in building protective structures around a patient and has been shown to decrease risks of relapse. Realising continuity can be complicated due to restrictions from finances or legislation and difficulties in collaboration between settings. In the Netherlands, several programs have been...
Article
Full-text available
Working in the forensic social field is interesting and fulfilling and many professionals deliberately choose to do this work. However, it can also be a very demanding job. Experiencing aggressive incidents by forensic clients, continuous tensions in contact with clients and the confrontation with narratives about shocking events are specific chara...
Presentation
Full-text available
The potential value of structured risk assessment for recidivism reduction may be enhanced by increasing implementation quality. The current study contributes to the limited body of literature on risk assessment implementations by evaluating the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: A...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Continuïteit in de forensische zorg versterkt beschermende structuren voor een cliënt en verkleint de kans op terugval. De afgelopen jaren zijn diverse (beleids)programma’s en initiatieven ontplooid om continuïteit in de forensische zorg te verbeteren. Een belangrijke vraag is of professionals en cliënten hier voldoende mee bekend zijn en welke beh...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, implementation research in the field of forensic risk assessment is limited and consensus on ‘implementation success’ is lacking. This study applies outcomes of success from implementation science to the implementation evaluation of the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) in a residential youth c...
Chapter
In dit hoofdstuk gaan we in op verschillen tussen vrouwen en mannen in de forensische psychiatrie. We bespreken de epidemiologie van delinquent gedrag, etiologische aspecten, diagnostiek pro justitia, risicotaxatie, preventie en (vroeg)interventie. In het handboek Psychopathologie bij vrouwen en mannen stellen meer dan veertig deskundigen de versc...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster (in Dutch) gives an introduction to the risk assessment instrument START:AV as a structured and evidence-based guide to assess an adolescent's strengths and vulnerabilities. The poster describes the START:AV's differences with other adolescent risk assessment instruments and the phases in the assessment process. Furthermore, the poster...
Chapter
In dit hoofdstuk worden de fundamenten van de risicotaxatie besproken en worden aanbevelingen gedaan voor de praktische uitvoer van gestructureerde risicotaxaties in de forensische zorg. In het eerste deel van dit hoofdstuk wordt ingegaan op de verschillende methoden van risicotaxatie, waarbij de nadruk ligt op de methode van het gestructureerd pro...
Article
Full-text available
This guideline is currently only available in Dutch. We are working on an English article and English translation of the guideline. In Dutch forensic psychiatric hospitals, the wishes and interests of victims and bereaved individuals are increasingly taken into account. To be able to make a structured inventory of the wishes and needs of victims...
Article
Most violence risk assessment tools have been validated predominantly in males. In this multicentre study, the HCR-20, HCR-20 V3, FAM, START, SAPROF, and PCL-R were coded on file information of 78 female forensic psychiatric patients discharged between 1993 and 2012 with a mean follow-up period of 11.8 years from one of four Dutch forensic psychiat...
Article
Aggressive incidents occur frequently in health care facilities, such as psychiatric care and forensic psychiatric hospitals. Previous research suggests that civil psychiatric inpatients may display more aggression than forensic inpatients. However, there is a lack of research comparing these groups on the incident severity, even though both freque...
Preprint
Familicides have received relatively little attention in previous research and mostly appear as a byproduct in studies with broader objectives. Here, we reviewed 67 studies from 18 countries, published between 1980 and 2017, that report on familicides in which an offender killed or attempted to kill their current or former spouse/intimate partner a...
Article
Familicides have received relatively little attention and are mostly discussed in studies with broader aims. Here, we reviewed 67 studies from 18 countries on familicides, in which an offender killed or attempted to kill their current or former spouse/intimate partner and one or more of their biological or stepchildren. We conducted a systematic li...
Article
The past two decades, a disproportionate growth of females entering the criminal justice system and forensic mental health services has been observed worldwide. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the background of women who are convicted for violent offenses. What is their criminal history, what are their motives for offending and in which wa...
Book
Full-text available
Het lectoraat Werken in Justitieel Kader ondersteunt forensisch sociale professionals door in én met de praktijk onderzoeken uit te voeren en de kennis die daaruit voortvloeit te delen en integreren in de praktijk en het onderwijs. Het lectoraat richt zich hierbij op wat al deze forensisch sociale professionals bindt, zoals beslissingen nemen in co...
Article
Full-text available
In dit artikel wordt recente kennis beschreven over vrouwelijke daders en in hoeverre zij verschillen van mannelijke daders, bijvoorbeeld in delictpleging, persoonlijke voorgeschiedenissen en psychische problematiek. Een belangrijke vraag die hierbij speelt is of vrouwen anders beoordeeld en gesanctioneerd worden vergeleken met mannen. Sancties,...
Chapter
Most of the commonly used risk assessment tools are developed and validated in mainly male populations and there is limited evidence for the usefulness of these tools in female populations. In 2014, gender-sensitive risk assessment guidelines for adult female (forensic) psychiatric patients in addition to the HCR-20 / HCR-20 V3 have been developed,...
Article
Full-text available
De meeste risicotaxatie-instrumenten voor jongeren in de jeugdzorg beoordelen het risico op één schadelijke uitkomst, zoals gewelddadig gedrag. Maar er zijn meer soorten risicovol gedrag. De Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescenten Versie (START:AV) beoordeelt zowel het risico op dader- als slachtofferschap.
Chapter
Assessing the level of violence risk is a vital task for mental health professionals working with offenders and (forensic) psychiatric patients. Many tools are available to aid the assessment process, each with a specific focus and purpose. Especially the structured professional judgement risk assessment tools are considered useful in guiding clini...