Vivica I Kraak

Vivica I Kraak
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | VT · Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise

PhD, MS RDN

About

134
Publications
97,379
Reads
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Citations
Introduction
Vivica Kraak, PhD, MS, RDN is an Associate Professor of Food and Nutrition Policy in the Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise at Virginia Tech and focuses on promoting healthy sustainable food systems and active transport. Current research: (1) testing a media campaign typology for healthy beverage behaviors; (2) testing a multi-dimensional digital food literacy framework for online retail; and (3) evaluating corporate accountability for healthy and sustainable living.
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - present
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2011 - May 2013
Deakin University
Position
  • Research Associate
May 2010 - present
None
Position
  • Consultant

Publications

Publications (134)
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Kraak, V.I.; Consavage Stanley, K. A Systematic Scoping Abstract: Interventions to discourage sugary beverages and encourage water consumption have produced modest and unsustainable behavioral changes to reduce obesity and noncommunicable disease risks. This systematic scoping review examined media campaigns to develop a typology to sup...
Article
Food processing has many benefits to accommodate modern lifestyles. How food processing is understood by public health nutritionists and registered dietitian nutritionists has important implications for translating and communicating food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) to promote safe, healthy, and sustainable eating patterns. Using a classificati...
Article
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The effectiveness of public-private partnerships (PPPs) to address malnutrition will depend on the issue, engagement purpose, policy context and actors' interactions. This commentary offers advice for governments, United Nations (UN) and civil society organizations to decide whether and how to engage with industry actors to improve diets for popula...
Article
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The United States (U.S.) Department of Agriculture (USDA)-administered Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) made substantial changes in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. These changes highlight the need to identify the digital literacy skills and capacities of SNAP adults to purchase healthy groceries online....
Article
Over the past decade, a plethora of alternative protein (AP) products has entered the US food system as plant-based food and beverage products. These AP products, which include plant-based meat and dairy alternatives and cell-cultured meat and seafood products, are being developed for the marketplace to simulate the appearance, texture, taste, and...
Article
Objective To document and analyze the food systems interventions delivered by community health workers (CHW) serving as educators within the United States (U.S.) Data Source Ten databases (ie, Agricola, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, ERIC, Proquest Social Science and Education, Proquest Theses and Dissertations, PubMed, Scopus, SocIndex, Web of Science) a...
Article
Background Fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV) are often discarded by food pantries due to perishability. Emerging research documents the effectiveness of marketing-mix and choice-architecture (MMCA) strategies to increase client selection of FFV and reduce food waste in food pantries. Objective To explore perceptions of Virginia food pantry personn...
Article
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Background: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) supports Americans with lower income to purchase dietary products at authorized retailers. This research aimed to evaluate SNAP-authorized retailers' public commitments in support of nutrition security and to examine differences between traditional grocers and nontraditional (e.g., c...
Article
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There is widespread agreement among experts that a fundamental reorientation of global, regional, national and local food systems is needed to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals Agenda and address the linked challenges of undernutrition, obesity and climate change described as the Global Syndemic. Recognising the urgency of this imperativ...
Article
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Sugary beverage consumption is associated with many health risks. This study used a proof-of-concept media campaign typology to examine U.S. beverage campaigns that promoted healthy beverages and encouraged or discouraged sugary beverages. We used a three-step systematic scoping review to identify, organize, analyze, and synthesize evidence. Step 1...
Chapter
This chapter describes the evidence for industry advertising and marketing practices that have been used to promote highly processed branded food and beverage products with excessive energy, fat, sugars and sodium (HFSS) to influence dietary patterns and increase the health risks for children and adolescents. It describes a commercial marketing foo...
Article
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Adults with lower incomes are disproportionately affected by poverty, food insecurity, obesity, and diet‐related non‐communicable diseases (NCDs). In 2020–2021 amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) expanded the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Online Purchasing Pilo...
Article
Dissemination and implementation (D&I) researchers serve critical scientific, practical, and personal roles in translating science to public health benefit. However, they face multifaceted barriers that may erode their capacity to plan, lead, and evaluate implementation. Individualized coaching focused on human flourishing is an unexplored approach...
Article
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The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Strategic Plan 2020–2025 committed to reduce children’s consumption of energy-dense nutrient-poor food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) and promote healthy eating patterns to reduce malnutrition in all forms. This paper describes the capacity-building needs in PAHO’s Member States...
Article
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Background In 2015, the Partnership for a Healthier America launched the branded Fruits & Veggies (FNV) Campaign to apply a unique industry-inspired marketing approach to promote fruit and vegetable sales and intake to moms and teens in two US pilot markets: Fresno, California and Hampton Roads, Virginia. The aims of this cross-sectional study were...
Article
More than one-third of American Millennial adults have obesity, and a significant amount of their household budget is spent on purchasing energy-dense and nutrient-poor food and beverage products. Consumers’ brand awareness and purchasing behaviors are influenced by celebrity credibility measured by trustworthiness, expertise and attractiveness; an...
Data
A Typology of U.S. Media Campaigns Used to Promote or Discourage Sugary Beverages and Encourage Water to Americans, 1990-2020
Article
SNAP-authorized retailers could use marketing-mix and choice-architecture (MMCA) strategies to improve SNAP purchases, but associated costs are unknown. Perceived cost and inconvenience to implement eight MMCA strategies were assessed among 29 U.S. retailers. Differences in perspective were explored (owners vs. managers, corporate vs. independent r...
Article
Most Americans consume dietary sodium exceeding age-specific government-recommended targets of 1,500-2,300 mg/day per person. The majority (71%) of US dietary sodium comes from restaurant and packaged foods. Excess sodium intake contributes to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death in the United States. This re...
Article
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This commentary describes insights from Star Trek's fictional television series to understand how state and non-state actors address conflicts of interest (COIs) through global nutrition governance. I examine the findings of Ralston and colleagues for 44 state and non-state actors who responded to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) consultatio...
Article
This study explored the feasibility of a food waste management and reduction program (FWMRP) at a youth summer camp. An experiential FWMRP educational curriculum was developed and delivered to 864 campers over four weeks. Food waste was collected for three meals before and after the program each week. Stakeholder interviews (n = 6) explored staff v...
Article
Background In 2015, the Partnership for a Healthier America (PHA) piloted a branded social marketing communications initiative called the FNV (Fruits & Veggies) Campaign to promote the sale and consumption of fruits and vegetables among mom and teen target audiences in 2 California and Virginia pilot markets. After the first year, FNV was expanded...
Article
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Research has shown that celebrity endorsement is a marketing strategy primarily used to promote highly processed food and beverage products to children and adolescents, which negatively influences their diet quality and increases their risks of obesity. This study conducted an accountability evaluation to examine government, expert, and industry po...
Article
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Kraak VI, Zhou M, Rincón-Gallardo Patino S. Digital marketing to young people: Consequences for the health and diets of future generations. UNSCN Nutrition. 2020;45:9-24. https://www.unscn.org/uploads/web/news/UNSCN-Nutrition-45-WEB.pdf Digital marketing is widely used to promote highly processed food and beverage products with excessive energy, f...
Article
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https://www.unscn.org/uploads/web/news/UNSCN-Nutrition-45-WEB.pdf This paper is in a special issue of the UNSCN on digital technology and nutrition. It examines digital technology trends that are influencing the current and future business practices of the food retail landscape, including transnational grocery stores and chain restaurants. It des...
Article
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There is insufficient evidence that restaurant menu labeling policies are cost-effective strategies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Evidence suggests that menu labeling has a modest effect on calories purchased and consumed. No review has been published on the effect of menu labeling policies on transnational re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The Partnership for a Healthier America launched the branded Fruits & Veggies (FNV) Campaign in 2015 to promote fruit and vegetable sales and intake to mothers and teens in two US pilot media market areas: Fresno, California and Hampton Roads, Virginia. Limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of marketing strategies to influen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The Partnership for a Healthier America launched the branded Fruits & Veggies (FNV) Campaign in 2015 to promote fruit and vegetable sales and intake to moms and teens in two United States pilot market areas: Fresno, California and Hampton Roads, Virginia. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to: 1) assess brand awareness and frui...
Article
Objective To examine public commitments for encouraging United States consumers to make healthy dietary purchases with their Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits among of prevalent SNAP-authorised retailers. Setting National SNAP-authorised retail landscape in addition to stores located in California and Virginia, two states t...
Article
Full-text available
Kraak VI, Davy BM, Rockwell MS, Kostelnik S, Hedrick VE. Policy recommendations to address energy drink marketing and consumption by vulnerable populations in the United States. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2020;120(5):767–777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2020.01.013. Full pdf available at: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ay0M7t0kPq7Hp This research comme...
Article
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In 2015, the Partnership for a Healthier America launched the branded Fruits & Veggies (FNV) Campaign to promote fruit and vegetable sales and intake to moms and teens in two California and Virginia pilot markets. The FNV Campaign used a novel, creative approach to promote fruits and vegetables through integrated marketing communication (IMC) strat...
Article
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In 2010, 193 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed World Health Assembly Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children to prevent obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). No study has examined HFSS marketing policies across the WHO regional off...
Article
Objective: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorized retailers' healthy perceptions and store availability of healthy products were explored to plan a healthy food retail program. Methods: Cognitive anthropology (free list) and quantitative (food environment measure) methods were used to assess retailers' healthy product percep...
Article
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Celebrity endorsement used to promote energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and beverage products may contribute to poor dietary habits. This study examined celebrity endorsement of branded food and beverage products and marketing campaigns in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2017. Celebrity endorsement data were collected from peer-reviewe...
Article
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants could benefit from exposure to marketing-mix and choice-architecture (MMCA) strategies that encourage healthy consumer purchases. However, the perceived feasibility of independent and corporate SNAP-authorized store owners and managers (e.g., retailers) to implement healthy MMCA strategi...
Article
This report summarizes the available evidence for strategies used in large-scale, branded marketing campaigns to promote healthy dietary behaviors to Americans between 1990 and 2016. An adapted health-branding framework guided the 3-step mixed-methods approach to identify evidence for campaigns using a scoping review, comprehensive literature revie...
Article
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Transnational restaurant chains sell food and beverage products in 75 to 139 countries worldwide linked to obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study examined whether transnational restaurant chains reformulated products and standardized portions aligned with healthy dietary guidelines and criteria. Firstly, we describe the transnatio...
Article
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United Nations (UN) organizations have urged governments to restrict the marketing of unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverage products to children. This study conducted an accountability evaluation for the International Food & Beverage Alliance's (IFBA's) Global Policy on Marketing Communications to Children (Global Policy) compared with UN and ot...
Article
Executive summary Malnutrition in all its forms, including obesity, undernutrition, and other dietary risks, is the leading cause of poor health globally. In the near future, the health effects of climate change will considerably compound these health challenges. Climate change can be considered a pandemic because of its sweeping effects on the he...
Article
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Background Altering food store environments is a promising approach to encourage healthy product purchases by consumers to improve their diet quality and health. Food store owners and managers are intermediaries to ensure that environmental changes are enacted. Despite their role as gatekeepers to implement and sustain healthy food environment chan...
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The role of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of non-skeletal health issues has received significant media and research attention in recent years. Costs associated with clinical management of low vitamin D (LVD) have increased exponentially. However, no clear evidence supports vitamin D screening to improve health outcomes. Authoritative bo...
Preprint
The role of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of non-skeletal health issues has received significant media and research attention in recent years. Costs associated with clinical management of low vitamin D (LVD) have increased exponentially. However, no clear evidence supports vitamin D screening to improve health outcomes. Authoritative bo...
Article
Purpose: To test the feasibility of Kids SIP smartER, a school-based intervention to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Design: Matched-contact randomized crossover study with mixed-methods analysis. Setting: One middle school in rural, Appalachian Virginia. Participants: Seventy-four sixth and seventh graders (5 classro...
Article
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Consumption of restaurant food and beverage products high in fat, sugar and sodium contribute to obesity and non-communicable diseases. We evaluated restaurant-sector progress to promote healthy food environments for Americans. We conducted a desk review of seven electronic databases (January 2006–January 2017) to examine restaurant strategies used...
Article
Objectives: We examined the impact of the national Smart Snacks in School nutrition standards on foods and beverages available for purchase by rural Appalachian Virginia middle school students. Methods: Audits of products sold à la carte were completed before and after implementation of standards in 8 schools. Meals sold à la carte were quantified...
Article
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This review identified and adapted choice architecture frameworks to develop a novel framework that restaurant owners could use to promote healthy food environments for customers who currently overconsume products high in fat, sugar and sodium that increase their risk of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. This review was conducted...
Article
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In May 2010, 192 Member States endorsed Resolution WHA63.14 to restrict the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverage products high in saturated fats, trans fatty acids, free sugars and/or salt to children and adolescents globally. We examined the actions taken between 2010 and early 2016 – by civil society groups, the World Health Organization...