Vincent Were

Vincent Were
Kenya Medical Research Institute | KEMRI · Health Economics Research Unit (HERU)

Bachelors degree (Mathematics and Statistics) Msc PhD

About

91
Publications
12,470
Reads
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931
Citations
Citations since 2017
72 Research Items
760 Citations
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Introduction
Vincent Were has a PhD in health economics from Liverpool school of tropical medicine. Vincent is a data scientist with diverse training in Statistics, community and public health, mathematical modelling of infectious diseases, health systems research and computing. He has research interests include malaria , NCDs, One health and water and sanitation Also passionate about research mentorship and collaborations
Additional affiliations
October 2019 - January 2022
Kenya Medical Research Institute
Position
  • Analyst

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Socioeconomic inequalities contribute to poor health. Inequitable access to diverse and healthy foods can be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases, especially in individuals of low socioeconomic status. We examined the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in food purchasing practices, expenditure, and consumption in a resource-po...
Article
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Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with anaemia-related morbidity, attributable to host, parasite and drug factors. We quantified the haematological response following treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria to identify the factors associated with malarial anaemia. Methods Individual patient data from eligible antimala...
Article
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Background Drug and substance abuse has adverse health effects and a substantial economic burden to the global economies and at the household level. There is, however, limited data on socio-economic disparities in the update of the substance of abuse in low-to-middle income countries such as Kenya. This study aimed to assess the socio-economic disp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives: To assess the responsiveness of the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) Supa Cover benefit package to the needs of individuals with diabetes and hypertension in Kenya. Design, setting and participants: We carried out a qualitative study and collected data using key informant interviews (n = 39) and focus group discussions (n = 4) in t...
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Introduction Rapid urbanization (growth of cities) can upset the local population's health and wellbeing by creating obesogenic environments which increase the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It is important to understand how stakeholders perceive the impact of urbanizing interventions (such as the construction of a new hypermarket) on...
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Background Adolescent pregnancy increases the risk of disability and death due to unsafe abortion, prolonged labour and delivery, and complications after birth. Availability of accurate data is important to guide decision-making related to adolescent sexual reproductive health (ASRH). This study analyses the trends in prevalence and factors associa...
Article
Policymakers in Africa need robust estimates of the current and future spread of SARS-CoV-2. We used national surveillance PCR test, serological survey and mobility data to develop and fit a county-specific transmission model for Kenya up to the end of September 2020, which encompasses the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the country. We es...
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High sugar intake contributes to diet-related excess weight and obesity and is a key determinant for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization (WHO) gives specific advice on limiting sugar intake in adults and children. Yet, to what extent have policy ideas on sugar intake reduction o...
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Background The increasing trend of drugs and substances abuse (DSA) by different age groups and gender in parts of Kenya is not only a socio-economic problem but a public health concern. There is a need to determine prevalence, types and patterns of DSA by age and gender in order to develop all-inclusive and long-term strategies to prevent and mana...
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Introduction Non-communicable diseases have risen markedly over the last decade. A phenomenon that was mainly endemic in high-income countries has now visibly encroached on low and middle-income settings. A major contributor to this is a shift towards unhealthy dietary behavior. This study aimed to examine the complex interplay between people’s cha...
Article
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Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the main malaria vector control measures deployed in Kenya. Widespread pyrethroid resistance among the primary vectors in Western Kenya has necessitated the re-introduction of IRS using an organophosphate insecticide, pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS), as a p...
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Introduction Low household socioeconomic status is associated with unhealthy behaviours including poor diet and adverse health outcomes. Different methods leading to variations in SES classification has the potential to generate spurious research findings or misinform policy. In low and middle-income countries, there are additional complexities in...
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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) contribute significantly to global mortality and are of particular concern in growing urban populations of low- and-middle income countries (LMICs). Physical inactivity is a key NCD determinant and requires urgent addressing. Laudable global and regional efforts to promote physical activity are being made, but the l...
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Introduction Amid the rising number of people with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), Kenya has invested in strengthening primary care and in efforts to expand existing service delivery platforms to integrate NCD care. One such approach is the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) model in western Kenya, which provides the platform...
Article
Policymakers in Africa need robust estimates of the current and future spread of SARS-CoV-2. We used national surveillance PCR test, serological survey and mobility data to develop and fit a county-specific transmission model for Kenya up to the end of September 2020, which encompasses the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the country. We es...
Preprint
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, a quarter of all pregnancies occur in adolescents. Children born to adolescent mothers have poorer physical and socio-cognitive development. One reason may be inadequate knowledge on childcare and psychosocial support during pregnancy and postpartum period. OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess the efficacy of an interacti...
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Background The World Health Organization recommends quinine plus clindamycin as first-line treatment of malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy and as a second-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria when artemisinin-based drug combinations are not available. The efficacy of quinine plus clindamycin was compared with that of artemet...
Preprint
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Improving access to family planning (FP) is associated with positive health benefits that includes averting nearly a third of all maternal deaths and 10% of childhood deaths. Kenya has made great strides in improving access to family planning services. However, amid this considerable progress, regional variation has been noted. Methods We conducte...
Preprint
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Introduction Low household socioeconomic status is associated with unhealthy behaviours including poor diet and adverse health outcomes. Different methods leading to variations in SES classification has the potential to generate spurious research findings or misinform policy. In low and middle-income countries, there are additional complexities in...
Article
Full-text available
The triple burden of malnutrition in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is partly a result of changing food environments and a shift from traditional diets to high-calorie Western-style diets. Exploring the relationship between food sources and food- and nutrition-related outcomes is important to understanding how changes in food environ...
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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally. Despite significant global policy development for addressing NCDs, the extent to which global policies find expression in low-and-middle income countries’ (LMIC) policies, designed to mitigate against NCDs, is unclear. This protocol is part of a portfolio of projects within t...
Article
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Background Case management of symptomatic COVID-19 patients is a key health system intervention. The Kenyan government embarked to fill capacity gaps in essential and advanced critical care (ACC) needed for the management of severe and critical COVID-19. However, given scarce resources, gaps in both essential and ACC persist. This study assessed th...
Article
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Noncommunicable diseases contribute the greatest to global mortality. Unhealthy diet—a prominent risk factor—is intricately linked to urban built and food environments and requires intersectoral efforts to address. Framings of the noncommunicable disease problem and proposed solutions within global and African regional diet-related policy documents...
Article
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SARS-CoV-2: To have or to have not In June 2021, official records in Kenya showed fewer than 4000 confirmed deaths and 180,000 confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). These data tend to reflect the economically advantaged strata of society who can afford smartphones and have access to medical attention and t...
Preprint
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Background: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the main malaria vector control measures. Kenya has employed multiple approaches, including free mass net distribution campaigns, for distributing LLINs to the community that resulted in increased household ownership of one or more nets from 44% in 2010 to 63...
Article
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Background Healthcare workers are at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection during care encounters compared to the general population. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) have been shown to protect COVID-19 among healthcare workers, however, Kenya has faced PPE shortages that can adequately protect all healthcare workers. We, therefore, examined the h...
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Migori County is located in western Kenya bordering Lake Victoria and has traditionally performed poorly on important health metrics, including child mortality and HIV prevalence. The Lwala Community Alliance is a non-governmental organization that serves to promote the health and well-being of communities in Migori County through an innovative mod...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Case management of symptomatic COVID-19 patients is a key health system intervention. The Kenyan government embarked to fill capacity gaps in essential and advanced critical care needed for the management of severe and critical COVID-19. However, given scarce resources, gaps in both essential and advanced critical care persist. This stu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: World Health Organisation recommends quinine plus clindamycin as first-line treatment of malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy and as a second-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria when artemisinin-based drug combinations are not available. We compared the efficacy of quinine plus clindamycin with that of artemether-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Policy decisions on COVID-19 interventions should be informed by a local, regional and national understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Epidemic waves may result when restrictions are lifted or poorly adhered to, variants with new phenotypic properties successfully invade, or when infection spreads to susceptible sub-populations. Three COVID-19 e...
Article
Full-text available
Policymakers in Africa need robust estimates of the current and future spread of SARS-CoV-2. We used national surveillance PCR test, serological survey and mobility data to develop and fit a county-specific transmission model for Kenya up to the end of September 2020, which encompasses the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the country. We es...
Preprint
Full-text available
IntroductionThe nutritional transition is fuelling a concerning rise in Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) in Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). These countries lack strong health infrastructure capable of supporting the long-term and expensive medical treatment for those living with NCDs. It is important to identify stakeholders involved in in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Healthcare workers are at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection during care encounters compared to the general population. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) have been shown to protect COVID-19 among healthcare workers, however, Kenya has faced PPE shortages that can adequately protect all healthcare workers. We, therefore, examined the...
Article
Full-text available
Poor sanitation worldwide leads to an annual loss of approximately $222.9 billion and is the second leading cause of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY’s) lost due to diarrhoea. Yet in Kenya, the slow rate and levels at which the household’s access improved sanitation facilities remain a concern, and it is unknown if the cost of new technologies...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction: Non-communicable diseases have risen markedly over the last decade. A phenomenon that was mainly endemic in high income countries has now visibly encroached in low and middle-income settings. A major contributor to this is a shift towards unhealthy dietary behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the complex interplay between in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Amid the rising number of people with NCDs, Kenya has invested in strengthening primary care and in efforts to expand existing service delivery platforms to integrate care for managing chronic disease. One such approach is the AMPATH model, established in 2001 in western Kenya to provide HIV treatment and control services. The model was...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction We estimated unit costs for COVID-19 case management for patients with asymptomatic, mild-to-moderate, severe and critical COVID-19 disease in Kenya. Methods We estimated per-day unit costs of COVID-19 case management for patients. We used a bottom-up approach to estimate full economic costs and adopted a health system perspective and...
Article
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Background: Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is a long-acting artemisinin combination treatment that provides effective chemoprevention and has been proposed as an alternative antimalarial drug for intermittent-preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp). Several pharmacokinetic studies have shown that dose adjustment may not be needed for the treatm...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which are prevalent in low and middle income countries (LMICs), is largely attributed to modifiable behavioural risk factors such as poor/unhealthy diets and insufficient physical activity (PA). The adolescent stage–recently defined as 10-24 years of age–is an important formative...
Article
Background The increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases that are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is largely attributed to modifiable behavioral risk factors such as unhealthy diets and insufficient physical activity (PA). The adolescent stage, defined as 10 to 24 years of age, is an important formative phase of life and o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Malaria-endemic countries distribute long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) through combined channels with ambitious, universal coverage (UC) targets. Kenya has used eight channels with variable results. To inform national decision-makers, this two-arm study compares coverage (effects), costs, cost-effectiveness, and equity of two combin...
Article
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Objectives This study aimed to examine patterns and determinants of modern contraceptive discontinuation among women in Kenya.Methods Secondary analysis was conducted using national representative Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys of 2003, 2008/9, and 2014. These household cross-sectional surveys targeted women of reproductive age from 15 to 49...
Article
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Background Prevention of malaria infection during pregnancy in HIV-negative women currently relies on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets together with intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). Increasing sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine resistance in Africa threatens current prevention of malaria duri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction Case management for COVID-19 patients is one of key interventions in country responses to the pandemic. Countries need information on the costs of case management to inform resource mobilization, planning and budgeting, purchasing arrangements, and assessments of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. We estimated unit costs for COVI...
Article
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Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally. While upstream approaches to tackle NCD risk factors of poor quality diets and physical inactivity have been trialled in high income countries (HICs), there is little evidence from low and middle-income countries (LMICs) that bear a disproportionate NCD burden. Sub...
Preprint
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Background: The global control strategy for schistosomiasis is the periodic administration of praziquantel. Schistosomes have developed reduced susceptibility to praziquantel. Artemisinin-based drug combinations are promising alternatives to praziquantel, but it is unclear whether a single dose of an artemisinin-based drug combination is as effecti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Policy makers in Africa need robust estimates of the current and future spread of SARS-CoV-2. Data suitable for this purpose are scant. We used national surveillance PCR test, serological survey and mobility data to develop and fit a county-specific transmission model for Kenya. We estimate that the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic peaked before the end of July...
Article
Background: Despite the widespread application of the community health strategy (CHS) in Kenya and evidence of its effectiveness in reducing health outcomes at the household level, data from Kakamega County, of which Lurambi sub-county is part of, still showed that skilled birth delivery was at 47% against the national estimateof 62% and a target...
Preprint
Full-text available
IntroductionDrugs and substance abuse has adverse health effects and substantial economic burden to the global economies and at the household level. There is, however, limited data on socio-economic inequalities disparities in drugs and substance abuse in low-to-middle income countries such as Kenya. This study aimed to assess the socio-economic in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Drug and substance abuse has adverse health effects and a substantial economic burden to the global economies and at the household level. There is, however, limited data on socio-economic disparities in drugs and substance abuse in low-to-middle income countries such as Kenya. This study aimed to assess the socio-economic disparities in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Global gains towards malaria elimination have been heterogeneous and have recently stalled. Interventions targeting afebrile malaria infections may be needed to address residual transmission. We studied the efficacy of repeated rounds of community-based mass testing and treatment (MTaT) on malaria infection prevalence in western Kenya....
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Access to healthy food is considered a key determinant of dietary behaviour and there is mixed evidence that living near a supermarket is associated with a healthier diet. In Africa, supermarkets may contribute to the nutrition transition by offering both healthy and unhealthy foods; and by replacing traditional food sellers. In Kisumu,...
Article
Full-text available
Background Access to healthy food is considered a key determinant of dietary behavior, and there is mixed evidence that living near a supermarket is associated with a healthier diet. In Africa, supermarkets may contribute to the nutrition transition by offering both healthy and unhealthy foods and by replacing traditional food sellers. In Kisumu, K...
Article
Full-text available
Background. The World Health Organization has recommended pilot implementation of a candidate vaccine against malaria (RTS,S/AS01) in selected sub-Saharan African countries. This exploratory study aimed to estimate the costs of implementing RTS,S in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania. Methods. Key informants of the expanded progra...
Article
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Objective The objective of this analysis was to examine trends in malaria parasite prevalence and related socioeconomic inequalities in malaria indicators from 2006 to 2013 during a period of intensification of malaria control interventions in Siaya County, western Kenya. Methods Data were analysed from eight independent annual cross-sectional sur...
Article
This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To compare the effects of praziquantel given twice a year, with annual or biennial regimens on the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis infection. © 2019 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
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Background: Malaria transmission is high in western Kenya and the asymptomatic infected population plays a significant role in driving the transmission. Mathematical modelling and simulation programs suggest that interventions targeting asymptomatic infections through mass testing and treatment (MTaT) or mass drug administration (MDA) have the pot...
Article
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Background: Parasite prevalence has been used widely as a measure of malaria transmission, especially in malaria endemic areas. However, its contribution and relationship to malaria mortality across different age groups has not been well investigated. Previous studies in a health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) platform in western Keny...
Article
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Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant cancer of the liver and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not been known to have a direct causal relationship with HCC despite independently causing inflammation of the liver. However, little is known on risk factors for HCC patients...