Vincent R. Hill

Vincent R. Hill
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | CDC · Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases

PhD

About

173
Publications
28,581
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7,949
Citations
Citations since 2017
29 Research Items
3780 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (173)
Article
What is already known about this topic? Wastewater surveillance measures community infection trends. The accuracy of this surveillance approach is independent of health care-seeking behavior, health care access, or testing capacity. The National Wastewater Surveillance System (NWSS) is a 43-jurisdiction, CDC-coordinated system for SARS-CoV-2 wastew...
Article
We report a specific region of Giardia spp. 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rDNA) that serves as an ideal target for quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection and sequencing to identify Giardia species, including the clinically-relevant G. duodenalis, in clinical and environmental samples. The presence of multiple copies of the 18S rDNA gene and variations in the s...
Article
This article describes 208 outbreaks associated with recreational water exposures in the U.S., the majority of which were due to either Cryptosporidium or Legionella infections and were primarily reported after exposure to public (i.e., nonbackyard) recreational water. These outbreaks resulted in 3646 cases of illness, 286 hospitalizations, and 13...
Article
Outbreaks associated with treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in aquatic venues such as pools, hot tubs, water playgrounds, or other artificially constructed structures that are intended for recreational or therapeutic purposes. For the pseriod 2015-2019, public health officials from 36 states and the District of Colu...
Article
Full-text available
Provision of safe drinking water in the United States is a great public health achievement. However, new waterborne disease challenges have emerged (e.g., aging infrastructure, chlorine-tolerant and biofilm-related pathogens, increased recreational water use). Comprehensive estimates of the health burden for all water exposure routes (ingestion, co...
Article
Washing hands often, especially during times when one is likely to acquire and spread pathogens,* is one important measure to help prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as other pathogens spread by respiratory or fecal-oral transmission (1,2). Studies have reported moderate to high leve...
Article
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Objectives. To investigate a shigellosis outbreak in Genesee County, Michigan (including the City of Flint), and Saginaw County, Michigan, in 2016 and address community concerns about the role of the Flint water system. Methods. We met frequently with community members to understand concerns and develop the investigation. We surveyed households aff...
Chapter
The procedure described here provides instructions for detection of Cryptosporidium recovered from large-volume water samples. Water samples are collected by dead-end ultrafiltration in the field and ultrafilters are processed in a laboratory. Microbes recovered from the filters are further concentrated and subjected to Cryptosporidium isolation or...
Article
We present the first recognized case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by Naegleria fowleri in a 15-year-old male from Bangladesh. He performed daily nasal rinsing with untreated ground water and bathed in untreated ground water or river water, which likely exposed him to N. fowleri.
Article
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Background Treatment of drinking water is one of the greatest US public health achievements of the twentieth century and provides a safe, reliable water supply. However, waterborne disease and outbreaks continue to occur, and are associated with a variety of water sources and exposure routes. New estimates of the burden of waterborne disease in the...
Article
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Background Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic ameba that is found in freshwater and causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM; 0–8 infections per year in the United States) when it enters the nose and migrates to the brain. Patient exposure to water containing the ameba typically occurs in warm freshwater lakes and ponds during recreational w...
Article
The electrophoretic mobilities (EPM’s) of fifteen different microbes (6 viruses, 5 vegetative bacteria, 2 bacterial endospores, 2 protozoa) and one microbial particle surrogate (Polystyrene microspheres) were measured, and five models were used to convert EPM's of these microorganisms to zeta potentials. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski, Hückel-Onsager,...
Article
Naegleria fowleri causes the usually fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), typically in people who have been swimming in warm, untreated freshwater. Recently, some cases in the United States were associated with exposure to treated drinking water. In 2013, a case of PAM was reported for the first time in association with the expos...
Article
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Stabilizing paper matrix methods for retaining nucleic acid from inactivated clinical specimens offer a solution for molecular diagnostics when specimens may be stored or shipped at ambient temperature. We developed cellulose disks (UNEXP) saturated with a total nucleic acid extraction buffer (UNEX) modified from a previously developed lysis buffer...
Article
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Pool chemicals are added to water in treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools, hot tubs/spas, and water playgrounds) primarily to protect public health. Pool chemicals inactivate pathogens (e.g., chlorine or bromine), optimize pH (e.g., muriatic acid), and increase water clarity, which helps prevent drowning by enabling detection of distresse...
Article
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The Navajo Nation includes approximately 250,000 American Indians living in a remote high desert environment with limited access to public water systems. We conducted a pilot case-control study to assess associations between acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and water availability, use patterns, and quality. Case patients with AGE and non-AGE controls wh...
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This report summarizes trends in outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water exposure from 2000–2014; this includes infections with pathogens of concern for transplant recipients, such as norovirus, Shigella, and Cryptosporidium.
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This report summarizes trends in outbreaks associated with recreational water use from 2000–2014, which include infections with pathogens of concern for transplant recipients, such as Legionella and Cryptosporidium
Article
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Outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water can be caused by pathogens, toxins, or chemicals in fresh water (e.g., lakes, rivers) or marine water (e.g., ocean). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 35 states and Guam voluntarily reported 140 untreated recreational water-associated outbreaks to CDC. These outbreaks resulted in a...
Article
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Outbreaks associated with exposure to treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in venues such as pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive water play venues (i.e., water playgrounds). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 46 states and Puerto Rico reported 493 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water. Thes...
Article
Background: Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic ameba found in freshwater that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) when it enters the nose and migrates to the brain. Patient exposure to water containing the ameba typically occurs in warm freshwater lakes and ponds during recreational water activities. In June 2016, an 18-year-old woman...
Article
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This article describe outbreaks of infections, including legionella and giardia, linked to environmental exposure to water, such as aerosol spread from cooling towers, industrial or agricultural processes, decorative displays, and consumption of water from natural sources.
Article
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Provision of safe water in the United States is vital to protecting public health (1). Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to CDC through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) (https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance/index.html). During 2013-2014, 42 drinking wa...
Article
Full-text available
Waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States are associated with a wide variety of water exposures and are reported annually to CDC on a voluntary basis by state and territorial health departments through the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS). A majority of outbreaks arise from exposure to drinking water (1) or recreational water (2),...
Article
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During the 2012 summer swim season, aquatic venue data and filter backwash samples were collected from 127 metro-Atlanta pools. Last-recorded water chemistry measures indicated 98% (157/161) of samples were from pools with ≥1 mg/L residual chlorine without stabilized chlorine or ≥2 mg/L with stabilized chlorine and 89% (144/161) had pH readings 7.2...
Article
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Consumption of drinking water from private vendors has increased considerably in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in recent decades. A major type of vendor is private kiosks, advertising reverse osmosis-treated water for sale by volume. To describe the scale and geographical distribution of private kiosks in metropolitan Port-au-Prince, an inventory of priva...
Article
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Background Naegleria fowleri is a climate-sensitive thermophilic ameba found in freshwater that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM; 0–8 infections per year in the U.S.) when it enters the nose and migrates to the brain. Patient exposure to water containing the ameba typically occurs in warm freshwater lakes and ponds during recreational...
Article
Removal of Cryptosporidium-sized microspheres and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts from swimming pools was investigated using diatomaceous earth (DE) precoat filtration and perlite-sand filtration. In pilot-scale experiments, microsphere removals of up to 2 log were obtained with 0.7 kg DE/m² at a filtration rate of 5 m/h. A slightly higher microsphe...
Article
Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Cryptosporidium -sized microspheres was evaluated in full-scale swimming pools via high-rate sand filtration (31–34 m/h) with coagulation. Results showed that at least 90% of C. parvum oocysts and microspheres were removed by filtration with an initial dosage of coagulant B (1.56 mg/L), D (1.9 mg/L or 3...
Article
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Water Laboratory Alliance relies on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s ultrafiltration-based Water Processing Procedure (WPP) for concentration of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) agents from 10 L to 100 L of drinking water. The WPP requires comprehensive training and practice to maintain prof...
Article
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It is generally accepted that viral particles in source water are likely to be found as aggregates attached to other particles. For this reason, it is important to investigate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine on aggregated viruses. A method to produce adenovirus particle aggregation was developed for this study. Negative stain electron microsc...
Article
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On June 17, 2015, a previously healthy woman aged 21 years went to an emergency department after onset of headache, nausea, and vomiting during the preceding 24 hours. Upon evaluation, she was vomiting profusely and had photophobia and nuchal rigidity. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid was consistent with meningitis.* She was empirically treated for...
Article
USEPA Method 1623 is the standard method in the United States for the detection of Cryptosporidium in water samples, but quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an alternative technique that has been successfully used to detect Cryptosporidium in aqueous matrices. This study examined various modifications to a commercial nucleic...
Article
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Laboratory Alliance (WLA) currently uses ultrafiltration (UF) for concentration of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) agents from large volumes (up to 100-L) of drinking water prior to analysis. Most UF procedures require comprehensive training and practice to achieve and maintain proficiency. As a resu...
Article
Advances in water management and sanitation have substantially reduced waterborne disease in the United States, although outbreaks continue to occur. Public health agencies in the U.S. states and territories* report information on waterborne disease outbreaks to the CDC Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (http://www.cdc.gov/healthy...
Article
Exposures to contaminated water can lead to waterborne disease outbreaks associated with various sources, including many that are classified and reported separately as drinking water† or recreational water§. Waterborne disease outbreaks can also involve a variety of other exposures (e.g., consuming water directly from backcountry or wilderness stre...
Article
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Cryptosporidium , a parasite known to cause large drinking and recreational water outbreaks, is tolerant of chlorine concentrations used for drinking water treatment. Human laboratory-based surveillance for enteric pathogens detected a cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Baker City, Oregon during July 2013 associated with municipal drinking water. Object...
Article
Cyanuric acid (CYA) is a chlorine stabilizer used in swimming pools to limit UV degradation of chlorine, thus reducing chlorine use and cost. However, CYA has been shown to decrease the efficacy of chlorine disinfection. In the event of a diarrheal incident, CDC recommends implementing 3-log10 inactivation conditions for Cryptosporidium (CT value =...
Article
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Drinking and environmental water samples contain a diverse array of constituents that can interfere with molecular testing techniques, especially when large volumes of water are concentrated to the small volumes needed for effective molecular analysis. In this study, a suite of enteric viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites were seeded into con...
Article
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In July 2014, Multnomah County public health officials investigated a norovirus outbreak among persons visiting Blue Lake Regional Park in Oregon. During the weekend of the reported illnesses (Friday, July 11-Sunday, July 13) approximately 15,400 persons visited the park. The investigation identified 65 probable and five laboratory-confirmed cases...
Article
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The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial die-off in a latrine waste composting system in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Temperature data and samples were collected from compost aged 0 - 12+ months. Samples collected from compost bin centers and corners at two depths were assessed for moisture content, E. coli concentration, and Ascaris spp. via...
Article
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Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are commonly used in coastal areas to treat household wastewater. These systems represent potential sources of fecal pollution of groundwater and nearby surface water. OWTS are expected to reduce microbial concentrations in wastewater; however, system and environmental factors can affect treatment efficien...
Article
The incidence of recreational water-associated outbreaks in the United States has significantly increased, driven, at least in part, by outbreaks both caused by Cryptosporidium and associated with treated recreational water venues. Because of the parasite's extreme chlorine tolerance, transmission can occur even in well-maintained treated recreatio...
Article
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Cercarial dermatitis, also known as swimmer's itch, is an allergenic skin reaction followed by intense itching caused by schistosome cercariae penetrating human skin. Cercarial dermatitis outbreaks occur globally, and are frequently associated with fresh water lakes and occasionally with marine or estuarine waters where year-round or migratory bird...
Article
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In this study, hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (UF) was assessed for recovery of Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens spores, Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, echovirus 1, and bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 from ground and surface waters. Microbes were seeded into twenty-two 50-L water samples that were collected from the Southeastern United States...
Article
On August 27, 2014, the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare's Division of Public Health (DPH) was notified of two cases of cryptosporidiosis in siblings aged <3 years. Idaho's Southwest District Health (SWDH) investigated and found that both children had consumed raw (unpasteurized) goat milk produced at a dairy licensed by the Idaho State Depar...
Article
Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic free-living ameba found in freshwater environments worldwide. It is the cause of a rare but potentially fatal disease in humans known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Established N. fowleri detection methods rely on conventional culture techniques and morphological examination followed by molecular testing....
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Article
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Background: Naegleria fowleri is a climate-sensitive, thermophilic ameba found in warm, freshwater lakes and rivers. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is almost universally fatal, occurs when N. fowleri-containing water enters the nose, typically during swimming, and migrates to the brain via the olfactory nerve. In August 2013, a 4-...
Article
Combined removal and inactivation of the MS2 bacteriophage from model saline (0 - 100mM NaCl) waters by electrochemical treatment using a sacrificial aluminum anode was evaluated. Both chemical and electrodissolution contributed to coagulant dosing since measured aluminum concentrations were statistically higher than purely electrochemical predicti...
Article
Epidemic cholera was reported in Haiti in 2010, with no information available on the occurrence or geographic distribution of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in Haitian waters. In a series of field visits conducted in Haiti between 2011 and 2013, water and plankton samples were collected at 19 sites. Vibrio cholerae was detected using culture, polymerase...
Conference Paper
Background: Naegleria fowleri is a climate sensitive thermophilic ameba found in freshwater which causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)(0–8 infections per year in the U.S.) when it enters the nose and migrates to the brain. While historically associated with recreational water use, other types of water exposures have recently been associa...
Article
Surface water contaminants in Kentucky during and after 2011 flooding were characterized. Surface water samples were collected during flood stage (May 2-4, 2011; n = 15) and after (July 25-26, 2011; n = 8) from four different cities along the Ohio River and were analyzed for the presence of microbial indicators, pathogens, metals, and chemical cont...
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We isolated Raoultella planticola from a river water sample, which was phenotypically indistinguishable from Escherichia coli on MI agar. The genome sequence of R. planticola was determined to gain information about its metabolic functions contributing to its false positive appearance of E. coli on MI agar. We report the first whole genome sequence...