Vinnie Monaco

Vinnie Monaco
OpenAI

Ph.D.

About

55
Publications
29,790
Reads
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731
Citations
Citations since 2017
22 Research Items
568 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
Introduction
I’m a researcher and engineer. My work and interests span security, privacy, machine learning, artificial intelligence, human-computer interaction, and biologically-inspired computing.
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - November 2021
Naval Postgraduate School
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
October 2016 - August 2018
Army Research Laboratory
Position
  • Researcher
January 2016 - October 2016
Army Research Laboratory
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (55)
Article
We study the performance of Long Short-Term Memory networks for keystroke biometric authentication at large scale in free-text scenarios. For this we explore the performance of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTMs) networks trained with a moderate number of keystrokes per identity and evaluated under different scenarios including: i) three learning approa...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study the performance of Long Short-Term Memory networks for keystroke biometric authentication at large scale in free-text scenarios. For this we introduce TypeNet, a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) trained with a moderate number of keystrokes per identity. We evaluate different learning approaches depending on the loss function (softmax, contra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work proposes and analyzes the use of keystroke biometrics for content deanonymization. Fake news have become a powerful tool to manipulate public opinion, especially during major events. In particular, the massive spread of fake news during the COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments and companies to fight against missinformation. In this co...
Preprint
Full-text available
This work proposes and analyzes the use of keystroke biometrics for content de-anonymization. Fake news have become a powerful tool to manipulate public opinion, especially during major events. In particular, the massive spread of fake news during the COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments and companies to fight against missinformation. In this c...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study the suitability of keystroke dynamics to authenticate 100K users typing free-text. For this, we first analyze to what extent our method based on a Siamese Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is able to authenticate users when the amount of data per user is scarce, a common scenario in free-text keystroke authentication. With 1K users for testin...
Article
Full-text available
The R package frailtySurv for simulating and fitting semi-parametric shared frailty models is introduced. frailtySurv implements semi-parametric consistent estimators for a variety of frailty distributions, including gamma, log-normal, inverse Gaussian and power variance function, and provides consistent estimators of the standard errors of the par...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Neuromorphic architectures are characterized by a network of asynchronous computation units that resemble the behavior of neurons in the brain. With much interest devoted to how these architectures can be utilized in learning and intelligent systems, we note that the massive parallelism of neuromorphic architectures can also be leveraged to solve s...
Conference Paper
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Article
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The bound to factor large integers is dominated by the computational effort to discover numbers that are B-smooth, i.e., integers whose largest prime factor does not exceed B. Smooth numbers are traditionally discovered by sieving a polynomial sequence, whereby the logarithmic sum of prime factors of each polynomial value is compared to a threshold...
Article
Full-text available
The partially observable hidden Markov model is an extension of the hidden Markov Model in which the hidden state is conditioned on an independent Markov chain. This structure is motivated by the presence of discrete metadata, such as an event type, that may partially reveal the hidden state but itself emanates from a separate process. Such a scena...
Conference Paper
The hidden Markov model (HMM) and its extensions have been applied in numerous scientific and engineering areas. In speech recognition, HMMs still outperform many other models. HMMs have also demonstrated significant performance in signature and gesture recognition. Nonetheless, the performance of HMM in Keystroke Biometric (KB) systems is typicall...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The bound to factor large integers is dominated by the computational effort to discover numbers that are smooth, typically performed by sieving a polynomial sequence. On a von Neumann architecture, sieving has log-log amortized time complexity to check each value for smoothness. This work presents a neuromorphic sieve that achieves a constant time...
Article
Full-text available
Keystroke biometrics (KB) authentication systems are a less popular form of access control, although they are gaining popularity. In recent years, keystroke biometric authentication has been an active area of research due to its low cost and ease of integration with existing security systems. Various researchers have used different methods and algo...
Conference Paper
This paper presents the first Keystroke Biometrics Ongoing evaluation platform and a Competition (KBOC) organized to promote reproducible research and establish a baseline in person authentication using keystroke biometrics. The ongoing evaluation tool has been developed using the BEAT platform and includes keystroke sequences (fixed-text) from 300...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Keystroke biometric samples are often collected under various conditions, such as different device types, increasing levels of practice through repetition, and subject impairment. Cross-domain comparisons, in which query samples are collected under different conditions than the template, generally lead to degraded performance. The difficulty in com...
Article
This paper develops algorithms and investigates various classifiers to determine the authenticity of short social network postings, an average of 20.6 words, from Facebook. This paper presents and discusses several experiments using a variety of classifiers. The goal of this research is to determine the degree to which such postings can be authenti...
Preprint
Full-text available
This work introduces the partially observable hidden Markov model (POHMM), a generalization of the hidden Markov model (HMM) in which the underlying system state is partially observable through event metadata at each time step. Whereas in a HMM, the hidden state is inferred through the observed values, the hidden state in a POHMM is inferred throug...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper describes the fifteen keystroke biometric anomaly detection systems submitted by U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to the Keystroke Biometrics Ongoing Competition (KBOC), an official competition of the IEEE Eighth International Conference on Biometrics: Theory, Applications, and Systems (BTAS). Submissions to the KBOC were evaluated on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are numerous opportunities for adversaries to observe user behavior remotely on the web. Additionally, keystroke biometric algorithms have advanced to the point where user identification and soft biometric trait recognition rates are commercially viable. This presents a privacy concern because masking spatial information, such as IP address,...
Thesis
Full-text available
Timestamped events from human behavior are truly ubiquitous. In the Information Age, most human-computer interactions generate timestamped events in some way. From the keys pressed on a keyboard and the transmission of an email message, to the submission of a research article through an online submission system, a timestamp is generated and stored...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work provides strong empirical evidence for a two state generative model of typing behavior in which the user can be in either a passive or active state. Given key-press latencies with missing key names, the model is then used to spoof the key-press latencies of a user by exploiting the scaling behavior between inter-key distance and key-press...
Conference Paper
Keystroke dynamics authentication is not as widely used compared to other biometric systems. In recent years, keystroke dynamic authentication systems have gained interest because of low cost and integration with existing security systems. Many different methods have been proposed for data collection, feature representation, classification, and per...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work presents the results of the One-handed Keystroke Biometric Identification Competition (OhKBIC), an official competition of the 8th IAPR International Conference on Biometrics (ICB). A unique keystroke biometric dataset has been collected by the authors, that includes freely-typed long-text samples from 64 subjects. Samples were collected...
Conference Paper
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ABSTRACT Digital currencies, such as Bitcoin, offer convenience and security to criminals operating in the black marketplace. Some Bitcoin marketplaces, such as Silk Road, even claim anonymity [#christin2013traveling]. This claim contradicts the findings in this work, where long term transactional behavior is used to identify and verify account hol...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a standardized and repeatable process used to evaluate the performance of a speaker verification system. Through the use of a common passphrase and a subset of extracted feature vectors that outperforms other combinations, the study limits the exposure to potential experimental flaws, while measuring true biometric performance...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents and discusses several experiments in authorship authentication of short social network postings, an average of 20.6 words, from Facebook. The goal of this research is to determine the degree to which such postings can be authenticated as coming from the purported user and not from an intruder. Various sets of stylometry and ad h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For some behavioral biometrics, only the timestamps of a recurring event may be available. This is the case for the recently proposed random time interval (RTI) biomet-ric in which a user repeatedly presses a single button. A dynamical systems approach is taken to deal with biomet-rics which are inherently one-dimensional. The methodology uses the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many applications need methods for handling missing or insufficient data. This paper applies a correlation technique to improve the fallback methods previously used to handle the paucity of keystroke data from the infrequently used keys in a keystroke biometric system. The proposed statistical fallback model uses a correlation based fallback table...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Keystroke and stylometry behavioral biometrics were investigated with the objective of developing a robust system to authenticate students taking online examinations. This work responds to the 2008 U.S. Higher Education Opportunity Act that requires institutions of higher learning undertake greater access control efforts, by adopting identification...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study focuses on the development and evaluation of a new classification algorithm that halves the previously reported best error rate. Using keystroke data from 119 users, closed system performance was obtained as a function of the number of keystrokes per sample. The applications of interest are authenticating online student test takers and c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The keystroke biometric classification system described in this study was evaluated on two types of short input - passwords and numeric keypad input. On the password input, the system outperforms 14 other systems evaluated in a previous study using the same raw input data. The three top performing systems in that study had equal error rates between...
Preprint
Full-text available
The purpose of this research is to identify and implement mouse features, which can be used as part of a user biometric authentication system. This paper explores mouse features that can be obtained from different user actions in a computer, expanding the context from earlier works on Mouse Biometric that focused on fixed patterns. The mouse featur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Data windows of keyboard input are analyzed to continually authenticate computer users and verify that they are the authorized ones. Because the focus is on fast intruder detection, the authentication process operates on short bursts of roughly a minute of keystroke input, while the training process can be extensive and use hours of input. The biom...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We are building a robot cognitive architecture that constructs a real-time virtual copy of itself and its environment, including people, and uses the model to process perceptual information and to plan its movements. This paper describes the structure of this architecture. The software components of this architecture include PhysX for the virtual w...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study focuses on intruder detection. Short bursts of keyboard input are analyzed to continually authenticate computer users and verify that they are the authorized ones. The biometric system consists of components for data capture, feature extraction, authentication classification, and ROC curve generation. Experiments were performed on three...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The 2008 federal Higher Education Opportunity Act requires institutions of higher learning to make greater access control efforts for the purposes of assuring that students of record are those actually accessing the systems and taking exams in online courses by adopting identification technologies as they become more ubiquitous. To meet these needs...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A robot collaborating with astronauts needs to comprehend and predict their movements. We present an approach to perceiving and modeling astronaut movement using a 3D virtual world. The robot's visual data is registered with the virtual world to construct a model of the astronauts' dynamics and predict future motions using a physics engine. This en...
Preprint
Full-text available
The system developed uses an open-source keylogger to capture data samples of all keystroke input. The keylogger output is converted to a data file format appropriate for processing by the Pace Keystroke Biometric System (PKBS). This study evaluates the overall system to determine the accuracy of correctly authenticating users based on their record...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A Keystroke Biometric System measures the typing characteristics believed to be unique to an individual and difficult to duplicate. A Stylometry Biometric System measures the frequency of text file features such as: number of alphabetic characters/total number of characters, number of uppercase characters/number of alphabetic characters, etc. We ca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the objectives of Cognitive Robotics is to construct robot systems that can be directed to achieve realworld goals by high-level directions rather than complex, low-level robot programming. Such a system must have the ability to represent, problem-solve and learn about its environment as well as communicate with other agents. In previous wor...

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