Vincenzo Fogliano

Food Science

45.57

Publications


  • No preview · Chapter · Dec 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: FoodDrinkEurope Federation recently released the latest version of the Acrylamide Toolbox to support manufacturers in acrylamide reduction activities giving indication about the possible mitigation strategies. The Toolbox is intended for small and medium size enterprises with limited R&D resources, however no comments about the pro and cons of the different measures were provided to advise the potential users. Experts of the field are aware that not all the strategies proposed have equal value in terms of efficacy and cost/benefit ratio. This consideration prompted us to provide a qualitative science-based ranking of the mitigation strategies proposed in the acrylamide Toolbox, focusing on bakery and fried potato products. Five authors from different geographical areas having a publication record on acrylamide mitigation strategies worked independently ranking the efficacy of the acrylamide mitigation strategies taking into account three key parameters: (i) reduction rate; (ii) side effects; and (iii) applicability and economic impact. On the basis of their own experience and considering selected literature of the last ten years, the authors scored for each key parameter the acrylamide mitigation strategies proposed in the Toolbox. As expected, all strategies selected in the Toolbox turned out to be useful, however, not at the same level. The use of enzyme asparaginase and the selection of low sugar varieties were considered the best mitigation strategies in bakery and in potato products, respectively. According to authors' opinion most of the other mitigation strategies, although effective, either have relevant side effects on the sensory profile of the products, or they are not easy to implement in industrial production. The final outcome was a science based commented ranking which can enrich the acrylamide Toolbox supporting individual manufacturer in taking the best actions to reduce the acrylamide content in their specific production context.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Food & Function
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The formation of Amadori products (APs) is the key step determining the development of the Maillard reaction (MR). The information on the chemical behaviour of the reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars in emulsions during thermal treatments is scanty and mainly focused on volatile compounds. The aim of this work was to investigate the formation of APs from glucose and two amino acids with different partition coefficients (phenylalanine and leucine) in emulsions. Two submicron oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions consisting of water, tricaprylin and Tween 20 were prepared, thermally treated and the formation of fructose-phenylalanine (Fru-Phe) and fructose-leucine (Fru-Leu) was monitored by mass spectrometry. The concentration of Fru-Phe in submicron emulsions was similar to that in water, while Fru-Leu was reduced up to 47% in the emulsions. These data indicated that partition coefficient of amino acids, determining the reactants location, can substantially influence the MR and the final quality of foods.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The control of Maillard reaction (MR) is a key point to ensure processed foods quality. Due to the presence of a primary amino group on its side chain, lysine is particularly prone to chemical modifications with the formation of Amadori products (AP), Nε-(Carboxymethyl)-l-lysine (CML), Nε-(Carboxyethyl)-l-lysine (CEL). A new analytical strategy was proposed which allowed to simultaneously quantify lysine, CML, CEL and the Nε-(2-Furoylmethyl)-l-lysine (furosine), the indirect marker of AP. The procedure is based on stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It showed high sensitivity and good reproducibility and repeatability in different foods. The limit of detection and the RSD% were lower than 5ppb and below 8%, respectively. Results obtained with the new procedure not only improved the knowledge about the reliability of thermal treatment markers, but also defined new insights in the relationship between Maillard reaction products and their precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Food Chemistry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, the impact of the different steps (i.e. blanching, freezing, storage following the industrial freezing process and the final cooking prior to consumption) of the industrial freezing process was evaluated on colour, chlorophylls, lutein, polyphenols and ascorbic acid content of asparagus, green beans and zucchini. In addition, the domestic boiling of raw samples was compared with the boiling of frozen storage vegetables.Results showed that the blanching treatment retained phytochemicals in all studied green vegetables and the frozen storage up to 2. months did not negatively affected phytochemicals, in particular lutein and flavonoids in almost all samples. On the contrary, colour significantly changed during blanching and frozen storage. The changes of b* (yellowness) and the shift of H° (hue angle) were not coherent with the increase of pheophytin. In addition, the greenness (- a*) was found to increase with the exception of boiled samples in all vegetables. Generally, in boiled frozen vegetables there was a better or comparable retention of bioactive compounds with respect to raw ones, and this was especially true for green beans and zucchini. Colour changes after cooking did not exhibit the same trends among vegetables, being more remarkable for frozen asparagus in comparison with those boiled from raw, but overall comparable for green beans and zucchini.In conclusion, the overall results of the present study suggest that, when the industrial freezing process is well performed, the boiled frozen vegetables do not have a lower nutritional value than the fresh ones.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Food Research International
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this work, we tested the hypothesis that ascorbic acid (AA) reduces browning of fresh-cut apples (Red Delicious, RD, and Granny Smith, GS), and we investigated the impact of AA on phenylpropanoid metabolism of RD and GS. Apple slices were dipped in a solution of 100 mg/L of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ClO2 + 3% AA and stored at 4C for 96 h. Flesh firmness, solid soluble content and browning index, total phenols and flavonoids, and the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were monitored upon storage (0, 48 and 96 h). Our results demonstrated that GS is less sensitive to browning and thus more suitable for minimally processed produce. Ascorbate reduces the browning index also in RD, a cultivar largely appreciated by consumers but more prone to browning. AA likely contrasts browning appearance by interacting with peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase and/or promoting the regeneration of phenols and flavonoids.Practical ApplicationsBrowning of fresh-cut apple is one of the main problems that limit the shelf life of this type of produce. Given that this produce is highly appreciated by consumers, different antibrowning treatments have been tested to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apple. We found that treatment with 100 mg/L of ClO2 + 3% of ascorbic acid significantly reduces the browning appearance in apple slices. Browning was also reduced in Red Delicious cultivar that is more prone than Granny Smith to this phenomenon, but that is highly appreciated by consumers.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucosinolates (GLs) stability has been widely studied in different Brassica species. However, the matrix effect determined by the presence of other ingredients occurred in many broccoli-based traditional recipes may affect GLs thermal degradation. In this study, the matrix effect on GLs thermal degradation was investigated by means of binary systems containing broccoli and another ingredient such as potato, corn starch, lentils protein or onion. Data showed that in binary systems the GLs degradation was lower compared to only-broccoli system, in particular in the broccoli/onion systems. The kinetics of GLs degradation in broccoli/onion systems at different ratios showed that the higher the amount of onion, the higher the protective effect and that GLs thermal degradation followed a second order model. Finally the possibility that the effect was related to the amount of flavonoids present in onions was ruled out by data obtained using broccoli/onion systems made with three onion varieties having different flavonoid content. This study shows for the first time that the presence of other food ingredients can efficiently reduce GLs thermal degradation. The protective effect of onion, often present in the traditional recipes of broccoli soups in many countries, points out that the interaction of different ingredients may not only improve the taste of a dish, but also the healthiness.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · RSC Advances
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Food palatability increases food intake and may lead to overeating. The mechanisms behind this observation are still largely unknown. The aims of this study were the following: 1) to elucidate the plasma responses of endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines, and gastrointestinal peptides to a palatable (sweet), unpalatable (bitter), and sensory-acceptable (tasteless control) food, and 2) to verify whether some of these bioactives can serve as plasma biomarkers of food liking in humans. Three puddings providing 60 kcal (35% from proteins, 62% from carbohydrates, and 3% from fats) but with different taste were developed. Twenty healthy subjects (11 women and 9 men; mean age 28 y and BMI 22.7 kg/m(2)), selected because they liked the puddings in the order sweet > control > bitter, participated in a randomized crossover study based on a modified sham feeding (MSF) protocol. Blood samples at baseline and every 5 min up to 20 min after the MSF were analyzed for gastrointestinal peptides, endocannabinoids, and N-acylethanolamines. Thirty minutes after the MSF, energy intake at an ad libitum breakfast was measured. After the MSF, no response was observed in 7 of 9 gastrointestinal peptides measured. Ghrelin concentration at 20 min after the sweet and bitter puddings was 25% lower than after the control pudding (P = 0.04), and pancreatic polypeptide response after the sweet pudding was 23% greater than after the bitter pudding (P = 0.02). The plasma response of 2-arachidonoylglycerol after the sweet pudding was 37% and 15% higher than after the bitter (P < 0.001) and control (P = 0.03) puddings, respectively. Trends for greater responses of anandamide (P = 0.06), linoleoylethanolamide (P = 0.07), palmitoylethanolamide (P = 0.06), and oleoylethanolamide (P = 0.09) were found after the sweet pudding than after the bitter pudding. No differences in subsequent energy intake were recorded. The data demonstrated that food palatability influenced some plasma endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine concentrations during the cephalic phase response and indicated that 2-arachidonoylglycerol and pancreatic polypeptide can be used as biomarkers of food liking in humans. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Nutrition
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of beetroots (Beta vulgaris) on the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products possessing health, nutritional and sensory implications were studied. The effect of dried beetroot juice on the formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(2-furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine) was determined in a milk model system. Beetroot juice reduced furosine formation more than CML, inferring that betalains compounds present in the juice is more effective in reducing the formation of MR products in early stage than in advanced stage of MR. Beetroot water extract was fractionated on Sephadex LH20 and obtained three beetroot fractions were used to assess they effect on the formation of heterocyclic amines in a meat-protein model system. Beetroot fraction possessing the highest antioxidant capacity and containing the highest betalains content reduced the amounts of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo-[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ) by approximately 60, 77 and 87 %, respectively. Beetroot preparations were characterized by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). The antioxidant activities of beetroots preparations were also evaluated by 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+) scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total phenolic compounds assays. Our findings could be useful for creating novel source of functional ingredients exerting anti-carcenogenic and antiglycation activities.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Food Research International
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epidemiology associates whole-grain (WG) consumption with several health benefits. Mounting evidence suggests that WG wheat polyphenols play a role in mechanisms underlying health benefits. The objective was to assess circulating concentration, excretion, and the physiologic role of WG wheat polyphenols in subjects with suboptimal dietary and lifestyle behaviors. A placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized trial with 80 healthy overweight/obese subjects with low intake of fruit and vegetables and sedentary lifestyle was performed. Participants replaced precise portions of refined wheat (RW) with a fixed amount of selected WG wheat or RW products for 8 wk. At baseline and every 4 wk, blood, urine, feces, and anthropometric and body composition measures were collected. Profiles of phenolic acids in biological samples, plasma markers of metabolic disease and inflammation, and fecal microbiota composition were assessed. WG consumption for 4-8 wk determined a 4-fold increase in serum dihydroferulic acid (DHFA) and a 2-fold increase in fecal ferulic acid (FA) compared with RW consumption (no changes). Similarly, urinary FA at 8 wk doubled the baseline concentration only in WG subjects. Concomitant reduction in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after 8 wk and increased interleukin (IL)-10 only after 4 wk with WG compared with RW (P = 0.04) were observed. No significant change in plasma metabolic disease markers over the study period was observed, but a trend toward lower plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with higher excretion of FA and DHFA in the WG group was found. Fecal FA was associated with baseline low Bifidobacteriales and Bacteroidetes abundances, whereas after WG consumption, it correlated with increased Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes but reduced Clostridium. TNF-α reduction correlated with increased Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. No effect of dietary interventions on anthropometric measurements and body composition was found. WG wheat consumption significantly increased excreted FA and circulating DHFA. Bacterial communities influenced fecal FA and were modified by WG wheat consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293175. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • Source
    Marta Navarro · Alberto Fiore · Vincenzo Fogliano · Francisco J. Morales

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Food & Function
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The lipodepsipeptide syringomycin E (SR-E) interacts with two mercury-supported biomimetic membranes, which consist of a self-assembled phospholipid monolayer (SAM) and of a tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM) separated from the mercury surface by a hydrophilic tetraethyleneoxy (TEO) spacer that acts as an ionic reservoir. SR-E interacts more rapidly and effectively with a SAM of dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) than with one of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC). The proximal lipid monolayer of the tBLM has no polar head region, being linked to the TEO spacer via an ether bond, while the distal monolayer consists of either a DOPC or a DOPS leaflet. The ion flow into or out of the spacer through the lipid bilayer moiety of the tBLM was monitored by potential step chronocoulometry and cyclic voltammetry. With the distal monolayer bathed by aqueous 0.1M KCl and 0.8μM SR-E, an ion flow in two stages was monitored with DOPC at pH3 and 5.4 and with DOPS at pH3, while a single stage was observed with DOPS at pH5.4. This behavior was compared with that already described at conventional bilayer lipid membranes. The sigmoidal shape of the chronocoulometric charge transients points to an aggregation of SR-E monomers forming an ion channel via a mechanism of nucleation and growth. The ion flow is mainly determined by potassium ions, and is inhibited by calcium ions. The contribution to the transmembrane potential from the distal leaflet depends more on the nature of the lipid than on that of the ion channel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes
  • Ilario Mennella · Vincenzo Fogliano · Paola Vitaglione
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mounting evidence shows that hedonic eating, leading to overeating just for pleasure, can be driven by orosensory factors through the activation of reward processing and learning in the brain. Foods rich in sugars and fats are potent rewards and saliva composition influences oral taste, texture and aroma perception. A role for salivary alpha-amylase and lipase in the gustatory system and a link between salivary alpha-amylase activity and dietary habits were recently hypothesized. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship among salivary lipase and a-amylase activities as well as zinc concentration with food preference and choice of people with different body mass indices. Forty-two (23 normal weight and 19 overweight) healthy subjects participated in the study. Data showed that a-amylase and lipase were 1.8 and 2.4 folds higher in overweight than in normal weight subjects, respectively. On the other hand, overweight subjects showed a 33% reduced salivary zinc concentration compared to normal weight subjects. Only lipase activity positively correlated with individual preference for high-fat foods and with fat content of the diets. All in all data suggested that high salivary lipase activity in overweight subjects could be an adaptive response to the low fat-taste perception related to the reduced zinc concentration. It cannot be ruled out that other factors but diet might influence salivary a-amylase activity in overweight subjects.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Food Research International
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are the main determinants of radicchio bitterness and the control of their concentrations is a key point for the market value of this product. An innovative analytical approach based on two complementary mass spectrometers, Orbitrap-HRMS and MS/MS, was used for quantitative analysis of SLs in aerial part of four different varieties of chicory. Data highlighted the presence of eight SLs: 11β,13-dihydrolactucin, lactucin, 8-deoxy-lactucin, dihydro-8-deoxylactucin, dihydrolactucopicrin, lactucopicrin, lactuside C (jaquinellin glucoside) and dihydro-lactucopicrin oxalate. Significant varietal differences were found. The highest amount of SLs was found in the radicchio “Treviso Precoce” variety (189.71 μg/g), the lowest amount in “Treviso Tardivo” variety (45.78 μg/g). Lactucopicrin was the most abundant compound with concentration ranged between 99.36 in “Treviso Precoce” and 13.50 μg/g in “Treviso Tardivo” while dihydro-lactucopicrin oxalate was the less abundant in all analyzed varieties with an average concentration of about 1% on the total amount of SLs.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Food Research International
  • Marco Arlorio · Vincenzo Fogliano

    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Food Research International
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Raman spectroscopy, in its confocal micro-Raman declination, has been recently proposed as a spatially resolved method to identify carotenoids in various food matrices being faster, non-destructive, and avoiding the sample extraction, but no data are present in literature about its application to the evaluation of carotenoid pattern changes after thermal treatments on carrots.ResultsThe effect of three cooking methods (i.e. boiling, steaming and microwaving) was evaluated on frozen carrot comparing changes on carotenoid profiles measured by means of Raman spectroscopy with their HPLC determinations and colour. A more pronounced detrimental effect on carotenoids was detected in steamed carrots, in accordance with colour data. Differently, the boiling and, to a lesser extent, microwaving caused an increase of carotenoid concentration. Cooking procedures affected the Raman spectral features of carotenoids causing the shift of vibration frequencies toward a higher energy, the increase of the spectral baseline and of the peak intensities as well as the broadening of their width, probably in relation with the thermal degradation of longer carotenoids (i.e., the all trans form) and the isomerisation process. In particular, steamed samples showed a significantly higher increase of centre frequency in accordance with a more pronounced isomerisation and changes of colour parameters.Conclusions This work showed that the evolution of Raman spectral parameters could give information on carotenoid bioaccessibility for carrots differently cooked. This paves the way for a future use of this technique to monitor and optimize the cooking processes aimed at maximize carotenoids bioaccessibility and bioavailability.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with increased risk of developing colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Epidemiological data show that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) decreases the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). Importantly, recent data have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid (EPA-FFA) reduces polyp formation and growth in models of familial adenomatous polyposis. However, the effects of dietary EPA-FFA are unknown in CAC. We tested the effectiveness of substituting EPA-FFA, for other dietary fats, in preventing inflammation and cancer in the AOM-DSS model of CAC. The AOM-DSS protocols were designed to evaluate the effect of EPA-FFA on both initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. We found that EPA-FFA diet strongly decreased tumor multiplicity, incidence and maximum tumor size in the promotion and initiation arms. Moreover EPA-FFA, in particular in the initiation arm, led to reduced cell proliferation and nuclear β-catenin expression, whilst it increased apoptosis. In both arms, EPA-FFA treatment led to increased membrane switch from ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs and a concomitant reduction in PGE2 production. We observed no significant changes in intestinal inflammation between EPA-FFA treated arms and AOM-DSS controls. Importantly we found that EPA-FFA treatment restored the loss of Notch signaling found in the AOM-DSS control and resulted in the enrichment of Lactobacillus species in the gut microbiota. Taken together, our data suggest that EPA-FFA is an excellent candidate for CRC chemoprevention in colitis-associated colorectal cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Cancer
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The formation of the Amadori products (APs) is the first key step of Maillard reaction. Only few papers have dealt with simultaneous quantitation of amino acids and corresponding APs (1-amino-1-deoxy-2-ketose). Chromatographic separation of APs is affected by several drawbacks mainly related to their poor retention in conventional reversed phase separation. In this paper, a method for the simultaneous quantification of amino acids and their respective APs was developed combining high-resolution mass spectrometry with ion-pairing liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mL for tryptophan, valine and arginine, while the limit of quantification ranged from 2 to 5 ng/mL according to the specific sensitivity of each analyte. The relative standard deviation % was lower than 10 % and the coefficient of correlation was higher than 0.99 for each calibration curve. The method was applied to milk, milk-based products, raw and processed tomato. Among the analyzed products, the most abundant amino acid was glutamic acid (16,646.89 ± 1,385.40 µg/g) and the most abundant AP was fructosyl-arginine in tomato puree (774.82 ± 10.01 µg/g). The easiness of sample preparation coupled to the analytical performances of the proposed method introduced the possibility to use the pattern of free amino acids and corresponding APs in the evaluation of the quality of raw food as well as the extent of thermal treatments in different food products.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Amino Acids
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Thermal processing and Maillard reaction (MR) affect the nutritional and sensorial qualities of milk. In this paper an olive mill wastewater phenolic powder (OMW) was tested as a functional ingredient for inhibiting MR development in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)-treated milk. OMW was added to milk at 0.1 and 0.05% w/v before UHT treatment, and the concentration of MR products was monitored to verify the effect of OMW phenols in controlling the MR. Results revealed that OMW is able to trap the reactive carbonyl species such as hydroxycarbonyls and dicarbonyls, which in turn led to the increase of Maillard-derived off-flavor development. The effect of OMW on the formation of Amadori products and N-ε-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML) showed that oxidative cleavage, C2-C6 cyclization, and the consequent reactive carbonyl species formation were also inhibited by OMW. Data indicated that OMW is a functional ingredient able to control the MR and to improve the nutritional and sensorial attributes of milk.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
  • Marco Arlorio · Vincenzo Fogliano

    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Food Research International

72 Following View all

421 Followers View all