Vivian Cook

Vivian Cook
Newcastle University | NCL · School of Education, Communication and Language Sciences

About

98
Publications
43,042
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7,915
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2006 - present
Newcastle University

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Street signs are an everyday part of our lives. Yet their language and form reveal important aspects of written English. The aim of this article is to open the reader's eyes to some common features of English street signs by looking at some of the signs in a typical street, Leazes Park Road in Newcastle upon Tyne. On one side of Leazes Park Road th...
Chapter
This chapter looks at some of the questions raised by the fact that people know more than one language. It presents the approach that look at areas where some relationship can be found between linguistics and second language acquisition (SLA) research. A relationship between linguistics and SLA research started to emerge with the influential distin...
Chapter
Introduction The aim of this chapter is twofold: (i) to explore how linguistic multi-competence has raised research questions that had rarely been asked previously, and (ii) to introduce fundamental ideas about multi-competence-based methodology and multi-competence-focused research questions. Since its first mention in Cook (1991), the concept of...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the concept of linguistic multi-competence and sets the scene for the rest of the book. It looks first at issues of definition and then at three premises that have become part and parcel of multi-competence. The aim is to examine the ideas underlying multi-competence rather than to present new views of multi-competence or to...
Book
How are two or more languages learned and contained in the same mind or the same community? This handbook presents an up-to-date view of the concept of multi-competence, exploring the research questions it has generated and the methods that have been used to investigate it. The book brings together psychologists, sociolinguists, Second Language Acq...
Article
These concluding reflections seek to put the articles of this special issue in a broader context. The article begins by looking at the ideas of cognitive linguistics and linguistic relativity that are invoked. It then considers the questions that arise about the relationship between two or more languages in the same mind, the differences between th...
Chapter
This paper concentrates on grammatical punctuation in written street signs using a methodology derived from linguistic landscape research and writing systems research outlined in Cook (2013). The data come from two inner city streets in Newcastle upon Tyne. After outlining the use of punctuation marks in ‘standard’ English, the paper describes the...
Article
Over the past decade it has increasingly been argued that learning several languages is a different activity from learning two: beyond second language (L2) acquisition research lies third language (L3) acquisition, or indeed Ln acquisition. This book looks at some of the properties of L3/Ln acquisition primarily through three distinct models, prese...
Article
This paper looks at the language of the street from a perspective that draws on linguistics, writing system research and linguistic landscapes. It describes the totality of signs in two inner city streets in Newcastle upon Tyne, one virtually monolingual, one part of Chinatown, in terms of who controls the sign (licensor, owner, author, writer, rea...
Article
For many centuries people who speak more than one language, that is to say second language (L2) users, have been admired. In the 16th century an advisor to Elizabeth I of England said: 'For even as a hawk flieth not high with one wing, even so a man reacheth not to excellency with one tongue.' Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster, 1570. In the 21st centu...
Chapter
A native speaker is typically defined as “a person who has spoken a certain language since early childhood”. Keywords: bilingualism; esl/efl; language teaching; research methods in applied linguistics; second language acquisition; multilingualism
Chapter
The term “multicompetence” was originally defined as “the compound state of a mind with two grammars” (Cook, 1991); in the context of that paper, “grammar” was used in the Chomskyan sense of the total knowledge of language in the mind (the I-language) leading some people to infer wrongly that multicompetence was restricted to syntax.
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an introduction to a special issue of Writing Systems Research on second language writing systems. Aside from introducing the contributions to the special issue it lays out central themes and questions.
Chapter
The aim here is to discuss the ‘second language’ in second language acquisition (SLA) research. The phrase ‘second language learning’ involves three parameters of variation: the nature of language, the nature of a second language and the nature of learning. Prolegomena are the preliminary matters to be considered before the main work, as in Hjelmsl...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years writing systems has emerged as a distinct area of research, driven by cross-linguistic studies of the acquisition or use of literacy and its cognitive repercussions, by the novel forms of language use developing in computer-mediated com- munication, and by sociolinguistic explorations of written language as a marker of identity, amo...
Chapter
Early Days: Links and QuestionsWhat Is the Sequence of L2 Acquisition?What Are the Similarities between L2 Learning and L1 Acquisition?Does Age Affect L2 Learning?Do L2 Learners Attain the Same Level of Language as Native Speakers?How Important Is Transfer to L2 Learning?Do L2 Learners Have Access to Universal Grammar?What Is the Role of Language I...
Article
Three of the basic issues raised by the multi-competence perspective for SLA research are: (1) who are the L2 users? Both as the possession of the individual and of the community, L1 and L2 are diverse and flexible, ranging from developing to relatively static to reducing. SLA research has to recognise the shifting flux of L1 and L2 systems. (2) wh...
Article
This paper discusses ways of using second language acquisition (SLA) research in teaching. It argues that the proper use of SLA research should meet a set of overlapping requirements: validity of the research, ethics in obtaining results, generality of research and teaching use, matching of languages in research and teaching, matching of learners a...
Article
One of the innovations that we have recently introduced in our reviews section is to include reviews of books that were published some time ago. The aim of the ‘classics’ reviews is to indicate how far these older works are still relevant to current thinking, how far we have or have not moved on, and generally to serve as an occasion for a critical...
Chapter
Full-text available
Goals of language teaching can be divided into external goals that relate to actual second language (L2) use outside the classroom and internal goals that relate to the educational aims of the classroom itself. Typically, external goals have been measured against the abilities of monolingual native speakers; internal goals have scarcely featured in...
Article
A historical review article commemorates the publication of Noam Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" fify years ago, and provides an overview of his 'earth-shattering' impact on linguistics. Figures, References.
Chapter
Ideas of social interaction are increasingly having an impact upon research into the learning and teaching of second languages. The aims of this book are to: demonstrate the importance of investigating second language learning and teaching from a social-interactional and sociocultural perspective; describe the implications of the social-interaction...
Book
This volume brings together contributions by leading researchers of the social interactional and socio-cultural approaches to language learning and teaching. It provides both an introduction to this important growth point and also an overview of cutting edge research, covering a wide range of language learning and teaching contexts.
Article
This paper is concerned with how advanced L2 learners of English interpret reflexive anaphors such as himself and pronominals such as him in sentences such as John said Peter helps himself and John said Peter helps him. Parameterized Binding Theory claims that the settings for the governing category parameter dictate whether particular anaphors or...
Article
This article is concerned with the ability of language learners to extrapolate from the word order in one type of phrase to that in another, namely from the order in the verb phrase (VP) to the orders in the prepositional (PP) and noun phrases (NP) and from the verb phrase order plus either the prepositional-phrase order or the noun-phrase order to...
Article
The term multicompetence describes “the compound state of a mind with two grammars” (Cook, 1991a, p. 112). This paper reviews evidence addressing two questions: 1. Do people who know two languages differ from people who know only one in other respects than simply knowledge of an L2? L2 users differ from monolinguals in L1 knowledge; advanced L2 use...
Article
The aim of a structure drill is for the learner to produce a number of utterances consisting of the same grammatical structure. A drill has two parts: the input (what is supplied to the learner); and the output (what the learner has to produce him-self). There are two methods of describing drills: by considering the relationship of each input/outpu...
Article
Full-text available
An experiment investigated whether Japanese speakers’ categorisation of objects and substances as shape or material is influenced by acquiring English, based on Imai and Gentner (1997). Subjects were presented with an item such as a cork pyramid and asked to choose between two other items that matched it for shape (plastic pyramid) or for material...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Testing the principle of structure-dependency in second language acquisition means showing that L2 learners know structure-dependency in questions regardless of whether their L1s have syntactic movement. A grammaticality judgment test examined relative clauses, questions with relative clauses and questions with structure-dependency violations with...
Book
This book looks at changes in the first language of people who know a second language, thus seeing L2 users as people in their own right differing from the monolingual in both first and second languages. It presents theories and research that investigate the first language of second language users from a variety of perspectives including vocabulary...
Article
This collection of papers treats second language users in their own right rather than as failed native speakers, reflecting a new shift within the field of second language acquisition research. The 13 papers are: (1) "Background to the L2 User" (Vivian Cook); (2) "Lexical Representation and Lexical Processing in the L2 User" (Anette de Groot); (3)...
Article
This paper argues for the re-examination of the time-honoured view that the first language should be avoided in the classroom by teachers and students. The justifications for this rest on a doubtful analogy with first language acquisition, on a questionable compartmentalization of the two languages in the mind, and on the aim of maximizing students...
Article
This paper argues that applied linguistics needs to pay more attention to the properties of the writing systems of language. Knowledge of writing is implicitly involved in many areas of language. It consists of at least: the characteristics of sound-based or meaning-based writing systems and of writing direction; rules for linking written forms wit...
Article
This article argues that language teaching would benefit by paying attention to the L2 user rather than concentrating primarily on the native speaker. It suggests ways in which language teaching can apply an L2 user model and exploit the students' L1. Because L2 users differ from monolingual native speakers in their knowledge of their L2s and L1s a...
Article
This paper compares the spelling of adult L2 users of English with native L1 users,both children and adults, using data from the 1993 NFER survey of L1 children, from the 1980 Wing and Baddeley corpus, from a UK university EFL test for overseas students and from work by overseas students in England.An overallcomparison showed similar error rates in...
Article
The term ‘multi‐competence’ is used to define an individual's knowledge of a native language and a second language, that is L1 linguistic competence plus L2 interlanguage. The paper discusses the persistent tendency in L2 pedagogy, from the 1920s to the present, to make fallacious comparisons between multi‐competent L2 learners and monoglot speaker...
Chapter
This chapter develops the ideas and methodology described in the first chapter by concentrating on the two areas of grammatical morphemes and negation, which were most prominent in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Both typically rely on earlier models of syntax derived from structuralist linguistics. Both use data gathered from observations of learn...
Chapter
The concern of this and the next chapter is the relevance for SLA research of the current Chomskyan model of linguistics. Though theories of syntax and of acquisition go together in this model, this chapter emphasises its syntactic aspects, namely principles and parameters theory, and their relationship to L2 learning, while the next chapter deals...
Chapter
The model of language acquisition most associated with SLA research in recent years has been the Universal Grammar (UG) model developed by Chomsky, which uses the principles and parameters syntax described in the previous chapter. This association between linguistics and SLA research reveals some of the potential and some of the dangers involved in...
Chapter
Most of this book has assumed that language is represented and acquired by the human mind in ways that are different from any other knowledge. This chapter examines research that has mostly made the opposite assumption: namely, that language can be accommodated in a broader framework of how people store and acquire knowledge in general rather than...
Chapter
Relating second language acquisition to linguistics means looking at the nature of both linguistics and second language research. Chomsky (1986a, p. 3) defined three basic questions for linguistics: (i) What Constitutes Knowledge of Language? The prime goal of linguistics is to describe the language contents of the human mind; its task is to repres...
Chapter
A further model based on the type of research outlined in Chapter 2 was developed by a group that included Clahsen, Meisel, Pienemann, and Johnston, first in Germany and later in Australia. The most common name for its first version is the Multidimensional Model of Meisel, Clahsen, and Pienemann, (1981); the later version is often called the Teacha...
Chapter
The next three chapters look at the ways in which more general theories of second language acquisition have drawn on the type of syntactic evidence and the view of sequence of acquisition discussed in the previous chapter. This chapter is concerned with the Input Hypothesis proposed by Stephen Krashen. During the late 1970s Krashen put forward an a...
Chapter
The research in this chapter treats the production and comprehension of speech as a dynamic choice of strategies within a situation, divided into two broad areas of learning and communication strategies. The original interlanguage concept (Selinker, 1972) saw strategies of L2 learning and communication as two central processes. In a learning strate...
Book
The Background to Current Second Language Acquisition Research Sequences of Acquisition in Observational Data The Input Hypothesis - Pidginisation and Variation The Multidimensional Model - Learning and Communication Strategies Beyond Phrase Structure Syntax Principles and Parameters Syntax Universal Grammar Cognitive Approaches to Second Language...
Article
This paper examines the consequences of the fact that human minds may know more than one language for the poverty-of-the-stimulus argument that speakers know more than they could have learnt. Qualifications to the argument are necessary because not all L2 learners attain the same compe tence as L1 speakers; types of evidence are potentially availab...
Article
This paper explores the implications of the principles and parameters theory of Universal Grammar for language teaching. Learning the core aspects of a second language means re-setting values for parameters according to the evidence the learner receives, perhaps starting from the L1 setting. Implications for the classroom can only be drawn for core...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes three stages in the development of CALL programs to fit the communicative approach to language teaching, which is here understood as an approach that emphasizes meaningful interaction and information exchange.The three stages are exemplified by programs called Escape from Utopia (based on an ELIZA keyword-matching technique),...
Article
Outlines some applications of Natural Language Processing, the capacity of computers to process human language, to language teaching. The role of syntactic parsing (the assigning of grammatical structure to sentences by computer) and semantically based processing is examined. (Author/SED)
Article
Der Begriff der Sprachfunktionen, d. h. der Zwecke, für die Sprache verwendet wird (z. B. ‘Bitten’ oder 'Grüßen'), ist in den letzen Jahren immer mehr in das Zentrum des Interesses gerückt, insbesondere bei den Herstellern von Lehrmaterialien. Dennoch gibt es kaum empirische Untersuchungen, die den funktional orientierten Ansatz im Fremdsprachenunt...
Article
While there has been much discussion of syllabuses, there has been little discussion of the content—the actual subject matter—of language lessons. Typical content has been imaginary characters and information. ‘Real’ content, based on the world outside the classroom, has been comparatively rare. Some possible types of real content are another acade...
Article
‘Lost in a Maze’ is a game that I have used successfully with intermediate adult students. Briefly, it requires the students to find their way out of a maze.
Article
Writers of textbooks published since the beginning of 1978 are invited to submit 1000 word articles discussing the principles underlying their work and accompanied by two pages from the book in question. The articles should be problem-based, not advertisements, and the extracts should be in a form suitable for reproduction without redrawing. Writer...
Article
This article examines some of the ways in which language has been organised for language teaching. Their deficiencies are examined and some possibilities for the future are suggested. (Author/NC R)
Article
An experiment is described to test the hypothesis that errors in the comprehension of relative clauses in English are caused by perceptual strategies resorted to when the normal capacity of the processing channel is exceeded. Native children, foreign adults, and native adults were asked to show Subject and Object relations in sentences that were re...
Article
Full-text available
Writing a parser to give syntactic representations of students' input in BASIC is justified by the limited scope of the grammar required and by the need to integrate with other CALL materials. BAP (BASIC parser) is described in terms of input processing, which normalizes the sentence; word-matching, which matches it against key structure words and...

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Project (1)
Project
Analyzing and theorizing the language of the English street sign in terms of function, use, form. Aim: book. So far 3 published articles; 3 unsubmitted articles.