# Viqar HusainUniversity of Karachi · Department of Geology

Viqar Husain

## About

137

Publications

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2,372

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Citations since 2017

## Publications

Publications (137)

Motivated by quantum gravity, semiclassical theory, and quantum theory on curved spacetimes, we study the system of an oscillator coupled to two spin-1/2 particles. This model provides a prototype for comparing three types of dynamics: the full quantum theory, the classical oscillator with spin backreaction, and spins propagating on a fixed oscilla...

It is widely accepted that curvature singularity resolution should be a feature of quantum gravity. We present a class of time-dependent asymptotically flat spherically symmetric metrics that model gravitational collapse in quantum gravity. The metrics capture intuitions associated with the dynamics of singularity resolution, and horizon formation...

We study the quantum dynamics of the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi space-times using a polymer quantization prescription based on loop quantum cosmology that incorporates fundamental discreteness. By solving an effective equation derived from this quantization, we find analytical solutions for the Oppenheimer-Snyder and thin-shell collapse models, and nume...

Motivated by quantum gravity, semiclassical theory, and quantum theory on curved spacetime, we study the system of an oscillator coupled to two spin-1/2 particles. This simple model provides a prototype for comparing three types of dynamics: the full quantum theory, the classical oscillator with spin backreaction, and spins propagating on a fixed o...

We study the quantum gravitational collapse of spherically symmetric pressureless dust. Using an effective equation derived from a polymer quantization in the connection-triad phase space variables of general relativity, we find numerically, for a variety of initial dust configurations, that (i) trapped surfaces form and disappear as an initially c...

Climate change is taking place because human activities are releasing an excessive amounts of Green House Gases (GHG) into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels and through the removal of forests. Presently, about 8gt. carbon is being emitted into the atmosphere from various sources including industry, agriculture, forest, and land use. Nitrous ox...

We study a first-order formulation for the coupled evolution of a quantum scalar field and a classical Friedmann universe. The model is defined by a state dependent Hamiltonian constraint and the time dependent Schrödinger equation for the scalar field. We solve the resulting nonlinear equations numerically for initial data consisting of a Gaussian...

We study cosmological perturbation theory with scalar field and pressureless dust in the Hamiltonian formulation, with the dust field chosen as a matter-time gauge. The corresponding canonical action describes the dynamics of the scalar field and metric degrees of freedom with a nonvanishing physical Hamiltonian and spatial diffeomorphism constrain...

Starting from a local action for mimetic gravity that includes higher derivatives of a scalar field ϕ, we derive a gauge-fixed canonical action of the theory in the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner canonical formalism in the time gauge ϕ=t. This reduced action reveals (i) a nonvanishing conserved physical Hamiltonian that is a sum of two terms, the expression...

Starting from a local action for mimetic gravity that includes higher derivatives of a scalar field $\phi$, we derive a gauge-fixed canonical action of the theory in the ADM canonical formalism in the time gauge $\phi=t$. This reduced action reveals (i) a non-vanishing conserved physical Hamiltonian that is a sum of two terms, the expression for th...

We present a study of the evolution of entanglement entropy of matter and geometry in quantum cosmology. For a variety of Gaussian initial states and their linear combinations, and with evolution defined with respect to a relational time, we show numerically that (i) entanglement entropy increases rapidly at very early times, and subsequently satur...

We study cosmological perturbation theory with scalar field and pressureless dust in the Hamiltonian formulation, with the dust field chosen as a matter-time gauge. The corresponding canonical action describes the dynamics of the scalar field and metric degrees of freedom with a non-vanishing physical Hamiltonian and spatial diffeomorphism constrai...

Groundwater arsenic contamination is recently reported in the alluvial aquifers of Indus deltaic plain. Since the source of arsenic is believed to be natural as widely reported in other deltaic aquifers of same age (Holocene), it is imperative to evaluate the soil characteristics for identifying the sources of arsenic and its mobilization mechanism...

The quantum theory of the Friedmann cosmological model with dust and cosmological constant () is not exactly solvable analytically. We apply path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) techniques to study its quantum dynamics using the physical Hamiltonian corresponding to the dust field as a clock. We study (i) quantum fluctuations around classical paths and...

We present a study of the evolution of entanglement entropy of matter and geometry in quantum cosmology. For a variety of initial quantum states of the Universe, and with evolution defined with respect to a relational time, we show numerically that (i) entanglement entropy increases rapidly at very early times, and subsequently saturates to a const...

Alluvial aquifers are the main source of groundwater worldwide. In Hyderabad area of Sindh province, aquifers are naturally polluted by arsenic (As) like other alluvial aquifers of the world. Present study was carried out to decipher the mobilization mechanism of arsenic in Holocene aquifers of Indus river basin, where a large population is at the...

Alluvial aquifers are the main source of groundwater worldwide. In Hyderabad area of Sindh province, aquifers are naturally polluted by arsenic (As) like other alluvial aquifers of the world. Present study was carried out to decipher the mobilization mechanism of arsenic in Holocene aquifers of Indus river basin, where a large population is at the...

We propose and study a scalar field cosmological model with backreaction. Scalar field evolution in the model is determined by the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The corresponding wave function self-consistently informs the evolution of the scale factor via the Friedmann equation. We compare this model with the usual semiclassical approximati...

The quantum theory of the Friedmann cosmological model with dust and cosmological constant ($\Lambda$) is not exactly solvable analytically. We apply Path Integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) techniques to study its quantum dynamics using the physical Hamiltonian corresponding to the dust field as a clock. We study (i) quantum fluctuations around classical...

We propose and study a semi-classical cosmological system akin to the Newton-Schr\"odinger equation where matter field evolution is determined by time dependent Schr\"odinger equation. The resulting dynamics is one where the scale factor self-consistently informs the quantum evolution of the scalar field wave function via the Friedmann equation. We...

We apply the idea of using a matter-time gauge in quantum gravity to quantum cosmology. For a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with dust and a cosmological constant Λ, we show that the dynamics maps exactly to the simple harmonic oscillator in the dust-time gauge. For Λ>0 the oscillator frequency is imaginary, for Λ<0 it is real,...

The central equation of quantum gravity is the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. We give an argument suggesting that exact solutions of this equation give a surface in the space of coupling constants. This provides a mechanism for determining the cosmological constant as a function of the gravitational and other interaction constants. We demonstrate the ide...

There are theories which implement the idea that the constants of nature may be "time dependent." These introduce new fields representing "evolving constants," in addition to physical fields. We argue that dynamical matter coupling constants can arise naturally in non-perturbative matter-gravity theories, after a choice of global time is made. We i...

The central equation of quantum gravity is the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We give an argument suggesting that exact solutions of this equation give a surface in the space of coupling constants. This provides a mechanism for determining the cosmological constant as a function of the gravitational and other interaction constants. We demonstrate the ide...

We apply the idea of using a matter time gauge in quantum gravity to quantum cosmology. For the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) Universe with dust and cosmological constant $\Lambda$, we show that the dynamics maps exactly to the simple harmonic oscillator in the dust-time gauge. For $\Lambda >0$ the oscillator frequency is imaginary, fo...

Physico-chemical and microbiological analyses of 32 groundwater samples from the Sujawal and Makli areas of Thatta
District, Sindh Province, Pakistan, were carried out to reveal the source of major ions and high salinity. Data reveal that
aquifers in the study area show high salinity due to various geochemical phenomena, including cation exchange,...

We show that the quantum dynamics of a thin spherical shell in general relativity is equivalent to the Coulomb-Dirac equation on the half line. The Hamiltonian has a one-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions with a discrete energy spectrum |E|<m, and a continuum of scattering states for |E|>m, where m is the rest mass of the shell and E is th...

For asymptotically flat spacetimes the Penrose inequality gives an initial data test for the weak cosmic censorship hypothesis. We give a formulation of this inequality for asymptotically anti-deSitter (AAdS) spacetimes, and show that the inequality holds for general time asymmetric data in spherical symmetry. Our analysis makes use of a constant-n...

We study the Hamiltonian dynamics of the dust-Bianchi IX universe in dust time gauge. This model has three physical metric degrees of freedom, with evolution determined by a time-independent physical Hamiltonian. This approach gives a new physical picture where dust-Bianchi IX dynamics is described by oscillations between dust-Kasner solutions, rat...

We show that the quantum dynamics of a thin spherical shell in general relativity is equivalent to the Coulomb-Dirac equation on the half line. The Hamiltonian has a one-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions with a discrete energy spectrum $E \in (-m ,m)$, and a continuum of scattering states for $|E|>m$, where $m$ is the rest mass of the she...

em>An attempt has been made to assess the arsenic contamination and role of anthropogenic activities on its release in the groundwater of alluvial aquifers occurring on deltaic flood plain of Indus River. Groundwater collected from three semi-urban union councils of Tando Muhammad Khan district revealed that the groundwater has bad quality for drin...

In loop quantum cosmology, polymer quantization is applied to gravity and Schrödinger quantization to matter. This approach misses interesting cosmological dynamics coming from the polymer quantization of matter. We demonstrate this in semiclassical cosmology with a scalar field and pressureless dust: gravity is kept classical, dust is used to fix...

The cultivable lands are reducing significantly in hot and dry arid regions of the world due to soil salinity and sodicity resulting in yield losses. Similarly, the coastal Shah Bandar Tehsil of Thatta district is also severely affected by different levels of soil salinity and sodicity. The topography of the area is uneven, so ill drained depressio...

The problem of rescuing unitary matter evolution on a black hole spacetime remains unresolved. We argue that some prominent cures are more troubling than the disease, demonstrate that their central element --- forming of the event horizon before the evaporation begins --- is not necessarily true, and describe a fully coupled matter-gravity system w...

We study general relativity with pressureless dust in the canonical
formulation, with the dust field chosen as a matter-time gauge. The resulting
theory has three physical degrees of freedom in the metric field. The
linearized canonical theory reveals two graviton modes and a scalar mode. We
find that the graviton modes remain Lorentz covariant des...

The physical Hamiltonian of a gravity-matter system depends on the choice of time, with the vacuum naturally identified as its ground state. We study the expanding Universe with scalar field in the volume time gauge. We show that the vacuum energy density computed from the resulting Hamiltonian is a nonlinear function of the cosmological constant a...

Many quantum theories of gravity propose Lorentz-violating dispersion relations of the form ω=|k|f(|k|/M⋆), with recovery of approximate Lorentz invariance at energy scales much below M⋆. We show that a quantum field with this dispersion predicts drastic low energy Lorentz violation in atoms modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors, for any f that dips be...

Three-dimensional gravity coupled to pressureless dust is a field theory with
one local degree of freedom. In the canonical framework, the dust-time gauge
encodes this physical degree of freedom as a metric function. We find that the
dynamics of this field, up to spatial diffeomorphism flow, is independent of
spatial derivatives and is therefore ul...

The physical Hamiltonian of a gravity-matter system depends on the choice of
time, with the vacuum naturally identified as its ground state. We study the
expanding universe with scalar field in the volume time gauge. We show that the
vacuum energy density computed from the resulting Hamiltonian is a non-linear
function of the cosmological constant...

We analyze the response of an inertial two-level Unruh-DeWitt particle
detector coupled to a polymer quantized scalar field in four-dimensional
Minkowski spacetime, within first-order perturbation theory. Above a critical
rapidity $\beta_c \approx 1.3675$, independent of the polymer mass scale
$M_\star$, two drastic changes occur: (i) the detector'...

We study the Einstein gravity and dust system in three spacetime dimensions
as an example of a non-perturbative quantum gravity model with local degrees of
freedom. We derive the Hamiltonian theory in the dust time gauge and show that
it has a rich class of exact solutions. These include the
Ba\~nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, static solutions...

Nagar Parkar kaolin deposits lie parallel to Runn of Kutch area, aligned in a belt trending NW–SE. The present study examines the physico-chemical characteristics of the raw and washed Nagar Parkar kaolin deposits. It compares them with world's best kaolin deposits and provides the basis for detailed studies on the development and value added utili...

We consider the semi-classical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a
homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized
using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a
gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semi-classical equations
of motion yield a universe that has an ea...

We study a type of modified bosonic string theory that has a scalar field
with unit gradient ("dust") on the string worldsheet. The Hamiltonian analysis
reveals a time reparametrization constraint that is linear in the dust field
momentum. This suggests a natural "dust time" gauge. We give a Fock
quantization of the theory in this gauge. The result...

Problem of natural arsenic (As) in groundwater is of growing concern to the health of people
worldwide because of its carcinogenic properties. Arsenic contamination in groundwater affects the Indus
alluvial and deltaic plains in Punjab and Sindh including Thatta district, where people are suffering from
arsenic ingested diseases. Groundwater sample...

We give a formulation of quantum cosmology with a pressureless dust and
arbitrary additional matter fields. The dust provides a natural time gauge
corresponding to a cosmic time, yielding a physical time independent
Hamiltonian. The approach simplifies the analysis of both Wheeler-deWitt and
loop quantum cosmology models, broadening the applicabili...

We present a non-perturbative quantization of general relativity coupled to
dust and other matter fields. The dust provides a natural time variable,
leading to a physical Hamiltonian with spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The
methods of loop quantum gravity applied to this model lead to a physical
Hilbert space and Hamiltonian. This provides a frame...

Quantization prescriptions that realize generalized uncertainty relations
(GUP) are motivated by quantum gravity arguments that incorporate a fundamental
length scale. We apply two such methods, polymer and deformed Heisenberg
quantization, to scalar field theory in Fourier space. These alternative
quantizations modify the oscillator spectrum for e...

We study a type of geometric theory with a non-dynamical one-form field. For
a manifold that is $\mathbb{R}^4$, this is equivalent to a theory formulated on
a symplectic manifold. Its dynamical variables are an $su(2)$ gauge field and a
triad of $su(2)$ valued one-forms. Hamiltonian decomposition reveals that the
theory has a true Hamiltonian, toge...

We show that for asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) backgrounds with negative energy, such as the AdS soliton and regulated negative-mass AdS–Schwarzshild metrics, the Wilson loop expectation value in the AdS/CFT conjecture exhibits a Coulomb to confinement transition. We also show that the quark–antiquark () potential can be interpreted as affine...

In the holographic dictionary between gauge theory in four dimensions
and gravity in five dimensions, there is an encoding in the bulk
geometry of the phases of the gauge theory. If the correspondence holds
at all scales, it is natural to expect that gauge theory contains
information about quantum gravity in one higher dimension. We argue that
the...

Quantum mechanics with a generalized uncertainty principle arises through a
representation of the commutator $[\hat{x}, \hat{p}] = i f(\hat{p})$. We apply
this deformed quantization to free scalar field theory for $f_\pm =1\pm \beta
p^2$. The resulting quantum field theories have a rich fine scale structure.
For small wavelength modes, the Green's...

We study the generation of primordial fluctuations in pure de Sitter
inflation where the quantum scalar field dynamics are governed by polymer (not
Schrodinger) quantization. This quantization scheme is related to, but distinct
from, the structures employed in Loop Quantum Gravity; and it modifies standard
results above a polymer energy scale $M_{\...

Indus deltaic plain consists of medium to fine grained sediments, rich in organic matter deposited during the Holocene period. Thar desert is covered with sand dunes and loess originated from transported sediments from Rann of Kutch or the Indus plain by monsoon winds or by the reworking of local alluvial deposits. Groundwater salinity and microbia...

We study a class of Hamiltonian deformations of the massless
Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in spherical symmetry for which the Dirac
constraint algebra closes. The system may be regarded as providing effective
equations for quantum gravitational collapse. Guided by the observation that
scalar field fluxes do not follow metric null directions due to...

We present a non-perturbative quantization of general relativity coupled to
dust and other matter fields. The dust provides a natural time variable,
leading to a physical Hamiltonian with spatial diffeomorphism symmetry. The
surprising feature is that the Hamiltonian is not a square root. This property,
together with the kinematical structure of lo...

We describe a non-perturbative approach to studying the gravitational
collapse of a scalar field in spherical symmetry with quantum gravity
corrections. Quantum effects are described by a phase space function that
modifies the constraints of general relativity but does not affect the closure
of their algebra. The model may be viewed as one that inc...

We give a formulation of quantum cosmology with a pressureless dust and
arbitrary additional matter fields. The system has the property that its
Hamiltonian constraint is linear in the dust momentum. This feature provides a
natural time gauge, leading to a physical hamiltonian that is not a square
root. Quantization leads to Schr{\"o}dinger equatio...

We describe a class of exactly soluble models for gravitational collapse in
spherical symmetry obtained by patching dynamical spherically symmetric
exterior spacetimes with cosmological interior spacetimes. These are
generalizations of the Oppenheimer-Snyder type models to include classical and
quantum scalar fields as sources for the interior metr...

We describe recent progress on the problem of gravitational collapse in quantum gravity. The model we study is the gravity-scalar field theory in spherical symmetry, which is the original setting for Hawking's semiclassical work on black-hole radiation. We present an approach to full quantization of this model in a Hamiltonian framework, with a vie...

We study free scalar field theory on flat spacetime using a background
independent (polymer) quantization procedure. Specifically we compute the
propagator using a method that takes the energy spectrum and position matrix
elements of the harmonic oscillator as inputs. We obtain closed form results in
the infrared and ultraviolet regimes that give L...

It is shown that polymer quantization leads to a modified uncertainty principle similar to that obtained from string theory and non-commutative geometry. When applied to quantum field theory on general background spacetimes, corrections to the uncertainty principle acquire a metric dependence. For Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology this translate...

We describe a background independent quantization of the scalar field that
provides an explicit realization of Fock-like states and associated operators
in a polymer Hilbert space. The vacuum expectation values of the commutator and
anti-commutator of the creation and annihilation operators become energy
dependent, and exhibit a surprising transiti...

We consider a polymer quantization of a free massless scalar field in a homogenous and isotropic classical cosmological spacetime. This quantization method assumes that field translations are fundamentally discrete, and is related to but distinct from that used in loop quantum gravity. The semiclassical Friedmann equation yields a universe that is...

We apply a type of background independent "polymer" quantization to a free scalar field in a flat spacetime. Using semi-classical states, we find an effective wave equation that is both nonlinear and Lorentz invariance violating. We solve this equation perturbatively for several cases of physical interest, and show that polymer corrections to solut...

The gravity-scalar field system in spherical symmetry provides a natural setting for exploring gravitational collapse and its aftermath in quantum gravity. In a canonical approach, we give constructions of the Hamiltonian operator, and of semiclassical states peaked on constraint free data. Such states provide explicit examples of physical states....

We give an approach for studying quantum gravity effects on black hole thermodynamics. This combines a quantum framework for gravitational collapse with quasi-local definitions of energy and surface gravity. Our arguments suggest that (i) the specific heat of a black hole becomes positive after a phase transition near the Planck scale,(ii) its entr...

We study the evolution of wormhole geometries under the Ricci flow using numerical methods. Depending on values of initial data parameters, wormhole throats either pinch off or evolve to a monotonically growing state. The transition between these two behaviors exhibits a form of critical phenomena reminiscent of that observed in gravitational colla...

The Gunga barite deposits occur in carbonate clastic marine sequence of Jurassic age. These rocks are widely spread in Khuzdar-Lasbela belt which host important stratabound barite and zinc-lead deposits of Pakistan. These rocks are intricately folded and extensively faulted. The Gunga are low temperature hydrothermal deposits occurring as a series...

We study the gravitational collapse of an inhomogeneous scalar field with quantum gravity corrections associated with singularity avoidance. Numerical simulations indicate that there is critical behaviour at the onset of black hole formation as in the classical theory, but with the difference that black holes form with a mass gap. Comment: 8 pages,...

An ingredient in recent discussions of curvature singularity avoidance in quantum gravity is the “inverse scale factor” operator in quantum cosmology, and its generalizations to field theoretic models such as scalar-field collapse in spherical symmetry. I describe a general lattice origin of this idea, and show how it applies to the Coulomb singula...

We give a review of recent work aimed at understanding the dynamics of gravitational collapse in quantum gravity. Its goal is to provide a non-perturbative computational framework for understanding the emergence of the semi-classical approximation and Hawking radiation. The model studied is the gravity-scalar field theory in spherical symmetry. A q...

We apply a singularity resolution technique utilized in loop quantum gravity to the polymer representation of quantum mechanics on R with the singular -1/|x| potential. On an equispaced lattice, the resulting eigenvalue problem is identical to a finite difference approximation of the Schrodinger equation. We find numerically that the antisymmetric...

In a metric variable based Hamiltonian quantization, we give a prescription for constructing semiclassical matter-geometry states for homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. These "collective" states arise as infinite linear combinations of fundamental excitations in an unconventional "polymer" quantization. They satisfy a number of properti...

We show that a class of topological field theories are quantum duals of the harmonic oscillator. This is demonstrated by establishing a correspondence between the creation and annihilation operators and nonlocal gauge invariant observables of the topological field theory. The example is used to discuss some issues concerning background independence...

Using a Hamiltonian formulation of the spherically symmetric gravity-scalar field theory adapted to flat spatial slicing, we give a construction of the reduced Hamiltonian operator. This Hamiltonian, together with the null expansion operators presented in an earlier work, form a framework for studying gravitational collapse in quantum gravity. We d...

Using a recently developed quantization of spherically symmetric gravity coupled to a scalar field, we give a construction of null expansion operators that allow a definition of general, fully dynamical quantum black holes. These operators capture the intuitive idea that classical black holes are defined by the presence of trapped surfaces, that is...

We study the classical and quantum theory of spherically symmetric
spacetimes with scalar field coupling in general relativity. We utilize
the canonical formalism of geometrodynamics adapted to the Painleve
Gullstrand coordinates, and present a new quantization of the resulting
field theory. We give an explicit construction of operators that captur...

We study the critical behaviour of spherically symmetric scalar field collapse to black holes in spacetime dimensions other than four. We obtain reliable values for the scaling exponent in the supercritical region for dimensions in the range $3.5\leq D\leq 14$. The critical exponent increases monotonically to an asymptotic value at large $D$ of $\g...

We give a Hamiltonian analysis of the asymptotically flat spherically symmetric system of gravity coupled to a scalar field. This 1+1 dimensional field theory may be viewed as the "standard model" for studying black hole physics. Our analysis is adapted to the flat slice Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates. We give a Hamiltonian action principle for th...

Pakistan is a large country with diverse geology and geography. It possesses many industrial rocks and minerals, including precious stones, marble and granite. Some metallic mineral deposits, and large reserves of coal/lignite, oil and natural gas also occur. Pakistan's mining industry is dominated by thousands of artisanal and small-scale mines, w...

We examine the singularity resolution issue in quantum gravity by studying a new quantization of standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometrodynamics. The quantization procedure is inspired by the loop quantum gravity programme, and is based on an alternative to the Schr\"odinger representation normally used in metric variable quantum cosmology. We...

We study constrained Hamiltonian systems by utilizing general forms of time discretization. We show that for explicit discretizations, the requirement of preserving the canonical Poisson bracket under discrete evolution imposes strong conditions on both allowable discretizations and Hamiltonians. These conditions permit time discretizations for a l...

We study covariant entropy bounds in dynamical spacetimes with naked singularities. Specifically we study a spherically symmetric massless scalar field solution. The solution is an inhomogeneous cosmology with an initial spacelike singularity, and a naked timelike singularity at the origin. We construct the entropy flux 4-vector for the scalar fiel...

We consider asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes in $d$-spacetime dimensions in the thermodynamically stable regime. We show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and its leading order corrections due to thermal fluctuations can be reproduced by a weakly interacting fluid of bosons and fermions (`dual gas') in $\Delta=\alpha(d-2)+1$ spacetime di...

We describe a formalism for studying spherically symmetric collapse of
the massless scalar field in any spacetime dimension, and for any value
of the cosmological constant Λ. The formalism is used for
numerical simulations of gravitational collapse in four spacetime
dimensions with negative Λ. We observe critical behaviour at the
onset of black-hol...

Gravitational collapse in general relativity is known to exhibit remarkable critical behaviour. Until recently this critical behaviour has only been analyzed numerically in special cases. We describe a formalism which allows the construction of code that calculates spherically symmetric scalar field collapse with spacetime dimension and cosmologica...

We describe a formalism for studying spherically symmetric collapse of the massless scalar field in any spacetime dimension, and for any value of the cosmological constant $\Lambda$. The formalism is used for numerical simulations of gravitational collapse in four spacetime dimensions with negative $\Lambda$. We observe critical behaviour at the on...

We describe a formalism and numerical approach for studying spherically symmetric scalar field collapse for arbitrary spacetime dimension d and cosmological constant Lambda. The presciption uses a double null formalism, and is based on field redefinitions first used to simplify the field equations in generic two-dimensional dilaton gravity. The for...

It is known that spherically symmetric spacetimes admit flat spacelike foliations. We point out a simple method of seeing this result via the Hamiltonian constraints of general relativity. The method yields explicit formulas for the extrinsic curvatures of the slicings. Comment: 4 pages, to appear in PRD, reference added, typos corrected

We describe a class of asymptotically AdS scalar field spacetimes, and calculate the associated conserved charges for three, four and five spacetime dimensions using the conformal and counterterm prescriptions. The energy associated with the solutions in each case is proportional to √M2-k2, where M is a constant and k is a scalar charge. In five sp...

We investigate thermodynamic properties of two types of asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes: black holes and singular scalar field spacetimes. We describe the possibility that thermodynamic phase transitions can transform one spacetime into another, suggesting that black holes can radiate to naked singularities. Comment: 5 pages, Essay for 200...

We describe the results of a numerical calculation of circularly symmetric scalar field collapse in three spacetime dimensions with a negative cosmological constant. The procedure uses a double null formulation of the Einstein-scalar equations. We see evidence of black hole formation on first implosion of a scalar pulse if the initial pulse amplitu...

Pakistan refractory bricks industry is in infancy stage despite the fact that domestic demand of these bricks is growing fast and good quality refractory minerals are abundantly available in the country. Most of the refractory bricks requirements by local steel, glass, ceramics, oil refinery and other industries are being met through import. Import...

A fundamental problem with attempting to quantize general relativity is its perturbative non-renormalizability. However, this fact does not rule out the possibility that nonperturbative effects can be computed, at least in some approximation. We outline a quantum field theory calculation, based on general relativity as the classical theory, which i...

We describe a class of diffeomorphism invariant SU(N) gauge theories in N^2 dimensions, together with some matter couplings. These theories have (N^2-3)(N^2-1) local degrees of freedom, and have the unusual feature that the constraint associated with time reparametrizations is identically satisfied. A related class of SU(N) theories in N^2-1 dimens...

A 3D generally covariant field theory having some unusual properties is described. The theory has a degenerate 3-metric which effectively makes it a 2D field theory in disguise. For 2-manifolds without boundary, it has an infinite number of conserved charges that are associated with graphs in two dimensions and the Poisson algebra of the charges is...

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