Vishva Dixit

Vishva Dixit
Genentech · Department of Physiological Chemistry

MD

About

386
Publications
71,582
Reads
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102,522
Citations
Citations since 2016
17 Research Items
28233 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202201,0002,0003,0004,000
201620172018201920202021202201,0002,0003,0004,000
Introduction
Interested in cell death, inflammation and ubiquitin modification. Foreign Member, European Molecular Biology Organization, a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. A historical perspective of his contributions is documented in three accounts published in Nature (2008, 453:271-273), Nature Cell Biology (2010, 12(5): 415) and The Journal of Immunology (2013, 190:3-4).
Additional affiliations
January 1998 - present
Telekom Germany GmbH
January 1996 - present
German Cancer Research Center

Publications

Publications (386)
Article
Inflammatory processes that recruit leukocytes to injured or infected tissues are crucial for tissue repair and the elimination of pathogens. However, excessive or chronic inflammation promotes tissue damage and disease, as in arthritis, atherosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and COVID-19. Intracellular constituents released from dying cells...
Article
The pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD) executes lytic cell death called pyroptosis to eliminate the replicative niche of intracellular pathogens. Evolution favors pathogens that circumvent this host defense mechanism. Here, we show that the Shigella ubiquitin ligase IpaH7.8 functions as an inhibitor of GSDMD. Shigella is an enteroinvasive bac...
Article
Full-text available
In neutrophils, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) generated via the pentose phosphate pathway fuels NADPH oxidase NOX2 to produce reactive oxygen species for killing invading pathogens. However, excessive NOX2 activity can exacerbate inflammation, as in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we use two unbiased chemical...
Article
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Plasma membrane rupture (PMR) is the final cataclysmic event in lytic cell death. PMR releases intracellular molecules termed damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that propagate the inflammatory response1–3. The underlying mechanism for PMR, however, is unknown. Here we show that the ill-characterized nerve injury-induced protein 1 (NINJ1)4...
Article
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Mutations in the death receptor Fas1,2 or its ligand FasL3 cause autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), whereas mutations in caspase-8 or its adaptor FADD - which mediate cell death downstream of Fas/FasL - cause severe immunodeficiency in addition to ALPS4-6. Mouse models have corroborated a role for FADD-caspase-8 in promoting inflammato...
Preprint
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Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated c...
Article
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Significance Alveolar type II (AT2) cells are a stem cell population in the lung contributing to the repair of alveolar damage and the formation of Ras-induced lung adenocarcinoma. Here we show that a critical output of Ras signaling in AT2 cells is inactivation of the ubiquitin ligase COP1, resulting in stabilization of the transcription factor ET...
Article
Uncontrolled cell proliferation and genomic instability are common features of cancer and can arise from, respectively, the loss of cell-cycle control and defective checkpoints. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, ultimately executed by ubiquitin-ligating enzymes (E3s), plays a key part in cell-cycle regulation and is dominated by two multisubunit E3s,...
Article
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) proteins are a family of transcription factors that control the expression of genes in key cellular processes. As aberrant activation of NF-κB is linked to the pathogenesis of human diseases, it must be tightly regulated to ensure that an appropriate physiological outcome is achieved. One such regulatory mechanism, termed...
Article
Receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) promotes cell survival-mice lacking RIPK1 die perinatally, exhibiting aberrant caspase-8-dependent apoptosis and mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL)-dependent necroptosis(1,2,3). However, mice expressing catalytically inactive RIPK1 are viable(2,4,5), so an ill-defined pro-survival function for the RIPK1 s...
Article
Inflammasomes are multiprotein signalling platforms that control the inflammatory response and coordinate antimicrobial host defences. They are assembled by pattern-recognition receptors following the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and danger signals in the cytosol of host cells, and they activate inflammatory caspases to produce cytokines...
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NLRC4 and NLRP3, of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family of intracellular proteins, are expressed in innate immune cells and are thought to nucleate distinct inflammasome complexes that promote caspase-1 activation, secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and a form of cell death termed pyroptosis. We show that NLRP3 associates wi...
Article
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Significance Pyroptosis is a form of cell death that is critical for eliminating innate immune cells infected with intracellular bacteria. Microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide, which is a component of Gram-negative bacteria, trigger activation of the inflammatory caspases 1, 4, 5, and 11. These proteases cleave the cytoplasmic protein Gasd...
Article
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Dynamic modulation of protein levels is tightly controlled in response to physiological cues. In mammalian cells, much of the protein degradation is carried out by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Similar to kinases, components of the ubiquitin system are often dysregulated, leading to a variety of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenera...
Article
To achieve a durable adaptive immune response, lymphocytes must undergo clonal expansion and induce a survival program that enables the persistence of Ag-experienced cells and the development of memory. During the priming phase of this response, CD4(+) T lymphocytes either remain tolerized or undergo clonal expansion. In this article, we show that...
Article
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Context-independent anti-hypusine antibodies were identified that bind to the posttranslational modification (PTM), hypusine, with minimal dependence on flanking amino acid sequences. The antibodies bind to both hypusine and deoxyhypusine or selectively to hypusine but not to deoxyhypusine. Phage display was used to further enhance the affinity of...
Article
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Viral infection activates danger signals that are transmitted via the retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptor (RLR), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), and Toll-like receptor (TLR) protein signaling cascades. This places host cells in an antiviral posture by up-regulating antiviral cytokines including type-I interfe...
Article
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Inactivation of the TNFAIP3 gene, encoding the A20 protein, is associated with critical inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. However, the role of A20 in attenuating inflammatory signalling is unclear owing to paradoxical in vitro and in vivo findings. Here we utilize genetically engineered mi...
Article
A variety of signals finely tune insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells to prevent both hyper-and hypoglycemic states. Here, we show that post-translational regulation of the transcription factors ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5 by the ubiquitin ligase COP1 (also called RFWD2) in β cells is critical for insulin secretion. Mice lacking COP1 in β cells develop...
Article
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Intracellular lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Burkholderia thailandensis activates mouse caspase-11, causing pyroptotic cell death, interleukin-1β processing, and lethal septic shock. How caspase-11 executes these downstream signalling events is largely unknown...
Article
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Germline BAP1 mutations predispose to several cancers, in particular malignant mesothelioma (MM). MM pathogenesis is generally associated to professional exposure to asbestos. However, to date we found that none of the mesothelioma patients carrying germline BAP1 mutations were professionally exposed to asbestos. We hypothesized that germline BAP1...
Patent
The invention provides anti-polyubiquitin antibodies and methods of using the same.
Article
T-helper type 17 (TH17) cells that produce the cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. The differentiation of TH17 cells is regulated by transcription factors such as RORγt, but post-translational mechanisms preventing the rampant production of pro-inflammatory IL-17A have rec...
Article
Proper regulation of inflammation is essential for combating pathogen invasion and maintaining homeostasis. While hyporesponsive hosts succumb to infections, unchecked inflammatory reactions promote debilitating and fatal conditions including septic shock, autoimmune disease, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, and cancer. Pathogens, host immune cell...
Article
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Cells exposed to extreme physicochemical or mechanical stimuli die in an uncontrollable manner, as a result of their immediate structural breakdown. Such an unavoidable variant of cellular demise is generally referred to as /`accidental cell death/' (ACD). In most settings, however, cell death is initiated by a genetically encoded apparatus, correl...
Article
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The T cell hyperproliferation and autoimmune phenotypes that manifest in mice lacking E3 ubiquitin ligases such as Cbl, ITCH, or GRAIL highlight the importance of ubiquitination for the maintenance of peripheral T cell tolerance. Less is known, however, about the deubiquitinating enzymes that regulate T cell proliferation and effector function. Her...
Article
Recent studies have offered a glimpse into the sophisticated mechanisms by which inflammasomes respond to danger and promote secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Activation of caspases 1 and 11 in canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes, respectively, also protects against infection by triggering pyroptosis, a proinflammatory and lytic mode...
Article
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Sirtuins can promote deacetylation of a wide range of substrates in diverse cellular compartments and regulate many cellular processes¹,². Recently Narayan et al., reported that SIRT2 was required for necroptosis based on their findings that SIRT2 inhibition, knock-down or knock-out prevented necroptosis. We sought to confirm and explore the role o...
Article
Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3 trigger pro-inflammatory cell death termed “necroptosis.” Studies with RIPK3-deficient mice or the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 suggest that necroptosis exacerbates pathology in many disease models. We engineered mice expressing catalytically inactive RIPK3 D161N or RIPK1 D138N to determine t...
Article
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Inflammation is a critical component of the immune response. However, acute or chronic inflammation can be highly destructive. Uncontrolled inflammation forms the basis for allergy, asthma and various autoimmune disorders. Here we identified a signaling pathway that was exclusively responsible for the production of inflammatory cytokines but not fo...
Article
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Significance Switch (S) regions are repetitive DNA sequences. During an immune response, one of several S regions recombine with a donor switch (Sμ) that is constitutively “on,” resulting in the production of antibodies with new functions. Donor Sμ is large and very repeat-rich, while another switch, Sε, is less than half its size with a low densit...
Article
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Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Citrobacter rodentium, Salmonella typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri are sensed in an ill-defined manner by an intracellular inflammasome complex that activates caspase-11. We show that macrophages loaded with synthetic lipid A, E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or S. typhimurium LPS activate caspa...
Article
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Receptor-interacting protein kinase 4 (RIPK4) is required for epidermal differentiation and is mutated in Bartsocas-Papas syndrome. RIPK4 binds to protein kinase C, but its signaling mechanisms are largely unknown. Ectopic RIPK4, but not catalytically inactive or Bartsocas-Papas RIPK4 mutants, induced accumulation of cytosolic β-catenin and a trans...
Article
The interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathway leads to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation in mammals and is similar to the Toll pathway in Drosophila: the IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) is homologous to Pelle. Two additional proximal mediators were identified that are required for IL-1-induced NF-kappa B activation: IRAK-2, a Pel...
Patent
The present invention relates to novel Death Domain Containing Receptor-4 (DR4) proteins which are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. In particular, isolated nucleic acid molecules are provided encoding the human DR4 proteins. DR4 polypeptides are also provided as are vectors, host cells and recombinant methods for producin...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammasomes are a set of intracellular protein complexes that enable autocatalytic activation of inflammatory caspases, which drive host and immune responses by releasing cytokines and alarmins into circulation and by inducing pyroptosis, a proinflammatory cell death mode. The inflammasome type mediating these responses varies with the microbial...
Article
Full-text available
Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes assembled by intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and they initiate innate immune responses to invading pathogens and danger signals by activating caspase-1 (ref. 1). Caspase-1 activation leads to the maturation and release of the pro-inflammatory cyto...
Article
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NLRC4 is a cytosolic member of the NOD-like receptor family that is expressed in innate immune cells. It senses indirectly bacterial flagellin and type III secretion systems, and responds by assembling an inflammasome complex that promotes caspase-1 activation and pyroptosis. Here we use knock-in mice expressing NLRC4 with a carboxy-terminal 3×Flag...
Article
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De-ubiquitinating enzyme BAP1 is mutated in a hereditary cancer syndrome with increased risk of mesothelioma and uveal melanoma. Somatic BAP1 mutations occur in various malignancies. We show that mouse Bap1 gene deletion is lethal during embryogenesis, but systemic or hematopoietic-restricted deletion in adults recapitulates features of human myelo...
Article
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Inflammation is triggered when innate immune cells detect infection or tissue injury. Surveillance mechanisms involve pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. Most PRRs respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or host-derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by triggering activation...
Article
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immunity. Noncanonical K63-linked polyubiquitination plays a key regulatory role in NF-κB signaling pathways by functioning as a scaffold to recruit kinase complexes containing ubiquitin-binding domains. Ubiquitination is balanced by deubiquitinases that cleave pol...
Article
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Addition and removal of ubiquitin or ubiquitin chains to and from proteins is a tightly regulated process that contributes to cellular signaling and protein stability. Here we show that phosphorylation of the human deubiquitinase DUBA (OTUD5) at a single residue, Ser177, is both necessary and sufficient to activate the enzyme. The crystal structure...
Article
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Antibodies that specifically recognize polyubiquitin chains containing ubiquitins linked at a particular lysine residue are powerful tools for interrogating endogenous protein modifications. Here, we describe protocols for revealing K11-, K48-, and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, or immunostaining.
Article
Full-text available
Polyubiquitination is an essential posttranslational modification that plays critical roles in cellular signaling. PolyUb (polyubiquitin) chains are formed by linking the carboxyl-terminus of one Ub (ubiquitin) subunit to either a lysine residue or the amino-terminus of an adjacent Ub. Linkage through the amino-terminus results in linear polyubiqui...
Article
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Caspase-1 activation by inflammasome scaffolds comprised of intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and the adaptor ASC is believed to be essential for production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 during the innate immune response. Here we show, with C57BL/6 Casp11 gene-targe...
Article
Inhibitors of DNA binding (IDs) antagonize basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to inhibit differentiation and maintain stem cell fate. ID ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation occur in differentiated tissues, but IDs in many neoplasms appear to escape degradation. We show that the deubiquitinating enzyme USP1 promotes ID protei...
Article
Complex autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease have different pathological presentations but have overlapping genetic susceptibility variants. A new study using mice lacking Tnfaip3, whose ortholog is linked to autoimmune disease i...
Article
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Arginines and lysines in histones can be modified by the addition of one, two, or three methyl groups (1).…
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Inflammasomes are emerging as key regulators of the host response against microbial pathogens. These cytosolic multiprotein complexes recruit and activate the cysteine protease caspase-1 when microbes invade sterile tissues or elicit cellular damage. Inflammasome-activated caspase-1 induces inflammation by cleaving the proinflammatory cytokines IL-...
Article
The proper regulation of apoptosis is essential for the survival of multicellular organisms. Furthermore, excessive apoptosis can contribute to neurodegenerative diseases, anaemia and graft rejection, and diminished apoptosis can lead to autoimmune diseases and cancer. It has become clear that the post-translational modification of apoptotic protei...
Article
Full-text available
The proto-oncogenes ETV1, ETV4 and ETV5 encode transcription factors in the E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family, which includes the most frequently rearranged and overexpressed genes in prostate cancer. Despite being critical regulators of development, little is known about their post-translational regulation. Here we identify the ubiquitin li...
Article
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Humans must maintain a balanced composition for the trillions of commensal microbes that inhabit their gut, but how they do this is largely unclear. It now emerges that one factor is a molecular pathway in gut epithelial cells.
Article
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Apoptotic cell death is important for embryonic development, immune cell homeostasis, and pathogen elimination. Innate immune cells also undergo a very rapid form of cell death termed pyroptosis after activating the protease caspase-1. The hemichannel pannexin-1 has been implicated in both processes. In this study, we describe the characterization...
Article
Cell cycle progression requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C), which uses the substrate adaptors CDC20 and CDH1 to target proteins for proteasomal degradation. The APC(CDH1) substrate cyclin A is critical for the G1/S transition and, paradoxically, accumulates even when APC(CDH1) is active. We show that the deubiquitina...
Article
Immunologist whose discoveries transformed patients' lives.
Article
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Microtubules have pivotal roles in fundamental cellular processes and are targets of antitubulin chemotherapeutics. Microtubule-targeted agents such as Taxol and vincristine are prescribed widely for various malignancies, including ovarian and breast adenocarcinomas, non-small-cell lung cancer, leukaemias and lymphomas. These agents arrest cells in...
Article
Ubiquitination refers to the covalent addition of ubiquitin (Ub) to substrate proteins or other Ub molecules via the sequential action of three enzymes (E1, E2, and E3). Recent advances in mass spectrometry proteomics have made it possible to identify and quantify Ub linkages in biochemical and cellular systems. We used these tools to probe the mec...